When to open grapes in spring and what to process after opening
Grapes are one of the most common cultivated plants on earth. Today, more than 20 thousand varieties are officially registered, of which more than 3 thousand are grown in the territory of the former USSR. Most of these varieties are not frost-resistant enough and are not able to survive the winter without shelter. In the spring, it is important not to forget in time to open the overwintered vine.
When to open grapes after winter
Grapes are not such a “greenhouse” plant as it seems at first glance. It is able to withstand short-term frosts to -4 ° C. So the ice in the puddles is not a reason to postpone the cleaning of winter shelter for the next weekend until a warmer time. It is necessary to open grapes when daytime temperatures reach positive values, and night frosts will not reach -4 ° С. In this case, the snow should already completely melt in the area.
Also pay attention to soil moisture. The soil should dry. Therefore, many gardeners temporarily remove their shelter on warm sunny days to ventilate the vine. This preventative measure reduces the likelihood of fungal diseases.
A common mistake of our gardeners is that they believe that the main danger to heat-loving grapes is frost. Therefore, beginner growers are trying to open the vine as late as possible. But the plant will not stop the lack of light, and at a temperature of + 10 ° C even the covered shoots will confidently start to grow. The problem will be revealed when you still open the grapes. You will see weak, pale, chlorophyll-free young stems. Such shoots are called leaded. If you leave them as they are unprotected in direct sunlight, then they will get burns and are likely to die. If the seedling had such shoots, then they would have to be removed. To prevent this, it is necessary to build a temporary shelter that creates sufficient shading and remove it for an hour a day, giving the plant, thus, gradually get used to the sunlight. Light initiates the formation of chlorophyll, and the shoots will gradually turn green.
Chlorophyll-deprived grape shoots often turn out to be unviable
Video: when to open grapes in spring
Spring processing of grapes after disclosure
After the winter shelter is removed, it is necessary to treat the vine with fungicides in order to get rid of pathogenic fungi, which are also comfortably wintered under the shelter. It is microscopic fungi that are the cause of the most common diseases of the mildew and oidium grapes. Today on store shelves you will find a huge assortment of specialized drugs, but copper sulfate, tested for decades, remains the most popular preventive measure.
- For spring processing you will need a 1% solution. To do this, dilute in 10 liters of water (1 bucket) 100 g of vitriol.
- Spraying the vines is most conveniently carried out using a garden spray. Copper sulfate will not dissolve completely, therefore, before pouring, it must be filtered to avoid clogging of nozzles.
- Now we start processing the vines. The temperature should not be lower than + 5 ° C, without precipitation.
- Processing with a 1% solution must be carried out before the grape buds begin to bloom, otherwise they will suffer from a chemical burn.
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Do not tie up the vines immediately after you removed the winter shelter. Give the plant a little “wake up”. Just spread the shoots, lay them out on the trellis, and let them ventilate like this for three days. The spring garter of the grapes is also called dry, as lignified, not green shoots are tied.
Until you have tied the grapes, you can check how he wintered. To do this, cut a small piece of shoot with secateurs. The slice should have a healthy lime color. Also examine the kidneys, spread the scales under them should be living green primordia.
The grapes are traditionally tied to a trellis, which is two dug in two meters at a distance of three meters, between which a wire is stretched. The first wire is pulled at a height of 40 cm, subsequent at the same distance from each other. Dry perennial sleeves need to be tied on the first tier with a fan. The remaining shoots are fixed on the second wire at an angle of 45-60 degrees relative to the ground. It is very important that the shoots are not tied up vertically. In this case, only the upper 2-3 kidneys will develop, and the rest will grow weakly or not wake up at all. It is most convenient to tie the shoots with any soft wire. Later, when the buds start to grow, young green shoots are tied up vertically to higher tiers.
In spring, the sleeves are tied to the first tier, and the shoots to the second
Video: Spring Garter
Features of the disclosure of grapes in the regions
Our country is located in four climatic zones, and therefore it is impossible to determine a single date for the discovery of grapes. Below in the table you will find the optimal date for getting rid of winter shelter for your region.
In our country, even real wild grapes grow. In the Far East, Amur relic grapes (Vitis amurensis) are found. Although this species is not an ancestor of cultivars, it is often used for landscaping, even in the more severe northern regions.
Table: date of discovery of grapes in the regions of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus
|Moscow region||end of April - beginning of May|
|The middle strip of Russia||early May|
|Western Siberia||mid May|
|Middle siberia||the end of May|
|Eastern Siberia||early May - mid May|
|Chernozemye||beginning - mid-April|
|Ukraine||beginning - mid-April|
|Belarus||mid April - mid May|
Depending on the climatic zone and the microclimate on your garden plot, the optimal spring grape opening date varies from early April to mid-May. Snow melted in the garden is a prerequisite and the most obvious sign that it is time to clean up the winter shelter.