Winter is just around the corner: how to shelter a vine

Contrary to popular belief, the vine is not so thermophilic picky plant to die in case of accidental frost in the fall or a sharp drop in temperature in winter. Many technical and some table grape varieties survive the cold without shelter in climatic zones with mild winters. But a caring gardener will certainly prevent unpleasant surprises associated with sudden cold snap and sudden temperature drops that occur not only in January - February, but also in the off-season. Properly covered grapes in the southern and northern regions of our country are guaranteed to survive the winter future and come out healthy and strong in the spring. As you know, God saves the safe!

Do I need to cover the grapes for the winter

As you know, weather forecasters are capable of making mistakes, so gardeners who have been dealing with the vine in their homestead for more than a year will definitely prepare the grapes for the upcoming wintering and will not spare the time and energy to organize the shelter of this heat-loving plant. Especially it is worth taking care of young bushes and hybrid forms of grapes unstable to frost. Even frost-resistant first-year seedlings often suffer from frost if they are not hidden for the winter.

The grape root system is most vulnerable, therefore it needs a warmer and more serious shelter. When the soil freezes to -5 ° C, the roots are on the verge of freezing, which means that the whole plant is at risk. Despite the encouraging claims of breeders about the existence of ultra-winter-resistant grape hybrids that can withstand up to –25–28 ° C, in the most severe winters with a prolonged decrease in temperature (more than two weeks) to –20 ° C frost, kidneys can suffer (up to 60%), often the vine dies completely.

Practicing gardeners claim that 1 cm of snow holds 1 degree of temperature. With a snow depth of 50 cm, the temperature at the surface of the earth remains close to 0 ° C. But in cold, snowless winters, when the air temperature drops to -25 ° C without shelter, the death of most grape buds is inevitable up to the loss of a bush.

Video: is it worth sheltering grapes for the winter

How to cover grapes for the winter

A fully ripened vine can withstand a critical minus temperature, but no more than –12–15 degrees of frost. Until stable negative temperatures occur, perennial fruiting vines do not harbor. Small frosts harden the vine, stimulate biochemical processes aimed at increasing the immunity and winter hardiness of the plant.

The principles on which the correct warming of the vine is based.

  1. Preparation of grapes before shelter for the winter (pruning, fungicide treatment).
  2. Choosing a method of insulation suitable for the climate zone.
  3. Compliance with the deadlines (when pruning, watering, sheltering the vine).
  4. Providing ventilation during the procedure.

Mold and condensation - the main trouble of any plant wintering under shelter. It is important to protect the vine from rodents, which can always be near - where it is warmer and there is something to profit from.

A wintering vine in the Central Black Earth Region is doomed to die without at least a modest shelter. Belgorod winegrowers consider our zone to be risky for agriculture and horticulture; therefore, it is most often recommended to plant the earliest grape varieties with a growing season of no more than 120 days on the backyard. Shelter grapes for the winter is a prerequisite for obtaining a full annual crop.

I have on my site growing Viking (blue) and Transfiguration (pink-fruited) - dessert early varieties. They never left the vine to winter without warming. If premature frosts started already at the end of October, then they were covered with roofing material and sprinkled with earth (a quick way to get rid of the hopelessness of the situation) - our plants are alive - healthy and delighting for more than a year with full-weighted clusters. In the best case, I pin the grapes with electrodes at a distance from the ground, cover them with pine needles (more labor-intensive) or straw and cover them with boards (building in the form of a house). Twice they were insulated with husk (husk) of grain instead of straw - the vine slightly backed, but did not die, all the buds grew. I do not use oilcloth, but I have nothing against it. By the way, the mice in the straw have not yet started.

A prerequisite for proper wintering is ventilation. It looks like a cut-off plastic “five-liter” one, which can be placed both right and upside down, the main thing is that it should not be covered with snow.

How to prepare grapes for wintering

In anticipation of the cold weather, grapes are prepared for the future wintering in September. Depending on the variety, the timing of fruit ripening and the climate in the region, preparation is carried out from mid-September to mid-October. After harvesting, grapes begin to prepare for winter.

  1. Before conducting autumn moisture recharge of grapes, the plant is fed a solution of trace elements. It is recommended to dilute in 10 liters of settled water 20 g of granular phosphorus fertilizer and 10-15 g of potash. Nitrogen top dressing is excluded during this period. It will be useful to add 10-15 drops of iodine and 5 g of boric acid (in powder) to the solution. The timely application of nutrients to the soil helps to preserve the flower buds and restore the plant's immunity to fungal diseases common in the vineyard.

    The internal reserve of the vine depends on timely feeding

  2. After fertilizing, watering is carried out - without waterlogging. It is important to consider the features of the soil: in the sand - 20–25 liters, in loams and chernozem - 10–15. Also take into account the proximity of the location of groundwater on the site.

    When autumn vineyard recharge is important, do not overdo it

  3. Before the start of frosts (but necessarily after the leaves fall), they start pruning the vine: remove unripe, damaged and dead branches, leaving a third of the spare buds. The optimal duration of the procedure is the 3rd decade of September.

    Scheme of autumn grapes

  4. Preventive treatment from pests and diseases is inevitable in anticipation of the winter hibernation of the vineyard.
    1. A proven disinfectant for tree-like shrubs and fruit trees is copper sulfate. About 100 g of the product is dissolved in 10 liters of warm (40 ° C) water and sprayed to the vine, capturing the root space of the soil. A salt solution with the addition of soda and iodine is a good method of combating infection and fungal diseases of trees. It will take 40 g of salt and 20 g of soda to make a "talker". They are dissolved in warm water (8-10 liters) and 10 drops of iodine are added. The treatment is repeated 2-3 times. From such common diseases of the vine as oidium and mildew, colloidal sulfur (5 g per 5 liters of water) or a potassium permanganate solution (5 g per 10 liters) has proven itself. But in order to avoid an outbreak of these diseases in the coming season, experienced winegrowers advise a more serious treatment in the vineyard - spraying with Fundazol, Ridomil and Topaz (according to instructions).
    2. To avoid the invasion of mice, it is recommended to spread special poison from rodents or sprinkle the surface of the ground with a tree ash tree (this is an alternative to chemicals - getting on the paws and muzzle, ash causes irritation and scares off mice). Some gardeners lay calcium carbide in a small metal dish right under the winter shelter of the vineyard. The gas formation that occurs in this substance when air is absorbed in a confined space, scares away mice and does not allow them to settle under a heater.

      Preventive treatment of the vineyard from pests and rodents

  5. Now the vine is carefully removed from the trellis (if necessary, shelter in a horizontal position), bandaged so that fragile shoots of this year are not injured, laid on insulating material or simply pinned to the ground (observing a space of 20-30 cm) and set the frame or just covered land and spruce branches.

Ways to shelter grapes for the winter

There are several ways to shelter vines for the winter:

  1. Dry shelter or frame (using a film and other synthetic insulation).
  2. Hilling with earth and snow.
  3. Trench method.

Each method is acceptable in exceptional cases - in certain climatic conditions, for certain types and varieties of grapes.

Modern winter-hardy varieties winter well under light shelter, but even in temperate regions and in the south, many hybrids winter much better under shelter. Not only prolonged frosts are terrible for the vine, but also unexpected warming in the middle of winter. In the warmest winter on the shoots the kidneys suffer, which begin to come to life quite inappropriately. The main thing is compliance with the temperature regime and the absence of sudden changes, this is achieved by the presence of simple insulation in the vineyard.

The possibility of using various covering materials and natural insulation can reduce labor costs and material costs in large vineyards, but at the same time preserve plants and hope for a future crop.

The most common and safest way is to dry cover the vine. A great option for Siberia, the Urals, Transbaikalia, Bashkiria, Volga.

  1. For this, hydro- and heat-insulating non-woven and building materials are used: a film (preferably opaque), fiberglass, spunbond, roofing material, foamed polyethylene and more. The vine is laid on prepared wooden chubuki or slate pieces (rubber mats and more) and wrapped in thick paper, lutrasil (one of the options).

    Grapes isolate with lutrasil and paper

  2. Metal arcs (trellises, racks) are installed at a distance of 20–40 cm from the plant, leaving an “air cushion”, and a heater is pulled, laid on top of the spruce branches (reed mats, straw, dry fallen leaves, sawdust) or building insulation (geotextiles, isow), professional sheet, ruberoid, etc.

    The dry method of warming involves various warming options (reed mats on the left, sawdust on the right), it all depends on the possibilities and wishes of the site owner

  3. Important! Leave gaps with the soil and insulating holes (vents) for evaporation of condensate.

    Grape insulation is the most important point

  4. At the edges of the shelter is fixed with bricks or metal brackets, hemp. This will extend the life of the winter shelter of grapes and preserve in case of sudden gusts of wind and other bad weather.

    A thoroughly fixed insulation frame is a guarantee of an impeccable wintering

The insulation material mentioned above does not get wet, maintains a positive temperature inside the tent with grapes, has air permeability and allows excess moisture to evaporate. The only exception to this method is that certain material investments are inevitable.

Often, to insulate grapes, old bags, blankets, outerwear, plastic containers and boxes are used, depending on the size of the bush and its location on the site.

Sheltering grapes with snow and earth can thoroughly protect the plant from frost and winds, but this option is suitable for frost-resistant varieties that grow in the southern regions of our country, in Central Russia, in Belarus (south, southeast), in the north-west of Ukraine, in Rostov, even in the Volga region. That is, in severe frosts and return frosts, there is a chance of partial freezing of the shoots with insufficient insulation.

But many winegrowers by experience and many years of experience have proved that snow cover 40-60 cm high is an ideal method of sheltering the vine. If you previously covered the branches with thick spruce branches or fallen leaves and slightly bored with earth - there should be no problems with wintering.

The thicker the snow layer, the higher the probability that the vine will winter without loss

The trench method involves the preparation of grooves with a depth of about 50–70 cm. The grape shoots attached to each other are laid on the ground, covered with a special flooring made of slate or wood (this will avoid decay of the vine). Grapes are carefully covered with burlap or oilcloth from above and sprinkled with earth. In winter, such a frame is covered with snow and perfectly keeps heat. This option of "grave" grapes until spring is well suited for the Krasnodar Territory, Stavropol Territory, and the Rostov Region. Often they are thus insulated in the Central Black Earth Region, the Moscow Region, Belarus and Bashkiria.

Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties

5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia

How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats

Photo gallery: trench method of warming grapes

The trench way of wintering is a universal way of sheltering grapes

Sometimes a shallow groove covered with oilcloth and sprinkled with earth is enough - all hope with such warming in the snow

You can lay grape shoots in a trench in different ways

Each technique has its advantages and disadvantages, the choice remains with the gardener.

Grapes - it is enough to cover the first-year-old with a 5-liter plastic bottle and sprinkle with earth. If in doubt, cover with branches and sawdust from above. A ventilation incision is required in the bottle.

At what temperature do you need to cover the grapes for the winter

Depending on the territorial location of the region and its climatic features, the timing of sheltering vines for the winter will be different. In the southern regions, in Ukraine, in the Rostov region and the Crimea, they often begin to warm grapes, which can hardly tolerate frosts and weathering, in late November or December.

In Central Russia, the Volga region, in Belarus, these dates come a little earlier - in early November.

In the suburbs and the Leningrad, Bryansk region, the vine is freed from foliage and is ready for warming already in the middle - end of October.

In the northern regions of our country, in Transbaikalia, in the Urals, the first frosts and snowfalls do not wait and begin to shelter dessert grape varieties from mid-October.

Not the best option to cover the grapes when the temperature in the street drops to the point indicated in the ampelography of the variety. The optimal average daily temperature for preparing the wintering of the grapevine is -5 -8 ° C, night frosts can reach -10 ° C, during the day, the acceptable temperature regime for cover grape varieties is 0 -5 ° C.

By this time, the vine is free from foliage, and moisture and nutrients have time to go deep to the roots, the grapes go in the winter with dry shoots and asleep buds. It is dangerous to get ahead of events and to shelter the plant ahead of time - when warming, the vine shuts off, and the buds can wake up and sap flow begins - this will lead to the death of part of the shoots and even the whole plant. But sitting idle before the crackling frosts is not the right option. If you are late with shelter, the grape shoots will become too dry and brittle, in this state perennial vines and eyes are easily damaged, the plant's chances of surviving the winter are reduced. The most sensitive organ of grapes to cold is the root; it is insulated first of all, carefully covering the space around the stem.

Warming grapes with improvised means and natural materials reduces the likelihood of rotting and moisture accumulation under cover

Some gardeners practice partial vine sheltering. At the first cold snap, the prepared vine is laid and pinned, covered with spruce branches and straw. And when the first night frosts appear or when forecasting snowfalls, grapes are sprinkled with earth or hidden under a frame shelter. For some southern regions, where the temperature does not drop below - 15 degrees, this option of partial shelter is quite suitable for a full safe wintering.

Video: when to cover grapes for the winter

How to cover grapes on a gazebo

For gazebo cultivation, gardeners usually select non-covering hybrids of dessert grapes or frost-resistant technical and universal varieties. The vine of such grapes perfectly winter in an upright position. The buds and eyes remain until spring if the plant is planted on a site sheltered from the north winds near the wall of any building. Thus, the grapes are protected from weathering and return frosts.

But in the case when table grapes, which require warming for the winter, grows on the gazebo, its shoots are formed and sent to the structure in such a way that with the onset of cooling it was possible to carefully remove them and bend to the ground . Next, the vine is covered with non-woven material (lutrasil, spanbond), fixing it on the shoots in an upright position; or cover with wooden shields, bending to the walls of the gazebo.

Grapes on the gazebo cover upright

Video: how to cover a vine on a gazebo

What grapes do not need to be covered for the winter

As a rule, most of the technical and some universal grape varieties do not require insulation and winter well without special shelter. The buds are not damaged and the vine remains when the temperature drops to -20 ° C in Isabella, Lydia, Concord, Race, etc. Technical grapes are less sensitive to frost and have increased immunity compared to dessert hybrids.

Всеми любимые морозостойкие гибриды Восторг, Краса Севера, Надежда Азос, Декабрьский, Каспаровский, а также разновидности десертного Муската (Московский, Транспортабельный и другие) сохраняются до весны без применения утеплителя. Но такой вариант зимовки годен для южных и центральных областей России, для Украины. На севере — в Хабаровске, Кемерове, Красноярске, на Урале десертный виноград одарит обильным урожаем, если сохранятся все почки и побеги. Для этого рекомендуется тщательно укрывать молодые побеги и одревесневшую лозу, следить, чтобы всегда оставались «продыхи» для проветривания.

Особенности укрытия винограда в регионах

В каждом регионе нашей страны, а также на Украине и в Беларуси есть свои особенности зимовки виноградной лозы. Они связаны с выбором материалов, его доступностью и качественными характеристиками.

Как укрыть виноград на зиму в Подмосковье и в Ленинградской области

Московские дачники начинают подготовку винограда к зиме уже в начале сентября. Полив и обработка от заболеваний и вредителей проводится сразу после съёма плодовых кистей. К концу сентября лоза остаётся без листвы и готова к утеплению. В Подмосковье и Ленинградской области виноград утепляют траншейным способом и сухим укрытием. Растущие побеги связывают и укладывают на деревянные щиты или опилки, сверху укрывают большим количеством лапника и веток, которые обладают хорошей проводимостью воздуха. Затем устанавливают каркас, укрытый дощатыми или металлическими настилами в виде домика (чтобы не собиралась влага).

Утепление винограда с использованием деревянных щитов практикуется в Подмосковье

Как укрыть виноград на зиму в средней полосе России

Для Центрально-чернозёмных регионов России и Поволжья отлично подходят все рассмотренные выше способы. Утеплить виноград можно как с использованием клеёнки, рубероида, синтетических материалов, так и с применением подручных средств (солома, лапник, опилки, листва, лузга зерновых, ветки).

Видео: бюджетный вариант укрытия виноградной лозы в Центральной России

Как укрыть виноград на зиму на Украине

На украинской земле с тёплым, влажным климатом зимостойкий виноград нередко переживает холода без укрытия. На востоке страны виноградную лозу утепляют с помощью каркасных щитов из дерева и шифера, траншейным способом — просто пригибая лозу к земле и присыпая грунтом. Страшней всего для винограда — это неожиданное потепление, при котором почки могут просыпаться и начинается сокодвижение. Поэтому самый важный момент — приступить к утеплению вовремя и не торопиться укрывать виноград даже в ноябре, если на улице задержалось «бабье лето».

Видео: как утепляют виноград на Украине

Как укрыть виноград на зиму в Беларуси

С конца октября белорусы начинают готовить виноград к зиме, защитный каркас устанавливают только с наступлением морозов — середина — конец ноября. Применяют сухой способ утепления . В качестве укрытия выбирают агроволокно, спанбонд и синтетический войлок, сверху для защиты от осадков прикрывают клеёнкой или шифером. Чтобы в зимние оттепели не намокли почки, а повышенная влажность не способствовала образованию плесени и гнили, нужно с боков укрытия оставлять отдушины для надёжной вентиляции. Здесь считают главная беда при зимовке на винограднике — это сырость.

Видео: укрытие винограда в Беларуси

Как укрыть виноград на зиму в Сибири

Суровый климат Сибири требует надёжного укрытия для теплолюбивой культуры. Поэтому виноград прячут в глубокие траншеи, устанавливая снизу деревянный настил или кусочки кирпича. Сверху укрывают вплотную побеги лутрасилом и закрывают мешковиной. Основным утеплением является насыпанные сверху лапник, опилки, земля, защищённые металлическими листами или шифером. Главный источник задержания тепла — снег (слой не менее 50–60 см). Обязательно проводят обработку от грызунов и оставляют небольшие отдушины для проветривания.

Видео: зимнее укрытие виноградной лозы (для Сибири)

Reviews

Я долгое время использовал подложку толщиной 3 мм. Её вполне хватало для зимнего укрытия в Гомеле. Поскольку подложка, как и плёнка полностью влагонепроницаемая, конденсат неизбежен, снизить его количество до приемлемого помогут «продухи».

В этом сезоне подложка поедет на укрытие школок с саженцами, а на основной виноградник куплен новый материал для укрытия — геотекстиль. Говоря грубо, это подобие спанбонда, но самый толстый спанбонд имеет плотность 60 гр./м, а этот материал 300 гр./м. Ширина материала 2 м. Планирую укрытие в 2 слоя, переложив материал пополам вдоль. В теории мы уходим полностью от конденсата, можно не бояться выпревания (материал хорошо пропускает воздух и влагу, но моментально высыхает после намокания, поскольку полностью синтетический), в отличие от подложки и спанбонда полностью светонепроницаем, что очень хорошо, т.к. нет парникового эффекта ранней весной.

Солома — это один из возможных вариантов. Я не пользуюсь соломой, просто укрываю пришпиленные к земле лозы подложкой под ламинат без ничего. Что касается мышей: 1. Укрытие делать как можно позже, после ночных заморозков, перед наступлением устойчивых холодов. К этому времени мыши найдут себе другое убежище. 2. В магазинах полно средств против мышей. Или народные средства — жжёный войлок, банка с соляркой для аромата и т.п. 3. Вместо соломы использовать сосновый опад (опавшие иголки) или еловый лапник. В иголках мыши не селятся.

Dutko DmitryDutko Dmitry

1. Самое главное, для того — открывать виноградник после зимовки как можно позже! Тем самым мы избавляем лозу винограда от преждевременного прорастания, и тем самым предохраняем почки от повреждения весенними заморозками. Когда в конце апреля открываю свой виноградник, то под укрытием ещё лежит лёд и земля мёрзлая, в то время, как в саду уже цветут вишни и начинают зацветать яблони. Для этого укрывной материал должен быть белого (солнце — отталкивающего) цвета. Кроме того, подобный материал не должен просвечиваться солнцем. Поэтому пенный полиэтилен, даже толщиной 2 см, не годится. Наиболее подходит белое, желательно тканное, химволокно, любой толщины. Главное, как и говорил, чтобы оно не просвечивалось солнцем, т.е. не пропускало инфракрасные лучи. А так, конечно, накрыли виноградник полиэтиленом и, там уже в феврале + 20 градусов. Лозы к моменту открытия уже отросли, а ведь в апреле часто бывает -10 градусов. Если нет хорошего укрывного материала, то можно укрыть и старой соломой. То когда весной, даже в мае, случайно подковырнём кучку соломы, а там ещё лёд, и земля мёрзлая. 2. Укрытие также предотвращает намокание лозы от дождя и мокрого снега, в период зимней оттепели. Размокшая лоза и почки, при возвратных морозах, даже при -10 градусах, могут серьёзно повредиться. Поэтому зимнее укрытие винограда надо делать не от морозов, а от зимних и весенних оттепелей!!! Вчера вышел на свой виноградник — уже почти месяц у нас днём в тени +10 градусов. Уже везде снега нет, в т.ч. у всех соседей, а на моём винограднике снег ещё лежит и это результат укрытия почвы белым материалом! Планирую виноградник, как и всегда, открыть через месяц, не раньше.

Akovantsev Mikhail

Естественное природное укрытие снегом недостаточно даже на юге России и на Черноморском побережье, а в Центральном Черноземье, Поволжье и в Сибири единственный надёжный способ сохранить лозу до весны — это применить укрывные материалы. Огромное разнообразие средств для укрытия виноградной лозы и методик осуществления этого процесса позволяет сделать выбор в пользу натуральных подручных материалов или покупных синтетических. А уж если хозяин приусадебного участка мечтает о том, чтобы урожай винограда получился на славу, то здесь не обойтись без правильного укрытия виноградной лозы независимо от сорта и сроков созревания культуры. Решать, стоит ли укрывать виноград на зиму или нет, должен каждый садовод самостоятельно. Но многолетний виноградарский опыт доказывает, что веских аргументов в пользу этой процедуры гораздо больше.

Recommended

Blackcurrant Selechenskaya - large-fruited variety with excellent taste
2020
Why there were many cones on the thuja and whether it is necessary to delete them
2020
Interesting ideas and decorations for giving with your own hands from unnecessary things
2020