Yoshta - planting, care and reproduction, a description of the best varieties
Yoshta is a shrub that is so unpretentious that it can grow in one place for up to 30 years. The height of individual bushes reaches 2.5 meters, and in width most of the varieties grow by only 1.5 meters. It is worth noting that the plant is rarely affected by pests and is practically not susceptible to disease, frost-resistant and completely “bare” - without thorns. But despite all these features, regular care is required to get a good harvest.
In the early 1900s, breeders decided to improve gooseberries and black currants - to make berries, the main advantages of which were to be:
Table: expected breeding acquisitions of yoshta from “parents”
|Lack of spines||Resistance to kidney tick and terry|
Work on the creation of such a hybrid was carried out in several countries at once: in Russia - I.V. Michurin, in the USA, Germany, Sweden, Hungary. The first attempts to cross gooseberries and currants gave sad results: hybrids simply died, and the survivors turned out to be completely barren.
Only in 1970, with the help of genetic engineering and under the influence of radiation and chemical preparations, did they receive seedlings that produced the first fruits. They were called yoshta - from the first letters Johannisbeere - currants and Stachelbeere - gooseberries.
Unfortunately, the hybrid was not at all such an ideal berry as it was planned. The bush really grew large and without thorns, the leaves are like gooseberries, but they are much larger in size. The berries are picked in brushes of 5 pieces each, sweet and sour, inferior to blackcurrant in vitamin C content, but 2–4 times higher than gooseberries.
Yoshta is a hybrid obtained from crossing blackcurrants, gooseberries spread, and gooseberries.
Yoshta's weak point was its productivity. According to numerous observations, there are much fewer berries on the bush than currants and gooseberries, although there are sometimes reviews of amateur gardeners about a variety that gives more than 6 kg per season. And genetically modified foods are still afraid to eat.
However, breeders have achieved the resistance of this hybrid to various diseases and pests.
Beautiful and powerful bushes are just perfect for a hedge, which grows by itself and practically does not need pruning
Video: briefly about the hybrid of currants and gooseberries
Description and characterization of varieties
Since a hybrid was bred in several countries and different varieties of “parents” were used, for some reason sellers call any derivative of currants with gooseberries yoshta, and meanwhile, the difference is sometimes very big.
The most famous varieties include: EMB, Yohini, Rekst, Moro, Kroma and Krondal.
Table: most popular varieties
|Name of variety, place of origin||Bush size||Leaves||Flowers, berries, productivity||Grade feature|
|EMB, Britain||1.7 m high and 1.8 m wide||The shape of the leaves is similar to currant, the color is similar to that of gooseberries||It blooms from mid-April for 2 weeks. Berries weighing 5 grams, delicious, reminiscent of gooseberries. Yields are good, but ripening is uneven||It is resistant to anthracnose, powdery mildew, but can be affected by a kidney tick. Drought tolerant|
|Johini, Germany||Up to 2 meters high, width 1.5 meters||The bark is similar to gooseberry, and the leaves are like currants, but odorless||The flowers are large, 3-4 in the brush. The berries are round, sweet. In season, you can collect up to 10 kg from the bush||Harvest variety with dessert flavor berries|
|Rext, Russia||Powerful, up to 1.5 meters||Gooseberry Leaves||The berries are black, round, 3 grams each, delicious. From the bush you can collect more than 5 kg||Frost-resistant, resistant to kidney mites, anthracnose, powdery mildew|
|Moro||2.5 meters in height, small diameter.||Gooseberry Leaves||Black berries with a nutmeg aroma and sweet and sour taste, large, like cherry, do not crumble; yield up to 12 kg||Frost resistant, disease resistant|
|Krome, Sweden||Powerful, up to 2.5 meters||Gooseberry leaves||Obtained from black currant cultivars Karelsky, gooseberries and white currants, fast-growing. Berries in the process of ripening change their taste from gooseberry - in the first half of summer, to currant - by the end of summer, do not crumble||Differs in thick branches, like a tree, is resistant to pests|
|Krondal, America||No more than 1.7 m in all respects||Currant leaf shape||Received from crossing gooseberries and golden currants. The flowers are yellow, the berries taste like gooseberries.||Berries with very large seeds|
A hybrid of Rike was also bred in Hungary, but practically nothing is known about it.
Photo gallery: a variety of forms and types of yoshta
- Moro yoshta berries do not crumble after ripening, very large, with a sweet and sour taste
- EMB variety bred in the UK, the taste of berries is very similar to gooseberries, quite large
- Yohini variety is distinguished by sweet round berries
- Krondal cultivar bred in the USA - a hybrid of gooseberries and golden currants
- Variety Rekst bred in Russia, berries are black, shiny, weighing about three grams
Yoshta Phased Landing
This hybrid can show good productivity only on cultivated fertile soils:
- clay and humus should be added to the sandy soil;
- if the soil on the site is heavy, clay, then be sure to pour sand and compost into the planting pit.
The ideal soil for planting yoshta is chernozem and fertile loam.
When groundwater is near (1–1.5 meters), dig a deep landing pit, make a drainage layer of at least 15 cm and be sure to plant a blackcurrant or gooseberry bush nearby to make yoshta pollination more successful.
Place and time cannot be changed
Such a large shrub requires space, so plant it in open sunny areas, no closer than 1.5 meters from each other. An exception is planting for a decorative purpose: the distance between the seedlings is about 50 cm.
The best time for planting is considered to be early spring - before buds open. If planted later, with leaves and a bare root system, the young plant may die from excessive moisture evaporation by leaf plates. Yoshta seedlings, planted in late September or early October, take root well, at a later date the plant may not have time to root itself to frosts and die in severe frosts, so if you got a young shoot in November, it is better to dig it and plant it in early spring.
To dig a young plant, you should choose a site that is not flooded by spring waters. There should not be compost pits or thickets of grass in which mice can winter.
Saplings are dug in pre-prepared pits with a slope to the south side; in winter, 1–1.5 meters of snow should be put on seedlings
Various nurseries sell yoshta seedlings with both a closed root system and an open one. In the case of bare roots, pay attention to their condition: dry and weathered roots may not take root, and the plant will die.
In addition to the roots, the seedling itself must also be alive: for this, the bark on the trunk is picked with a fingernail, and if it is green, the seedling is normal
During the autumn planting, the leaves must be cut off from the plant so that the stalk from the leaf remains on the trunk - so you will not damage the kidneys. Spring seedlings are best purchased with unopened buds. If yoshta is sold in a container, then you can plant it at any warm time of the year, but in hot summer the bush additionally needs to be shaded by the screen from the sun.
Shading of a seedling from the sun on the example of grapes is used if the planting was made on a hot day
Preparing the landing site
Many nurseries advise not to prepare separate planting pits, but to add humus or compost and other mineral fertilizers to the entire area where the bushes will grow. On 1 m2 it is enough to pour 1-2 buckets of compost or humus and 1 liter of ash, dig the soil well and leave for several weeks. After this, you can plant seedlings.
If there is no way to fertilize the entire area under shrubs, then:
- They dig out pits 50x50x50 cm in size at a distance of 1.5–2 meters from each other to obtain a crop or 40–50 cm for hedges. When digging a hole, the upper 30 cm of soil is laid in one direction - this is fertile soil, which will need to be filled with seedlings.
- Pour 100 grams of superphosphate, 0.5 liters of ash, a bucket of compost or humus, fertile soil into the planting pit, mix well. On clay soils, an additional 5 liters of coarse river sand is added.
- The prepared place for planting a seedling is watered with two or three buckets of water.
On sandy soils, it is advisable to fill the bottom of the depression with clay, 2-3 cm thick - such a pillow will retain the moisture necessary for the plant. On clay soils, a pit is dug 60–70 cm deep, drainage is poured on its bottom (about 15 cm) - broken bricks, expanded clay or crushed stone.
On heavy clay or moist soils, a layer of drainage should be poured from crushed stone, expanded clay, broken brick
Landing pits are prepared 2-3 weeks before the intended landing.
Planted in the ground
The purchased seedling must be prepared before planting:
- yoshta grown in a container is simply placed in water for 10–20 minutes;
- seedlings without an earthen coma are soaked in water for about a day, and immediately before planting, dipped in clay-dung.
To prepare the talkers take 1 part clay, 2 parts mullein and 5 parts water, mix well.
Be sure to inspect the roots and trim dry, broken or crushed. The cut must be made transverse to reduce the wound, in addition, try to keep as many suction roots as possible.
Stages of planting a seedling in the ground:
- We dig a hole sufficient to place the root system of the seedling, put a peg.
- At the bottom of the hole we make a hill, along the slopes of which we straighten the roots of the seedling, making sure that all of them are directed downwards.
At the bottom of the hole you need to make a mound for the root system of a young plant
- Do not deepen the root neck.
Excessive deepening is fraught with decay.
- We tie the seedling to the peg and fill the hole with earth, slightly compact the soil and water it so that the earth fits snugly to the roots.
If improperly planted, voids remain under the roots, the seedling may fall down and the root neck will go too deep
- After planting, it is advisable to shorten the shoots so that only 3-4 buds remain from the ground.
Young plants bloom for 2-3 years, and begin to give the maximum yield by 5-6 years of age.
Video: yoshta transplant from container
Care without special worries
The main care for yoshta is in spring and autumn feeding, watering in hot weather and subsequent loosening. Additionally, preventive treatments against pests or diseases should be carried out.
Yoshta is moisture-loving, grows well if the soil near the shrub is moderately moist, therefore, in the dry and very hot months, watering should be carried out, moistening the soil 30-40 cm deep.
Water correctly - pour water not on the trunk, but make a groove around the perimeter of the crown and pour water there. The width of the groove can be up to 20 cm.
The frequency of watering depends on whether the soil is covered with mulch or not. Bare land dries much faster, and watering is required more often.
Typically, about 30 liters of water are required to moisten 1 m 2 .
After each watering or heavy rain, the soil under the bushes should be loosened to a depth of about 5 cm, but if the soil is mulched with organic materials (compost, straw, grass, leaf litter), then the earth will not have to be loosened.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Mulch reduces the number of sprouted weeds by several times, reduces the evaporation of moisture from the soil, which allows less frequent watering of plants. In hot weather, light mulch (straw or sawdust) protects the soil from overheating, while maintaining a comfortable temperature for the development of the root system of yoshta. In addition, gradually overheating, organics provide additional nutrition to the plant. The layer of organic mulch should be from 10 to 20 cm.
Young plantings in autumn are covered with a thick layer of straw, leaves or compost, which protect the soil from freezing, weathering and leaching.
Organic mulch includes:
- shredded paper or newspapers;
- bark or chips;
- cut cardboard;
Inorganic mulch does not provide additional nutrition for plants, does not decompose, does not attract pests, such as slugs or mice. Most often, sand, gravel, pebbles, geotextiles and other nonwoven materials made from polypropylene fibers are used.
As a mulch, leaf litter is often used.
Feeding is optional
Yoshta is undemanding to top dressing:
- in early spring, it is enough to pour 30 grams of superphosphate and 20 grams of potassium sulfate under the bush;
- in summer it is useful to cover the soil with organic mulch;
- in the autumn, scatter 0.5 liters of ash around the bush.
Proponents of natural farming can add 1 bucket of rotted compost for each plant in spring.
Often, a hybrid grows so much that many gardeners abandon it once and for all. Of course, if you want to completely get rid of yoshta, or the size-bearing ratio of the bush does not suit you, then you can completely eradicate it. However, there is a solution. So, pruning will help you get a relatively compact plant (but only at certain times, otherwise you can ruin it):
- Yoshta, grown as a hedge, is formed by pruning if necessary;
- fruiting yoshta is cut in April and October-November, when damaged, broken or diseased branches are cut;
- after autumn leaf fall, whenever possible, pruning diseased branches, fatliquoring shoots, and fruiting branches are shortened by 1/3.
Weak shoots gaining only green mass should be removed
In spring, all branch removal measures must be carried out before the buds open.
The branches at yoshta live long, but it is better to cut out old, 7–8-year-old shoots, leaving only 6 healthy buds on them below.
Propagate as you like
The best and easiest ways to reproduce are:
- breeding layering;
- division of the bush.
Cut, cut, and cut again
There are two types of vegetation by cuttings:
- lignified cuttings;
- using green ones.
Let's get to know each in more detail.
This method is one of the fastest ways to get yoshta seedlings. For harvesting, choose the most tall, healthy bushes, and cuttings can be cut several times during the summer:
- the first time - in early June from the upper branches;
- the second - after regrowth and better from the side branches;
- the third time - in early September.
The length of cut cuttings should be no more than 15 cm.
After you have done the workpiece you need:
- It is advisable to withstand them in any growth stimulator.
- Remove almost all leaves, leaving only a few at the top.
- Prepare a greenhouse: pour fresh soil into a wooden container, and a layer of clean coarse sand on top.
- After planting, cover the greenhouse with a film.
- Do not forget about regular watering.
- After rooting, the film must be removed, and the cuttings themselves soon transplanted for growing.
For the propagation of yoshta by the lignified parts of the bush, it is recommended to choose the ripened shoots of two or three year old branches in early to mid-September, because such cuttings have time to perfectly root and tolerate the winter period without problems:
- Cut healthy branches by dividing them into 20 cm sections with 4–5 buds. The lower cut is preferably done at an angle of 450, and the upper one 1 cm above the kidney and straight.
- Ready-made shoots are planted on a well-dug-up bed in a nursery located in partial shade. On clay soils it is advisable to add sand or vermiculite: a bucket of 1m2.
- Cuttings are stuck into the soil at a slight angle at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other, watered and mulched with dry compost or peat to preserve moisture.
- Further care for them comes down to periodic watering (as the soil dries up), loosening and removing weeds.
Use only sharp secateurs!
Properly planted cuttings should have 2 buds above the ground.
Typically, in spring, cuttings together start to grow.
Video: Rooting in glasses
The easiest way to propagate a hybrid is using layering (horizontal, vertical and arched). These options are not much different, if only by the position of the mother branch. Below we consider the “horizontal” option:
- In the early spring, before buds open, a side branch is selected and bends to the ground. To fix the branches in this position, metal studs are used that tightly press it.
- Soil is poured on the branch.
- Young shoots are coming out of the kidneys soon.
- Occupy them periodically (several times during the summer as necessary).
After planting such processes, one can get a plentiful harvest already in the third year
Since the bush grows quite strongly, it is sometimes rejuvenated: it is divided into several parts and planted in new places. For such an operation, the bush is completely dug out of the ground exclusively in the fall, cut with a sharp knife or manually divided into small plots with roots and healthy shoots.
The sections of the gap-sections must be wiped with crushed coal, after which the plots are ready for planting
The roots should be developed and intact, and 2-3 strong branches should be left on the tuber . Then the plots are seated in pre-prepared wells (see landing pits).
Attacks on Yoshta
The gooseberry and currant hybrid was specially bred to be resistant to the kidney tick, anthracnose and terry. Nevertheless, sometimes the bushes get sick and are attacked by pests, especially with poor care.
Photo gallery: possible opponents of yoshta
- Anthracnose appears in mid-summer with specks on the leaves
- The most dangerous viral disease - terry - is not treated, manifests itself within 4-5 years
- With a mosaic disease, the leaf becomes covered with yellow and brown spots, subsequently dries
- Powdery mildew most often affects weakened plants; for treatment, spray the bush with phytosporin
- Rust rusty and columnar forms orange spots, the affected leaf dries and falls
Therefore, to prevent diseases and lesions, prophylactic spraying is carried out. The best time for this is early spring - before the buds open, and autumn - after leaf fall.
The air temperature during spraying should be at least 50 ° C.
Preparations for preventive spraying:
- Bordeaux liquid - the ratio of copper sulfate, water and slaked lime depends on the concentration of the final product (1 or 3%), so it’s better to use the ready-made Bordeaux mixture, which you can buy in garden stores;
- copper sulfate - 10 grams of the drug are diluted in 1 liter of water;
- urea - 70 grams of the drug are diluted in 1 liter of water.
Photo gallery: drugs for disease prevention
- To treat shrubs in spring or autumn, apply a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid
- 1% solution of copper sulfate is treated with bushes for disease prevention
- For spraying, a 7% urea solution is diluted: in spring, this drug is more preferable, since it contains nitrogen, which is necessary for the plant to grow
Diseases and pests: control measures
As mentioned earlier, yoshta is an unpretentious culture, but even with improper care, it "gives up its positions." The most dangerous pest, a carrier of viral diseases, is a kidney tick. It is easy to detect by huge buds in early spring.
A large kidney with a tick stands out from the rest, it must be torn and burned
On young shoots, aphids can sometimes be found: a large number of pests suck the juices from the leaves, so they curl up, the branch does not develop well.
A sick aphid bush is treated with a phytoderm, spraying the lower, and then the upper part of the leaf
Speaking about diseases of the bush, despite all the resistance to them, we can distinguish 5 main inherited from selection.
Table: Cure for Disease
|Anthracnose||Reddish-brown spots on leaves, up to 1 mm in size||Processing the bush with a 1% solution of Bordeaux liquid in the summer and re-processing after harvest|
|Powdery mildew||White loose coating resembling flour||Treatment with phytosporin according to the instructions with repeated spraying after 3 days. In advanced cases, use 1% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux fluid|
|Rust||Orange dots or bulges on the bottom of the leaves||Spray phytosporin 4 times with an interval of 10 days. If it does not help, then treat with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid|
|Mosaic||Leaves are covered with spots of yellow and brown, bend inward||Viral disease. At the first manifestations, karbofos bushes are treated (75 grams per 10 liters of water). Heavily affected plant burn|
|Terry||Flowers acquire an unnatural color - raspberry, violet. Leaves change their shape, the bush ceases to bear fruit, but is abundantly overgrown with branches||A dangerous viral disease that is not treated. The bush is uprooted and burned.|
As described above, the best tool is still prevention - spraying in spring and autumn not only yoshta bushes, but also all fruit and berry crops growing on the site.
Growing yoshta in the suburbs
Unpretentious shrub is successfully grown in the suburbs. All varieties grow well and take root, but she still cannot reveal her full potential. In very frosty years, the tops of shoots can freeze, which is why yield decreases. However, as an ornamental plant, it looks great.
Add a spoonful of tar. I grew this hybrid for about 5 years. I bought it when it first appeared. 2 years ago uprooted. The bush is huge, but it’s of little use. The berries ripen on it - the cat burst into tears, tasting more like a currant. Pretty large. I heard that more productive hybrids appeared, but I do not want to try anymore.NK, Moscow
A few years ago, my parents bought gooseberry bush on the market. The seller assured that this is some kind of special variety, giving juicy and large fruits. Having planted a bush in the country, naturally, there were no fruits for two or three years, if I am not mistaken. The plant went about its vegetative affairs, leaving the generative part for later. Suddenly, arriving at the cottage, we were surprised to find that yoshta had grown instead of the super-gooseberry. The bush is quite sprawling and tall, the leaves are similar to gooseberry leaves, but the thorns are something that German breeders have been struggling for over forty years. Berries, rich in vitamins, are very sweet, do not have hard seeds and gooseberry acidity. True, after removal from the bush and being at home without a refrigerator, they acquire a slight astringency and bitterness. In appearance, they look more like gooseberries, but upon closer examination, they remotely resemble a giant black currant. They are removed from the bush quite easily, but I did it together with the stalks, for better storage, if the stalks are torn off at the removal stage, the delicate skin of the fruits is damaged. They are stored in this form well and do not sour. The largest berries are arranged in groups on the lower sides of the branches closer to the ground, there they are very sweet, but those that are on top are smaller and in the sun are even slightly fermented, but at the same time they do not fall.katyushka237
I want to talk about my favorite bush - a hybrid of blackcurrant and gooseberry - yoshta. For a long time I honestly considered it a currant ... And this is really my favorite in the country - every year this huge bush is showered with large black berries ... So many years. I do not remember a year without a crop. The berries are large, black, very tasty, I eat them until November. What is not cut off, delicious even in late autumn. We don’t look after the bush in any way, only every year I clean it a little - cut off old branches, refresh, that's all the care. And the harvest is amazing every year! It blooms very beautifully - when in bloom, the bush is all bright yellow. Children went near it - so it is easy to get it in the country, it is unpretentious. I recommend to all. Unlike the delicate gooseberry, which is constantly sick and needs special care, this bush has never been sprayed, and it has never been sick.Stalker-lg
A couple of years ago, yoshta was very much advertised - a hybrid of gooseberries and currants. And what kind of advantages were not called: the berries are large, tasty, and there are more vitamins than currants, and the yields are high, undemanding and frost-resistant to soils - in general, just ideal for any owner of a land plot. Bought (not cheap), planted. So what did I end up with? Berries are larger than currants, but clearly smaller than gooseberries. Yes, and taste even reminiscent of the "dad" (gooseberries), but still inferior to him; the harvest is scanty - it is good from the bush if two berry presses are typed; frost resistance is also low. After winter, you have to cut a significant amount of damaged branches. In general, advertising is not true. Although, maybe I was just unlucky?kale3745
A hybrid of currants and gooseberries is becoming popular, but there are reviews about it both enthusiastic and completely unflattering. In order not to get another wrong plant, buy seedlings only from trusted suppliers and, perhaps, yoshta will take its rightful place in your garden.