Well in the country: do-it-yourself sand drilling technology

Nothing complicates the life of a summer resident as the absence of a large amount of water. In the warm season, during the summer excitement, its deficiency is especially felt: it is necessary for the shower and pool, for watering the garden and the garden, just to cook dinner or wash. A familiar well, and even better - a deep well in the courtyard can save the situation. But, unfortunately, to hire a brigade and rent equipment will cost a pretty penny. However, it turns out that a do-it-yourself well in the country is a very real thing. We suggest you figure out how to do everything on your own.

Types of downhole structures

Wells are of various types depending on the design features, installation depth and characteristics of the recoverable water, but only two types are suitable for drilling in a suburban area:

  • sandy (or “on sand”);
  • artesian (or "limestone").

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Both types of wells, artesian and sandy, are suitable for summer cottages, but only the sandy version can be made independently, without the use of equipment

The name of the species speaks for itself: the indicated rocks are present in the aquifer - either sand or limestone. In addition, both species differ in depth. Sand wells are drilled to a depth of 50 m, and artesian wells are drilled to 200 m. It becomes clear that the "limestone" wells cannot be mastered on their own, so the best option for summer cottages is a sandy view.

Wells “on sand” and “limestone” differ not only in the depth of drilling of the mine, but also in its diameter, as well as the size of the casing

First you need to determine the parameters of groundwater occurrence. Before contacting specialists, you can ask the neighbors how deep their wells are. If the parameters do not exceed 25 meters, there is a chance to drill a well on your own.

The location of the well is chosen not far from the house, and sometimes the mine is laid right in the utility room or extension connected to the cottage

Mechanisms for self-device wells

Usually, special drilling equipment is used for the device of the well, so a completely logical question arises: how to drill a well in the country without its use? It turns out that there is a simple manual mechanism consisting of a derrick and a column suspended from it. Consider in more detail the individual parts of the equipment.

The base is a tower that resembles a tripod. The material for the supports are either metal pipes or logs connected in the upper part by a kingpin. A drill column lifting unit is also located there. The two legs of the tower are connected by a winch (collar).

The design of drilling equipment may vary. In some cases, if the water-resistant layer lies close to the surface of the earth, a manual drill is enough

Drilling column is the main functional element. It consists of several three-meter rods connected by couplings. Sometimes a length of one and a half meters is enough. It is the column that is immersed in the ground, and its length is regulated using rods. Replacement of special equipment are water pipes equipped with steel couplings.

Drill heads must be selected depending on the nature of the soil. Here are the most commonly used ones: 1 - “spoon”, 2 - “coil”, 3 - “chisel”, 4 - “chipper”

The impact or cutting element is the drill head. It is screwed onto the column using a threaded adapter. In the process of lowering the head into the soil, the soil fills the cavity of the drill. For different types of rocks, different nozzles are used: a “spoon” is suitable for soft soil, a “coil” is suitable for dense soil, a “chisel” is suitable for hard rocks. Loosened soil is lifted upward with a skimmer.

To prevent the borehole walls from sprinkling, casing pipes are used - as a rule, these are ordinary plastic plumbing products that are lightweight and convenient for installation. The bottom of the pipe is a kind of shoe with a smooth or jagged edge at the bottom.

Two main types of shoe for casing: a - toothed (cutter), b - smooth. Cutting area: 1 - teeth, 2 - smooth edge

Thus, the well is constructed using special equipment, some of which can be purchased at the store, and some can be made independently.

You can find out how to find water for a well here: voda / kak-najti-vodu-dlya-skvazhiny.html

Preparatory phase - pit drilling

The topsoil is prone to shedding, so the well is protected by a special structure - a pit, in other words, a pit one and a half and a half meters, the depth of which is no more than 2 meters. To strengthen the walls, boards are used, they also line the floor. The strength of the floor depends on the thickness of the boards, so use products no thinner than 5 cm. Top pits are closed with a second floor.

The pits for sand wells are small in size and located at a shallow depth, while the pits for artesian wells go several meters into the ground

Then prepare the holes in the following order:

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  • erect a drilling tower;
  • clean the upper flooring;
  • find the center point on the bottom flooring;
  • make a hole whose diameter coincides with the shoe and couplings;
  • cut the second hole - in the upper flooring.

The accuracy of the vertical created by the two guide holes guarantees high-quality drilling.

When and where is it best to drill a well in the area: voda / kogda-i-gde-luchshe-burit-skvazhinu-na-uchastke.html

Drilling process: sequence of actions

If you prepare the necessary equipment and withstand the sequence of stages, there will be no questions about how to properly make the well. The finished drilling rig is equipped with a head and a winch mechanism. The bar is passed through both holes downward, if necessary, it is increased and the gate is fixed. The gate is usually rotated together, and a third person is needed to correct the position of the bar.

If the well is shallow, then only the drill column is used, directing it down strictly vertically. A tripod with a lift is necessary for wells with great depth

A mark is placed on the column, departing from the upper flooring 60-70 cm. Having lowered the column to the indicated distance, it is removed back, removing the rock raised with the drill. In the same way, the cleaned column is immersed several times. Large depths require the extension of the bar. To do this, with the help of a coupling, one more pipe is connected.

Depending on the stability of the soil, a drilling method is chosen - with or without casing pipes. With a stable, dense soil, you can drill the entire well, without using casing pipes. The crumbling rocks indicate that after 2-3 meters a pipe equipped with a shoe should be installed. The diameter of the pipe is wider than the diameter of the couplings, so the pipe enters the shaft with difficulty. Sometimes, to put it there, use a screw or sledgehammer.

As casing pipes, products for laying water pipes are used - metal or polypropylene pipes of the required diameter for outdoor work

If rocks crumble, collapse should be avoided. For this purpose, the drill is not lowered too low - a certain distance below the end of the casing. Usually it is equal to half the length of the drill. Thus, the process consists in the alternation of drilling and installation of casing, which grows as you dive.

Preparation of the facility for operation

The end of drilling is the moment when the drill reaches the water-resistant layer. The well is thoroughly cleaned with a "bellow" nozzle, and a filter is installed at the bottom, which will serve as a barrier to the retention of mechanical impurities. The mesh can be a fine mesh metal mesh or a perforated pipe with a small gap.

The filter for the well consists of the following parts: 1 - perforated pipe, 2 - holes of the desired diameter, 3 - wire winding, 4 - metal mesh

Equipping the inside of the well, equip and decorate its aboveground part. To do this, remove the boards of both floorings, dismantle the pit wall sheathing and backfill. To pump water from the well, a pump is installed (submersible or surface). The upper part of the structure is decorated with decor. A variety of design ideas are suitable, from a simple canopy to the head end to a gazebo or a fake well. One option is to install a crane.

You can learn about how to make a head for the well with your own hands from the material: voda / ogolovok-dlya-skvazhiny-svoimi-rukami.html

Here are two examples of how to equip a well in a country house:

A beautiful and original design of the well is a small decorative well made of wood, very reminiscent of the real one. Decor may vary

To mask mines, wells, wells, decor is made of artificial stone. In appearance, it resembles a natural element - a stone or a large stump

Ways to eliminate borehole blockages

Groundwater, like any other, has impurities, so the well will clog over time. The onset of cleaning time is signaled by an unstable flow of supplied water.

Methods of purification are diverse, while using special mechanisms and substances:

  • Water compressor. Deposits from sand and silt are easily removed by a stream of water under pressure.
  • Air compressor. Effective for removing soft particles such as sludge. Using a vacuum plug, blow the pipe along its entire length.
  • Explosion. The artificial creation of a short circuit, as a result of which a bottle of powder explodes, lowered to the bottom of the well. The blast wave breaks the blockage.
  • Acid. It is used with caution, as it can damage the filter or pipes. The acid is introduced into the pipe, left for two days, then pumped water until completely clean.

For more information on how to clean a well when silting, read: voda / kak-prochistit-skvazhinu-svoimi-rukami.html

Equipping a water well in the country, you can provide the house, kitchen garden and garden with the necessary amount of water, and with low material costs.


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