When and how can gooseberry bushes be treated for the prevention and treatment of common diseases?
Gooseberries are not only tasty, but also very healthy. Therefore, its bushes can be found in many garden plots. But the culture has a significant drawback - it enjoys special love from harmful insects, as well as pathogenic fungi. Since any problem is easier to prevent than to deal with it later, the main attention should be paid to preventive measures. If it was still not possible to save the bush from the disease, it is important to be able to identify it in time and know what to do in this case.
Best time for gooseberry processing
Gooseberries are more susceptible to disease than many other berry bushes. Therefore, for the first time, preventive treatment is carried out in early spring, combining it with sanitary pruning. Leaf buds and soil around the bush ready to bloom are sprayed with any fungicide - these drugs kill many pathogenic fungi. The procedure must be repeated after flowering, preferably even twice, with an interval of 10-12 days.
In spring, preventive measures must be taken before the leaves bloom on the gooseberry bushes.
Throughout the entire period of active vegetation, the bushes are sprayed in order to protect against powdery mildew, one of the most common and dangerous for culture diseases. The first treatment is carried out in April, the last - in September. The interval between them is 10-12 days.
In autumn, one should not forget about prevention, this is an obligatory procedure along with pruning a bush and cleaning a tree trunk of a foliage, broken branches, fallen berries, weeds and other plant debris. Processing is best done 2-3 weeks after the entire crop is harvested.
Gooseberry bushes delight the gardener with a crop, but at the same time they are regularly attacked by harmful insects and often suffer from diseases
When spraying gooseberries, it is worth remembering that any treatment with chemicals is carried out no later than 30 days before the expected harvest, with preparations of biological origin - for 15-20 days. Also, their use is limited during flowering. This also applies to fungicides.
How to handle: popular remedies among gardeners
Most often, gardeners use the most affordable, time-tested tools that have proven their effectiveness to process gooseberries. Many of them, without reason, do not trust new-fangled chemistry.
Watering gooseberries with boiling water is a common measure that helps “remove” the bush from winter “hibernation” and increase its resistance to fungal diseases typical of the culture. The procedure is carried out in the last decade of February or early March, when the leaves have not yet blossomed.
Normal water is boiled, a watering can with a divider or a spray bottle is filled (during this time it cools to a temperature of 80–90 ° C) and the bushes are poured from a distance of 60–70 cm, trying to process all branches more or less evenly. To facilitate your work, you can pre-connect (or even in the fall) several shoots each. You need to act quickly - from the water that has cooled down to 60–70ºС, there’s no sense anymore. The norm for one plant is 3-5 liters.
Gooseberries are poured with boiling water at the same time as pruning - in early spring or late winter
Then with water of the same temperature you need to shed the soil in the near-stem circle and cover it for 2-3 days with a plastic film, pieces of roofing felt. This will help to destroy the larvae wintering under the bush, as well as eggs laid by harmful insects, and spores of pathogenic fungi. Boiling water is especially effective against a kidney tick, which is the main distributor of a dangerous leaf double virus. At the same time, do not pour it directly under the roots, you can burn them severely.
Watering with boiling water promotes the "awakening" of the plant and increases its immunity, while hot water destroys the spores of pathogenic fungi and eggs of pests
Practice shows that the gooseberry bushes annually processed in this way better tolerate the vagaries of weather during the summer and winter cold, and are less likely to be affected by pests. The leaves on them are larger, more berries, they branch more intensively.
For greater effect, you can add potassium permanganate to the water (to a pale pink shade of the solution) or ordinary table salt (50–70 g per 10 l).
Video: spring treatment of berry bushes with boiling water
Copper sulfate (also known as copper sulfate or copper sulfate) is one of the most common fungicides, widely used by gardeners to protect fruit trees and berry bushes from various pathogenic fungi. This beautiful sky blue powder prevents the germination of their spores. To treat gooseberries with copper sulfate, a 1% solution is prepared (100 g of powder per 10 liters of water), iron - 3%. This concentration is completely safe for the bush, but effectively destroys fungal spores.
Copper sulfate is one of the most common and affordable fungicides, its effectiveness is due to the fact that many pathogenic fungi do not tolerate copper compounds.
Copper sulfate does not penetrate into the plant tissue, acts exclusively at the point of contact. The solution is washed off the bush the first rain. If the fungus has already formed a mycelium in the tissues, it cannot destroy its agent, however, it slightly inhibits its development.
The liquid is prepared exclusively in glass, plastic or enamelled containers (without chips) in order to exclude the reaction with ions of iron, aluminum, zinc. It is impossible to store it longer than 10-12 hours, the effectiveness of the drug is lost. Powder dissolves better in warm water than in cold water. At an air temperature of 30 ° C and above, it makes no sense to carry out processing. The finished solution should never be mixed with other drugs, insecticides or fungicides.
A solution of copper sulfate cannot be prepared in containers of any metal
Plants are sprayed in early spring. It is desirable that the temperature in the street does not exceed 8–10ºС. This is a guarantee that the leaf buds have not yet “woken up”. Processing is carried out in the early morning or evening, after sunset. The drops remaining on the bush play the role of lenses, you can burn the shoots very much. In addition to fungal diseases, this procedure helps protect the bushes from many dangerous pests - bud mites, gall midges, aphids, and mucous sawflies.
Immediately after the bushes fade, the treatment is repeated. The best time for her is the early morning of a calm day. It is desirable that the street was warm enough - 16–20ºС.
The last treatment with copper sulfate is carried out in the fall. The concentration of the drug is increased to 2%. If in summer the plant is badly affected by diseases and pests, the soil around the bush is shed with a 5% solution. But such treatment is not recommended for chernozem - it negatively affects soil fertility.
Copper sulfate can be used not only as a means for the prevention of diseases and the fight against them, but also as a fertilizer. Copper, like many other trace elements, is necessary for the normal development of plants. Every 5–6 years, in autumn or spring, the powder is introduced into the soil in the process of deep loosening of the soil at the rate of 1 g / m². You can judge a copper deficiency during the active growing season by the following signs:
- unnatural dark green shade of leaves, sharply contrasting with a yellowish-white border at the edges;
- the rigidity of the sheet plate and the tip bending down;
- metallic luster or bluish-purple tint, clearly visible in the sun.
Copper deficiency on the leaves of berry shrubs manifests itself very brightly
In this case, the bushes are sprayed with a weak solution of copper sulfate - 1-2 g per 10 liters of water.
This drug can also be used for disinfection. Slices left after removing dry, broken, diseased branches are the “gateway” for all kinds of infections. Therefore, before covering them with garden varieties, it is useful to rinse the “wounds” with a 2% solution.
Video: application of copper sulfate in the garden
Bordeaux liquid gardeners have been using it since the mid-19th century. It was then that the French botanist Pierre-Marie Millardde discovered that the mixture he prepared very effectively destroys mold fungi on grape leaves and shoots.
Bordeaux liquid - a tool known to gardeners for more than a century, its effectiveness is time-tested
Gooseberries are treated with Bordeaux liquid to protect against rust, scab, anthracnose and all kinds of spotting. You can’t overdo it with it - this negatively affects the taste of the fruit and inhibits the growth of new shoots.
Quicklime for the preparation of Bordeaux liquid must be fresh, otherwise it will not dissolve, but solidify with lumps
Bordeaux liquid (one percent) is easy to prepare yourself. This will require only water, copper sulfate and quicklime:
- 100 g of copper sulfate is diluted in a glass of hot water, then add 5 l of boiling water. The container should not be metal.
- In another container with a volume of 10 l, 150 g of quicklime is poured into 5 l of cold water, mixed well.
- Very carefully, in a thin stream, the contents of the first container are poured into the second (in no case, not vice versa).
- Using litmus paper, check how suitable the solution is for spraying plants. If it turns blue, then there is too much lime, the remedy is ineffective. Red color indicates an excess of copper sulfate - such a solution will destroy not only the spores of fungi, but also gooseberry leaves. Mistakes are corrected by the gradual addition of lime “milk”. As an “indicator”, you can use a regular nail - a plaque of the corresponding shade will appear on it.
The components of Bordeaux liquid are diluted with water in separate containers and mixed only by adding a solution of copper sulfate in milk of lime
The maximum concentration of Bordeaux liquid is 3% (300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of lime). With such a solution, gooseberry bushes are sprayed in early spring or late autumn. On the shoots after the procedure, a bluish coating remains for a long time, this is normal. If in the spring the buds have already “woken up”, turning into green cones, the optimal concentration is 1%. The consumption rate per bush is 1.5–2 liters.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Spraying is carried out in dry cool, calm weather, until 10:00 or after 18:00. It is advisable that the solution gets into the soil in a minimal amount. It is best to pre-cover it with plastic wrap, roofing felt, slate sheets, and so on.
The effect of processing Bordeaux liquid lasts about a month
Bordeaux liquid is an alternative to copper sulfate, so the treatment is carried out at the same time. The period of its action is longer - 25-30 days, it is not washed off by rain. It is also a source of calcium for gooseberry bushes. However, the solution is more toxic, not only for plants, but also for humans, pets, therefore, in the process of its preparation and spraying, the use of rubber gloves, a respirator, and other personal protective equipment is mandatory.
Video: how to prepare Bordeaux liquid
How to protect gooseberries from common diseases
Diseases, especially fungal diseases, are a real scourge of gooseberries. Some gardeners do not even risk planting bushes on the site. But competent prevention can minimize the risk of infection.
Gooseberry scab first appears on the leaves. They are visible small as if velvety spots of olive color. Gradually they increase in size, change color to dark brown, the leaves themselves turn completely yellow. Then the disease spreads to the berries. The spots on them are vague, beige, reminiscent of a film. Over time, their surface cracks, the fruits shrink, turn black and rot. The risk of contracting scab is especially great if the summer is cold and rainy.
First of all, scab appears on gooseberry leaves
Often the gardener himself is to blame for the spread of the disease. This is facilitated by the thickening of plantings, the choice of an inappropriate place (lowlands, where cold humid air stagnates for a long time or a site where groundwater comes too close to the surface), the introduction of excessive nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
Gooseberry-affected scab quickly begins to rot
Since the fungus that causes scab overwinters in fallen leaves, in autumn the soil under the bush must be cleaned of plant debris and deeply loosened. Heavily affected branches should be cut off and burned as quickly as possible. There are also varieties resistant to fungus - Houghton, Date, African, Bottle green, Chernysh.
The gooseberry variety Phenicus, in addition to other undoubted advantages, also has resistance to scab
The best drugs for fighting scab are fungicides. For prevention, the bushes are sprayed in early spring. If Bordeaux liquid or copper sulfate is used, the treatment is carried out on unopened buds, other means (HOM, Oksikhom, Abiga-Peak, Kuprozan, Oleokuprit) - on freshly blossomed leaves. The second procedure is carried out 7-12 days after the first, the last - in the fall.
A solution of Kuprozan, like other fungicides, is prepared in strict accordance with the instructions given by the manufacturer in the instructions
Folk remedies are mainly used for the prevention of scab. They are not able to stop the spread of the disease and destroy the fungus. Validity - approximately 7-12 days (or until the first rain). Then the processing will need to be repeated.
- Salt solution (100 g per liter of water). He must not be allowed to hit the ground. Nothing will grow on such beds at all.
- Infusion of horsetail rhizomes. Finely chopped raw materials fill a third of the volume of a 10-liter bucket, the rest is added with warm water. The remedy is insisted for 3-4 days, filtered before use.
Horsetail - a plant familiar to many, whose rhizomes are used to prepare infusion for the prevention of scab
Powdery mildew is the most dangerous disease for gooseberries, from which this culture suffers very often. Spores of a pathogenic fungus are carried by wind or insects. The leaves affected by the disease are covered with a grayish-white coating, similar to powdered powder or flour, after a few weeks it turns brown and “thickens”, turning into solid spots. The leaf plates are curled and dried. Then the fungus spreads to shoots and fruits. The peel of these berries turns brown and coarser, they fall off, you can’t eat them.
It is very easy to identify powdery mildew, but getting rid of it is quite difficult
It contributes to the spread of the fungus in warm weather and high humidity. Most often the bushes suffer from the disease.
Eating gooseberries infected with powdery mildew is strongly discouraged.
As a rule, the first signs of powdery mildew development are noticeable already in late spring. The fungus spreads from the bottom up, so you need to inspect the lower shoots and young shoots most carefully. Varieties resistant to the disease also exist - Mashenka, Grushenka, Harlequin, Kolobok, Senator, African, Ural grape, Finnish, Yubileiny.
The gooseberry Grushenka is not only very beautiful and tasty, it also has “innate” immunity to powdery mildew
You also need to be careful with top dressing - potassium and phosphorus increase the resistance of powdery mildew, nitrogen, on the contrary, slows down the development of young shoots, making them more susceptible to it. During the summer, it is useful to spray the bushes 2-3 times with a solution of simple superphosphate (50 g) and potassium sulfate (20 g) in 10 l of water. To enhance the effect, potassium permanganate (3-5 g) is added.
For the prevention of powdery mildew, leaf buds that have just begun to swell are poured with boiling water or a solution of potassium permanganate (15 g per 10 l of water). The soil under the bush is dusted with Haupsin, Glyocladin or Trichodermin, shed with Fitosporin solution. Then, before flowering and immediately after it, Topaz, Tiovit, Vectra, and HOM preparations are used. The final treatment - after another 7-10 days.
The drug Topaz, along with some others, is used to prevent powdery mildew on gooseberries.
Gooseberries are treated with folk remedies, from mid-April to autumn with an interval of 10-12 days:
- A solution of soda ash (50 g per 10 l of water). To make it “stick” to leaves and shoots better, you can add a little laundry or green potash soap grated on a fine grater. To enhance the effect - 2-3 powdered aspirin tablets.
- Infusion of wood ash (1 liter can of 3 liters of boiling water). The tool is insisted for 2-3 days, filtered before use. It is also an effective foliar supplement containing potassium and phosphorus.
- Kefir or sour milk. It is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 8. The acidic environment of the spores of the fungus and mycelium does not tolerate at all.
Kefir is an acidic environment, and its spores of most pathogenic fungi do not like very much
At the first signs of the disease, the bushes are treated with Nitrafen (200 g per 10 liters of water). Then, twice with an interval of 10-12 days, Cumulus, Skor. Heavily affected by powdery mildew bushes can only be uprooted and burned. The soil in this place and nearby bushes are treated with the same solution.
Gooseberry bushes and the soil beneath them should be treated with nitrafen as soon as possible, upon detection of the first suspicious symptoms
Video: how to deal with powdery mildew on gooseberries
Lichens look like rough spots of yellow-green, silver, pinkish, yellowish-cream, dark gray or almost white. They appear on the shoots, sometimes covering them almost completely. Up to 8–10 species can coexist quite peacefully on one branch. Lichen is not a parasite, it only uses the bush as a habitat, but you still need to deal with it, because of these neoplasms, moisture stagnates, the bark often exfoliates, spores of pathogenic fungi and other pathogenic microorganisms accumulate on their surface, under them Pest eggs “hide”, the bush reacts more strongly to adverse weather conditions, and normal air exchange is difficult.
Lichen is not a parasite, but you still need to fight it
The presence of a large number of lichens on the gooseberry bush, as a rule, indicates its aging, uncontrolled growth of the crown or that the shoots were frozen in the winter or received sunburn. Another possible reason is the wrong choice of place for planting (meltwater stands for a long time under the bush, groundwater comes close to the surface).
The best prevention of the appearance of lichen on gooseberries is competent and regular pruning. The crown should be evenly lit by the sun, it is important to ensure good aeration. Every five years, it is advisable to rejuvenate the bush, cutting off all shoots older than this age to the point of growth. In early spring, gooseberries are sprayed with a solution of iron sulfate (350-400 g per 10 liters of water).
Iron sulfate spraying is a rather effective prevention of lichen on berry bushes and fruit trees.
Discovered lichens are cleaned from the bush with an ordinary plastic washcloth. You can also use a clothes brush, a wire “sponge” for dishes, a coarse cloth like a mat, or a simple sliver (but nothing sharp so as not to injure the wood). It is best to do this after rain. Lichens absorb moisture, soften, becoming like a sponge.
The cleaned areas of the bark are disinfected by washing with soap and foam, with 2% solution of copper sulfate or by rubbing with sorrel from sorrel leaves. The exfoliated bark is carefully removed, the existing cracks are cleaned with fine sandpaper. “Wounds” are covered with garden varieties, a mixture of fresh cow manure, powder clay and wood ash, or covered with oil paint in several layers.
Video: how to get rid of moss and lichens on bushes and trees
Folk remedies for the prevention of diseases and pest attacks
Народные средства тоже полезны, но скорее для профилактики заболеваний. Кстати, они помогают отпугивать от кустов и многих вредных насекомых, которые почему-то питают к крыжовнику особую любовь. При первых признаках развития болезни использовать их смысла уже нет. Можно только зря потратить время, когда куст ещё можно было спасти.
Зато по сравнению с химикатами у них есть одно несомненное преимущество. Народные средства никак не вредят растению и человеку. Соответственно, в течение сезона кусты можно обрабатывать неограниченное число раз. Эффект от обработки сохраняется в течение 7–12 дней (или до первого дождя).
Как показывает практика, наиболее эффективны следующие средства:
- Чесночный настой. Применяется для профилактики парши, ржавчины, отпугивания тли и почкового клеща. Примерно 0, 5 кг стрелок и/или зубчиков чеснока измельчают, заливают 3 л горячей воды. Через 3–4 дня настой процеживают, гущу на дне отжимают, перед употреблением его разводят водой, доводя её объем до 10 л.
- Отвар листьев полыни. Помогает защитить кусты от атак гусениц медяницы, тли, крыжовниковой огнёвки. 100 г сухих листьев кипятят на водяной бане 25–30 минут, добавляют настой свежего куриного помёта (1 кг на 3–4 л воды), хорошо перемешивают, доливают водой, доводя общий объем до 10 л.
- Настой горчичного порошка. Отпугивает пилильщиков и всевозможных гусениц. 100 г порошка заливают литром воды, настаивают 2–3 дня. Перед употреблением процеживают и разводят водой 1:2.
- Настой табака. Уничтожает споры большинства болезнетворных грибков, отпугивает почкового клеща, крыжовниковую огнёвку. Около 250 г сухих листьев (желательно выращенных самостоятельно) или табачной пыли заливают 10 л воды, настаивают 2–3 часа, перед употреблением процеживают. Эффект имеет только свежеприготовленное средство, хранить его нельзя, даже несколько часов. Можно просто опудрить цветущие и отплодоносившие кусты табачной пылью.
- Настой чистотела. Листья и стебли (3–4 кг) измельчают, заливают 10 л воды. Средство готово через 1, 5–2 дня. Сухие листья этого растения можно измельчить в порошок и опудривать ими кусты крыжовника, почву под ними.
- Настой луковой шелухи. Особенно эффективен против тли. 200 г сырья заливают 10 л тёплой воды, настаивают 10–14 часов. Больше суток средство не хранится.
- Отвар ботвы томатов. Её резкий запах не любят практически все вредители. 2–3 кг нарезанного сырья заливают 5 л воды, настаивают несколько часов. Затем добавляют ещё столько же воды, и полчаса кипятят на водяной бане. Готовое средство остужают и разводят водой 1:4. При необходимости в герметично закрывающейся ёмкости оно может храниться 4–6 месяцев. Аналогично готовится отвар пижмы, помогающий защитить кусты от крыжовниковой огнёвки.
- Настой прелого сена. Сырьём заполняют треть 10-литрового ведра, остальное доливают водой. Настаивают 3–4 дня. Перед употреблением процеживают и разводят водой 1:3.
Фотогалерея: какими народными средствами можно обработать кусты крыжовника
- Чесночные стрелки обладают теми же свойствами, что и зубчики
- Свежие и сухие листья полыни, особенно горькой — источник природных фунгицидов
- Горчичный порошок можно использовать и в сухом виде для опудривания листьев и почвы под кустами крыжовника
- Выращенный самостоятельно табак — гораздо более действенное средство, чем покупной
- Чистотел широко применяется не только в народной медицине, но и в садоводстве
- Резкий запах луковой шелухи отпугивает многих вредителей
- Листья томатов обладают характерным сильным запахом — он «перебивает» запах листьев крыжовника, сбивая с толку насекомых
- Настой прелого сена используется для борьбы с тлёй, гусеницами крыжовниковой огнёвки
Атакующие кусты крыжовника болезни являются причиной существенного снижения урожайности, и могут даже привести к гибели куста. Поэтому профилактические обработки весной и осенью, а также регулярные осмотры на предмет наличия подозрительных симптомов для этой культуры — обязательная процедура. Для профилактики можно использовать народные средства. Но если заражение уже распространилось массово, помочь могут только инсектициды или препараты биологического происхождения.