White cabbage: all the subtleties of growing and caring
Which plant was the ancestor of garden cabbage, no one knows for sure. The homeland of white cabbage is considered the northern shores of the Mediterranean Sea. It is known that 4 thousand years ago cabbage was already grown as a crop. In the days of Kievan Rus, it was imported from Western Europe and took its rightful place among other vegetable crops. In the nineteenth century, there were about thirty of its varieties, and now there are hundreds of them.
Description and characteristics of white cabbage
According to the scientific classification, garden cabbage or white cabbage (Latin Brássica olerácea) is a species of the genus Cabbage of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). Cabbage is a two-year-old herbaceous plant, as well as its fruits.
The plant has a low branched stem with a large number of leaves, which form a rosette at the bottom. During the first year of vegetation, the leaves, fitting tightly to each other and curling around the stem (stump), form a head of cabbage, which is eaten. Heads of cabbage can have a flat, rounded flat, rounded, conical and oval shape. In the second year, tall (up to 1.5 m) flowering shoots grow on which fruits are formed in the form of pods with seeds.
White cabbage - a two-year-old herbaceous plant
In cooking, cabbage is used raw (salads), fermented and pickled, and various dishes are cooked (stewed cabbage, cabbage rolls, fillings, casseroles, cabbage soup, borscht, etc.). The number of varied recipes for cabbage dishes is simply innumerable.
The biochemical composition of cabbage is diverse, it contains: fiber, proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids and nitrogen compounds. The amount of vitamin C (30–70 mg / 100 g) is comparable to its content in lemons. There are also vitamins PP, E, A, U, a number of B vitamins and a wide variety of minerals.
Cabbage contains many useful substances and is widely used in cooking
Cabbage as a source of vitamin U, which is an antiulcer factor, is used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Juice from leaves helps to lower blood sugar, remove cholesterol and excess fluid from the body. A well-known folk remedy for inflammatory processes is the cabbage leaf.
In some cases, cabbage can be harmful: with pancreatitis, acute enterocolitis, increased acidity of the stomach, a tendency to spasms of the intestines and bile ducts, it is contraindicated, since it can irritate the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and cause increased pain.
White cabbage has a great resemblance to red cabbage and Savoy cabbage. It differs from other cabbage not only in appearance, but also in a number of other properties.
- In broccoli and cauliflower, inflorescences are the edible part, in kohlrabi - stembled.
- Kohlrabi, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower are frozen for storage; these types of cabbage, unlike white cabbage, are not fresh stored for a short time.
- All other types of cabbage have a higher content of protein, vitamins, micro and macro elements, and also have a finer cellular structure (with the exception of red cabbage - its fiber is, on the contrary, coarser than that of white cabbage).
Despite the fact that other types of cabbage are superior to white cabbage in nutrient content, this does not reduce its value and popularity due to its relatively low cost, excellent shelf life and other unique properties.
Varieties of cabbage
The State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation contains more than 400 varieties and hybrids of white cabbage. By maturity, varieties are divided into the following groups: early ripening, mid-ripening, mid-late, late ripening.
Table: popular varieties of white cabbage by ripening
|Group of varieties and key representatives||Using||Shelf life|
|Early ripe varieties (90–120 days): June, Dawn, Ditmar early, Aurora F1, Express F1, Amazon F1||For fresh consumption||Not stored for long|
|Mid-season (130-150 days): Nadezhda, Glory 1305, Belorusskaya 455, Natasha F1, Rinda F1, New York F1||Use both fresh and for pickling||1–4 months (depending on grade)|
|Medium-late (150-170 days): Gift, Blizzard, Mother-in-law, Dobrovodskaya, Megaton F1, Aggressor F1||For pickling and short storage, can also be consumed fresh||2–5 months (depending on grade)|
|Late-ripening (160-180 days) are divided into two subgroups:|
|Universal: Kharkov winter, Snow White, Extra F1, Orbit F1||Good for pickling and cooking||Up to 6 months|
|Intended for long-term storage: Wintering 1474, Lezhkiy F1, Amager 611, Kolobok F1, Atria F1||For long-term storage (some varieties can be used for pickling)||6-8 months|
Such a variety of varieties of white cabbage makes it possible to have fresh produce of this crop all year round.
Cabbage can be grown in seedlings and by sowing seeds in open ground. In the southern regions, for growing early cabbage in film greenhouses with heating, seeds for seedlings are sown in January-February. The deadline for planting medium late cabbage seedlings in open ground in central Russia and the northern regions is the end of May or the first days of June. Seedlings are grown at home or in a greenhouse. When planting seedlings of early varieties of cabbage in open ground, the scheme 35–40 × 50 is observed; for medium- and late-ripening varieties, the distance between plants is increased to 45–50 × 70–80.
Pre-grown seedlings of cabbage are planted in open ground
When sowing seeds in open ground, observe the planting scheme, which corresponds to the category of variety. At first, crops are protected by covering material or film.
How is cabbage propagated?
If it seems to someone that it is possible to take seeds from a plant that accidentally released the arrow in the first year of vegetation, then this is a big mistake. Plants that grow from such seeds may not retain the properties of a particular variety and may not even head out. There are rules for obtaining quality cabbage seeds.
How to get seeds
Full planting material can be obtained only in the second year of life of cabbage. It is necessary to select the strongest, without signs of disease, heads of cabbage, which are called queen cells. Before the onset of frost, they are removed with roots and a lump of earth. Before laying in storage on heads of cabbage leave 2-3 cover sheets. Cabbage is pollinated with wood ash, dipped in the root system in a clay mash and stored at a temperature of 1–2 ° C.
In March or April, the stumps are cut in the shape of a cone so that the upper kidney is preserved intact, and the petioles on the stump are 2-3 cm long. Prepared stitches are placed in wet peat or humus. Mother plants are planted in April or the first half of May. Place the stumps at an angle and dig to the base of the head.
Kocherigi (mother liquors) are cut out in the shape of a cone and when planting, they are buried to the base of the head
The distance between the testes of various varieties should be at least 500-600 meters, otherwise pollination can occur. The beds provide standard care: watered, loosen, weed, twice fed with nitrogen fertilizers. Collect seeds as the pods ripen and dry.
How to grow cabbage from a stump
Is it possible to get not seeds, but another cabbage crop from the stump? It is possible, but not everywhere, and not from any stump. There is the experience of gardeners who received two crops in one season from the same plant, but this is only possible in regions with a warm climate where early cabbage is grown.
When harvesting early cabbage (for example, June cabbage) in the first days of July, after cutting the heads of cabbage, stumps are left in the ground. After some time, small heads of cabbage will begin to form in the axils of the leaves. They are advised to thin out and leave two cabbages on each stump. The lower leaves from the previous heads do not tear off for better moisture retention. And then - watering, loosening, top dressing - everything is as usual. And by mid-September, a return crop of heads of cabbage weighing about 500-700 grams is obtained.
Outdoor cabbage care
On the one hand, there is nothing super complicated in the requirements for cabbage cultivation, but, on the other hand, non-compliance with at least one of them will necessarily negatively affect the crop. You just need to not break the rules - and everything will work out.
Soil and crop rotation requirements
Cabbage can grow on different soils, except for very light sandy and crushed stone, which poorly retain moisture. The ideal soil for cabbage is fertile loam with a light structure and lowland peat bogs. Such soils are able to retain moisture and at the same time be well permeable to air. The optimum acidity is pH 6.4–7.0. Acidic soils need to be liming every 5–6 years. To do this, in the fall, along with digging, make dolomite flour or fluff lime in the amount of 5 kg / 10 m2.
Cabbage can not be re-grown in one place, and plant it after other cruciferous plants earlier than after 3-4 years. Failure to comply with crop rotation and the cultivation of related crops near cabbage leads to the spread of diseases characteristic of this type of plant. Cabbage grows best after haze, liliaceae, solanaceae and legumes, and these are its best neighbors.
Light and temperature
Cabbage is demanding on light and does not tolerate the slightest shading. The place for its cultivation should be completely open. With a lack of light, leaves begin to grow rapidly, and heads of cabbage may not form at all. For the best development of plants, daylight hours should be 16–18 hours.
The place for planting cabbage is chosen open and well-lit
Cabbage is known as a cold-resistant plant. The degree of its resistance to low temperatures depends on the variety and stage of development of the plant. Seed germination begins at a temperature of 2-3 ° C. The optimum temperature for the rapid emergence of seedlings is 18–20 ° C. Seedlings grow best at 12–15 ° C. Hardened and well-rooted seedlings in open ground can withstand temperature drops of –7 ° C during short-term frosts. For adult plants, a temperature of 15–18 to 25 ° C is best suited for good development. In the south of Russia, non-heat-resistant at high temperature wither. Ripe heads of cabbage can withstand temperatures from -2 ° C to -8 ° C, depending on the variety.
Requirements for humidity, watering and hilling
The optimum soil moisture for growing cabbage is 80%, air - 50–75%. If cabbage is grown for long-term winter storage, then the relative soil moisture in the second half of the growing season should be 70–75%. With a lack of moisture, cabbage is poorly developed and no heads are formed.
Table: timing and norms of watering cabbage
|Watering Dates||Watering frequency||Watering rates|
|After planting seedlings for two weeks||1 time in 3-4 days (drought every other day)||1–1.5 liters per plant|
|Two weeks after planting seedlings before the onset of head growth||1 time in 4-7 days (more often in drought)||8-10 liters per 1 m2|
|Since the beginning of the growth of heads of cabbage||In one day||15–20 l per 1 m2|
|2 weeks before harvest|
4 weeks before harvesting cabbage intended for long winter storage
The frequency and norms of irrigation are adjusted depending on the amount of rainfall. It is recommended that the soil be maintained in such a state that a lump of earth taken up in your hands, if it is rolled between your fingers, sticks to a ball. If the soil crumbles, it needs to be watered. Despite the demands on moisture, cabbage does not like waterlogging. Excess moisture can lead to the spread of fungal diseases and cracking heads.
To get a good harvest, cabbage is regularly watered.
After watering, the soil must be loosened, it is especially important to do this on heavy soils. Loosening is usually combined with hilling. The first hilling of early varieties is carried out 2 weeks after transplanting. Late cabbage begins to be earthed somewhat later - after 3 weeks. Then they continue to spud every 2 weeks and do this until the leaves close.
Cabbage takes a lot of nutrients out of the soil, therefore it needs to be fed, their amount depends on the growing season, and is reduced for early varieties.
Table: dates and norms of feeding cabbage
|Feeding Times||The composition of the nutrient mixture per 10 liters of water||Dosage per plant|
|2-3 weeks after transplanting seedlings into the ground||One of the options: ||150-200 ml|
|The period of the beginning of the formation of heads||One of the options: ||500 ml|
|10-15 days after the second top dressing (with the exception of the early varieties - they are no longer fed)||2 tablespoons of superphosphate, 15 g of fertilizer with trace elements||1 liter|
|20 days before harvest (exclusively for late varieties so that heads of cabbage are better stored)||One of the options: ||1 liter|
If complex fertilizers were introduced during planting, then the first top dressing is better not to do. Excess nitrogen fertilizers accumulate in heads of cabbage in the form of nitrates and worsen the quality of the products.
Video: growing white cabbage in the open field
Greenhouse cabbage care
To obtain an early harvest of cabbage, greenhouses are used. When growing cabbage indoors, there are some features that need to be considered.
Greenhouse soil requirements
The soil for the greenhouse can be used both natural and bulk. The arable layer must be at least 25–30 cm thick. From autumn, 12–13 kg / m2 of humus is introduced into the natural soil.
For the preparation of bulk soil, one of the following compositions can be recommended (in%):
- lowland peat - 40, turf land - 40, manure - 20 (horse with 50% content of sawdust);
- lowland peat - 60, turf land - 20, cattle manure - 20;
- turf land - 80, humus - 20;
- turf land - 50-60, composted sawdust - 20-10, humus - 30-40.
The structure of the soil should be light. In the composition of the soil mixtures for their greater looseness add sawdust, cut straw and so on.
Light and temperature
In periods when the cabbage does not have enough sunlight, plants in the greenhouse need to be illuminated. To do this, use lamps that have a full solar spectrum in their radiation. Immediately after the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are illuminated for a week, and then they are lightened for 7-10 hours a day.
When planting seeds for seedlings and before shoots appear, the optimum air temperature is 18–20 ° C. During the week after emergence, the night temperature is lowered to 6–8 ° C, and the daytime temperature is reduced to 8–10 ° C. Then, in sunny weather, the air temperature is maintained in the range of 15–18 ° C, on cloudy days - 14–16 ° C, and at night –12–14 ° C. Soil temperature should be between 15-17 ° C. In order to save energy during severe frosts, the beds can be temporarily insulated with covering material.
Video: shelter of early cabbage in a greenhouse from return frost
Humidity requirements, watering and top dressing
When watering cabbage in a greenhouse, as well as in open ground, they do not allow either waterlogging or drying out of the soil. Relative humidity in closed ground should be 75–80%. The moisture content of the soil is 80–85%. To increase humidity, irrigation is used to irrigate, and to reduce it, the greenhouse is aired.
To increase humidity in the greenhouse, watering the cabbage with sprinkling
After rooting seedlings in a constant place, the plants are fed twice.
Table: dates and types of fertilizing cabbage when grown in a greenhouse
|Feeding Times||The composition of the nutrient mixture per 1 m2|
|One and a half to two weeks after transplanting seedlings||10–15 g of ammonium nitrate, 20–25 g of superphosphate, 10–15 g of potassium sulfate, 10 l of water|
|During the start of heading||20 g of ammonium nitrate, 30–40 g of superphosphate, 15–20 g of potassium sulfate, 10 l of water|
For top dressing, you can also use complex mineral fertilizers, such as nitroammofoska, azofoska, Crystal, Ecoplant, Master. To stimulate the development of the root system and more efficient absorption of nutrients, root biostimulants Agriful, Thekamin, Rice and others are used.
Features of the cultivation of white cabbage in various regions
Since climatic conditions in different latitudes differ from each other, the cultivation of white cabbage in each region has its own specifics of agricultural technology.
Features of growing cabbage in the suburbs
The climate of the Moscow region is characterized by a predominance of cloudy weather. There are not so many sunny days. Despite the fact that cabbage is a cold-resistant crop, unstable spring weather can cause problems when grown early.
Cabbage in this region is grown mainly in seedlings. The possibility of growing it in open ground from seeds is also not excluded, but in this case, sheltering of seedlings should be provided before the onset of stable warm weather. One of the options for growing cabbage in the open ground is the use of warm beds. Since there is not so much rainfall in the suburbs in the summer, watering should be given special attention.
В Подмосковье для выращивания капусты в открытом грунте используют тёплые грядки
Сорта выращивают, как правило, ранние, среднеспелые и среднепоздние, так как позднеспелые могут не вызреть. Из проверенных сортов пользуются популярностью, такие как Слава, Слава Грибовская, Подарок. А также есть большое разнообразие гибридов, которые хорошо себя зарекомендовали в этом регионе.
Особенности выращивания капусты в Сибири
Суровые климатические условия не позволяют выращивать в Сибири белокочанную капусту из семян в открытом грунте. Однако вполне успешно можно вырастить её рассадным способом. Короткое лето не позволяет вырастить позднеспелые сорта с длинным вегетационным периодом, поэтому выбирают районированные среднеспелые и среднепоздние сорта, которые дают хороший урожай в этом регионе. На Западно-Сибирской овощной опытной станции созданы адаптированные к сибирскому климату сорта, которые обладают устойчивостью к распространённым в этом регионе болезням. Наиболее популярные из них: Точка, Сибирячка 60, Надежда, Вьюга, Финал, Талисман F1.
В открытый грунт рассаду высаживают во второй половине мая, через 50–55 дней после посева семян. В первое время, учитывая климатические условия, грядки укрывают. В августе капусту таких сортов уже начинают употреблять в свежем виде, а также используют для квашения. В сентябре собирают среднепозднюю капусту, которую закладывают на хранение.
Особенности выращивания капусты на Урале
Неустойчивый климат Урала характеризуется резкими перепадами температур и интенсивным движением воздушных масс. В мае могут наблюдаться большие колебания температур: от жары в дневное время до ночных заморозков. В октябре может выпадать снег.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Рассаду выращивают в домашних условиях, в теплицах или на тёплых грядках. В первой или второй декаде мая её высаживают в открытый грунт. Грядки укрывают плотным спанбондом, который защищает растения от низких ночных температур и вредителей. А также эффективным приёмом является мульчирование грядок чёрной плёнкой для защиты почвы от низких температур.
Для защиты от весенних заморозков капустные грядки на Урале накрывают спанбондом
На Урале хорошо растут сибирские сорта капусты, такие как Надежда и Вьюга, а также многие гибриды (Мегатон, Атрия, Агрессор и пр.) Большой популярностью пользуется среднеспелая капуста Лосиноостровская, которая характеризуется повышенной устойчивостью к киле и употребляется в свежем виде и для квашения.
Особенности выращивания капусты в средней полосе России
Умеренно-континентальный климат средней полосы России со снежной, в меру морозной зимой и тёплым, довольно влажным летом наиболее благоприятен для выращивания капусты. В средних широтах капуста, как правило, выращивается рассадным способом. Однако в настоящее время в связи с существенным потеплением климата в средней полосе России при посеве семян в открытый грунт вызревают поздние гибриды со сроком созревания 160–170 дней.
Таблица: сроки посева семян и высадки рассады в средней полосе России
|Сорта по длительности вегетации||Сроки посева семян на рассаду||Период выращивания рассады||Seedling planting dates|
|Раннеспелые||1–15 марта||45–60 дней||1–15 мая|
|Среднеспелые||20 апреля — 10 мая||35–45 дней||15–30 мая|
|Позднеспелые||15 марта — 10 апреля||30–35 дней||10–25 мая|
При ранней посадке нужно применять утепление неткаными материалами, так как в средней полосе России в такое время бывают заморозки.
Отдельные сорта или гибриды позднеспелой и среднеспелой капусты (например, среднеспелый сорт Слава 1305, поздние гибриды Валентина, Колобок, Гарант) можно выращивать безрассадным способом.
Особенности выращивания капусты на Дальнем Востоке
Климат Дальнего Востока характеризуется непостоянством. Ему свойственны резкие перепады температур, морозные зимы и прохладное лето. В период интенсивного роста и завязывания кочанов может наблюдаться повышенная температура воздуха. В июле-сентябре идут обильные осадки, что приводит к переувлажнению почвы и, как следствие, к распространению бактериозов.
В этом регионе выбирают морозостойкие сорта с небольшим вегетационным периодом, а также устойчивые к болезням и растрескиванию. На Дальнем Востоке хорошо зарекомендовали себя старые испытанные сорта (Слава, Подарок, Вьюга, Июньская ранняя и другие). Но большей урожайностью отличаются районированные сорта и гибриды, такие как Артост, Сахарный шар, Наташа, Кухарка, Агрессор, Харрикейн, Приморочка. Раннеспелая и позднеспелая капуста на этих территориях выращивается рассадным способом.
В зонах повышенного увлажнения применяется такой агротехнический приём, как выращивание капусты на грядах или гребнях. Если поверхность почвы имеет небольшой уклон и хороший сток, то лучше сажать капусту на гряды. Если участок находится в низине и может временно затопляться, то лучше выбрать гребни, так как с них быстрее уходит излишек влаги.
В последнее время распространена практика комбинированной гребне-грядовой технологии. В первой половине лета, когда стоит засушливая погода, капусту сажают на гряды, которые больше способствуют сохранению влаги. В середине лета, при наступлении сезона августовских тайфунов, из гряды формируют два высоких гребня, с которых лучше уходит лишняя влага.
Другие способы выращивания капусты
Огородники и специалисты ищут и применяют новые способы выращивания капусты, которые помогают облегчить уход за растениями. А также находят возможность выращивания достойного урожая этой культуры в условиях ограниченных водных ресурсов.
Можно ли вырастить капусту без полива
Таким вопросом задаются те огородники, которые сталкиваются с проблемой недостаточной обеспеченности земельных участков влагой. По отношению к водному режиму капуста относится к группе растений, которые наиболее требовательны к влаге.
В книгах по овощеводству вы найдёте такие данные: если на выращивание одного кочана капусты позднего сорта за сезон требуется 200 л воды (бочка), то для одного куста картофеля 100 л (полбочки). Вот меня и поражает неосведомлённость людей, надеющихся получить урожай без полива.
Золотая школа садоводства Эксмо Москва 2015
It’s impossible to grow cabbage without watering. However, the use of agricultural techniques that contribute to the preservation of moisture in the soil will help significantly reduce water consumption when growing this crop. For this, the following measures are recommended:
- Create conditions for snow retention by deep autumn tillage with the formation of high ridges.
- In early spring, surface loosening of the soil is carried out. This treatment prevents the moisture pulling through the capillaries and its evaporation.
- Avoid deep cultivation of the soil, surface loosening prevents the formation of soil crust.
- Cabbage is grown in a non-seedling way, and a more powerful root system is formed, which absorbs water better.
The use of moisture-saving agricultural technology in combination with the choice of drought-resistant cabbage varieties (Mozharskaya, Yuzhanka-31, Braunschweika, Amtrak, Bronco) will help reduce water consumption when growing this moisture-loving crop.
Growing under plastic bottles
When growing cabbage from seeds in open ground, plastic bottles can be used as an individual shelter for plants. This technique accelerates the emergence of seedlings, protects them from pests, and also helps to preserve moisture and heat.
In plastic bottles, the lower part is cut off, and the caps are left on the upper part. Seeds are sown in the usual way and covered so that the cut edges are deepened into the soil by three centimeters. Around the bottles pour a little earth.
When seedlings need to be watered, they do it through the neck of the bottles. Periodically, the plants are ventilated, for this they open the covers and leave the neck open for a while. When the leaves of cabbage begin to touch the walls of the bottles, the shelters are removed.
Video: growing white cabbage under plastic bottles
Growing under the mulching film
The use of a plastic film for mulching beds with cabbage is one of the most effective agrotechnical methods of protection. For mulching, both transparent and black film are used depending on the season.
A black film helps warm the soil and retain moisture in it, and weeds die under it. The film is laid on prepared cabbage beds 3-4 weeks before transplanting, during which time the soil warms up. According to the planting pattern, round cuts or cruciform cuts are made in the film and seedlings are planted in these holes. They take care of the plants in the same way as usual: they are watered under the root, fed, treated against diseases and pests.
Under the mulching film, the soil warms up, moisture is preserved and weeds do not grow
In summer, a transparent film is used, which is pre-perforated. They lay it on a watered bed between rows of cabbage and fix it. This type of mulching protects against the appearance of weeds, and also retains moisture in the soil.
Siderata for cabbage
The essence of green manure is to grow plants whose green mass is used as organic fertilizer. Such an agrotechnical method is used both in open ground and in greenhouses.
Siderates are cultivated or wild plant species that are grown to enrich the soil with humus and nitrogen.
The best siderats for cabbage are legumes (melilot, alfalfa, nomad, vetch, clover, annual lupine, peas, beans), cereals (oats), hydrophils (phacelia), bruise and some others. Mixtures of green manure crops can be used, the most common of which is vetch oat. And you can also mix phacelia, bruise and sweet clover in a ratio of 1: 1: 2.
It is impossible to grow cruciferous siderats before planting cabbage. Some cereals severely drain the soil and therefore are not suitable for cabbage as sidereal crops. Unsuitable green manure for cabbage will be rape, white mustard, rape, oilseed radish, rye and others.
Diseases and pests of cabbage
Having decided to grow white cabbage in your garden, you need to be prepared for the fact that under adverse conditions, the culture can be affected by diseases, and insect pests may be interested in it.
One of the unfavorable factors for the development of diseases is the increased acidity of the soil. Cabbage is most susceptible to fungal diseases, since the moist environment, which is necessary for the development of plants, is favorable for the spread of pathogenic fungal microorganisms.
With increased acidity of the soil, the fungus spreads, which causes the keel disease. The pathogen penetrates the soil and affects the roots, growths form on them. Plants cease to grow, wither and easily pull out of the ground. Kila affects all cruciferous crops. It is impossible to save the sick keel. Infected plants are removed from the site and destroyed.
With a keel disease, growths form on the roots of cabbage
Prevention of the disease Kiloy is reduced to the following measures:
- crop rotation compliance;
- liming of the soil;
- solanaceous, lilac and haze crops destroy keel spores, they are grown in infected areas;
- processing seedlings brought from the side, Fitosporin, sulfur preparations.
This disease affects seedlings. The root neck darkens, and the stalk becomes thinner, as a result of which the plant breaks and dies. The disease appears on acidic soils under conditions of excess moisture in the soil, inadequate ventilation, and sudden changes in temperature. The remains of infected plants in the soil contribute to the preservation of the pathogens of the black leg.
With a black leg disease, the cabbage seedlings become thinner and cracked
Preventive measures include replacing the soil in greenhouses, maintaining a balance of humidity and temperature. To combat the black leg, Bordeaux is used, which treats the affected areas at the rate of 1 liter per 1 m2.
This disease is also called fusarium wilting of cabbage. The pathogen affects both seedlings and adult plants. The leaves of seedlings turn yellow and die, which leads to its death. In adult plants affected by Fusariosis, after the death of the leaves, a small naked head of cabbage remains. On the cross section of the stem and leaf petioles, a light brown ring of vessels is clearly visible. The causative agent can be viable in the soil for several years.
In cabbage affected by Fusarium, leaves turn yellow and die
Affected plants are destroyed along with the roots. Prevention consists in observing crop rotation, the use of healthy seeds, liming the soil. Cabbage cultivars and hybrids that are resistant to Fusarium are grown in infected areas.
The disease often occurs during storage of heads of cabbage, and can also affect the entire plant in the vine. The spread of gray rot provokes harvesting in rainy weather, mechanical damage to heads, freezing, as well as non-compliance with conditions in the cabbage storage areas. A gray, powdery plaque with pubescence appears on the heads of cabbage, which consists of mycelium and pathogen spores. Later, black nodules form in these places.
When affected by gray rot on the heads, a gray coating appears
Measures to combat gray rot include timely harvesting, destruction of post-harvest residues, timely disinfection of cabbage storages, and storage conditions (temperature from 0 to 2 ° C).
The main preventive measures to prevent cabbage diseases come down to seed disinfection, compliance with crop rotation rules, and liming the soil. And also during the season you need to carry out several treatments with fungicides, such as Fitosporin, Ridomil, Polycarbocin and others.
Possible pests of cabbage
So that cabbage does not suffer from pests, you need to get acquainted with their main representatives and learn how to deal with them.
Dangerous pest of small size (up to 2.2 mm), white or green. Aphids suck out the juice from cabbage and can cause great harm, as it multiplies very intensively. To combat it, you can use decoctions of wormwood and tansy, horseradish tinctures or hot peppers, as well as insecticides.
Aphid cabbage is small (up to 2.2 mm), but can be very harmful by sucking juice from cabbage leaves
Small, about 3 mm, jumping shiny bugs, eating leaves - this is a cruciferous flea that affects all plants of the cruciferous family. A flea is a very harmful insect, if you do not fight it, then all the cabbage seedlings planted in the ground may suffer. To repel the pest, marigolds, dill, carrots are planted on cabbage beds. Pollination of plants with wood ash or tobacco dust (can be mixed with hydrated lime in equal proportions) is an effective means of combating cruciferous flea.
Cruciferous flea - a very harmful leaf beetle bug
This pest is a mollusk with a mucus-coated body that feeds on cabbage leaves. Slugs multiply intensively in conditions of high humidity. To control the pest around small beds, you can create a barrier in the form of sprinkled quicklime or crushed chalk. If the number of slugs is significant, then the Thunderstorm drug is used. Its granules are scattered in the rows of cabbage at the rate of 3 grams per 1 m2.
Slugs eat cabbage leaves
An inconspicuous butterfly of a dirty brownish color with a wingspan of less than 5 centimeters. The pest lays eggs on the underside of the leaves. Caterpillars hatch from the eggs, which, eating leaves, quickly destroy them. Clutches of eggs of cabbage scoops can be collected manually. From biological products, Lepidocide or Bitoxibacillin give good results.
Caterpillars of cabbage scoops feed on leaves, butterflies inconspicuous gray-brown
There are many insecticides for the prevention of cabbage damage by pests, as well as for combating them, such as Decis, Fitoverm, Fufanon, Spark Dual Effect, Zemlin, Diazonin and others. And also a good effect is given by the use of folk remedies in the form of various decoctions and infusions.
Video: treating cabbage from aphids and slugs
Harvesting and storage
Early varieties of cabbage are harvested in June-July and immediately consumed. Mid-season are ready for harvest at the end of summer, and later in September or early October. Cabbage on the vine can tolerate frosts to -5–7 ° C, cut heads of cabbage at this temperature will deteriorate. If frost occurred before harvesting, it is better not to cut the heads of cabbage, but wait until the frozen leaves are thawed. The best keeping quality for heads of cabbage collected in dry weather at a temperature of + 4–7 ° C.
The ripened heads of cabbage are cut with a knife, the lower leaves and a stump of 3-4 cm are left. The looser heads of cabbage are used for pickling, and the densest with two outer leaves are laid for winter storage.
The best conditions for storing cabbage are a temperature from 0 to 2 ° C with a relative humidity of 90–98%. Heads of cabbage are laid on wooden floorings or gratings with kocherigami up at a certain distance from each other. If the conditions allow, you can hang in pairs coupled heads on the rails. If the cabbage is rolled in diluted clay and then dried, it will be stored longer than usual.
Cabbage is stored on wooden floors at a temperature of 0 to 2 ° C
White cabbage firmly took its place in the life of a Russian person. It is grown everywhere, adapting to the climatic conditions of various regions. This is not to say that this is a very capricious crop, but still there are certain requirements for the conditions for its cultivation and without their implementation, you should not count on a good harvest. With the right choice of variety and the use of appropriate agricultural technology, cabbage can quite successfully be grown in open ground and in a greenhouse.