We process a pear from diseases and pests

When choosing a pear seedling, each gardener hopes for a good harvest. Even if high-quality planting material was purchased, pests and diseases can become a serious obstacle to obtaining tasty and juicy fruits. To get rid of them, it is necessary to process fruit trees, starting in early spring.

How and how to treat a pear from diseases

A pear, as it develops, needs preventive measures aimed at combating many diseases. If you do not pay due attention to this moment, then not only the tree is damaged, but also the crop, which can simply be lost. Consider the most common pear diseases and control measures.

Rust

Rust on pear is one of the most dangerous diseases, which manifests itself in the form of red spots on the outside of the leaf and growths on the inside. The first signs of the disease can be observed in July. Rust leads to falling leaves, loss of presentation of the fruit, reducing their mass. Greenish-yellow spots form on the affected shoots, which inhibits their growth and development. As a result, they become short and thick, after which they dry out. With an average degree of damage to the shoots, their growth can continue, but after a few years, bark and wood crack.

Rust on the pear appears as red spots on the outside of the leaf and growths on the inside

The causative agent of the disease is a pathogenic fungus, for the development of which two plants are needed - juniper and pear. This suggests that both cultures should be treated. There are a number of measures to combat this disease:

  1. Planting of the following pear varieties should be avoided: Bere Ardanpon, Winter Deccan, Cure, Clapp's Favorite, as they are susceptible to the disease in question. It is necessary to choose relatively stable varieties: Summer Williams, Skorospelka, Ilyinka, Bere Ligel, Vere Boek, Dekanka autumn.
  2. To improve the tree, you need to trim the affected branches, backing 5-10 cm from the site of damage. The wounds are cleaned to healthy wood and treated with a 5% solution of copper sulfate, after which they apply a garden var. For faster healing of wounds, before using the garden var, disinfect Heteroauxin by diluting 0.5 g of the substance in 10 l of water.
  3. In early spring, the tree is treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid or copper chloride. The second time they are sprayed at the beginning of flowering, the third time after flowering, the fourth - after another 1.5 weeks.
  4. The Bayleton preparation copes well with rust. During the season, it is used about 5-6 times, for which 10 g of substance is diluted in 10 liters of water.
  5. You can prepare an infusion of ash (500 g per 10 l to insist for 48 hours). 10 liters of solution are poured under a single adult tree, 4-6 liters under young pears.
  6. Good results are shown with the use of 0.4% colloidal sulfur. The number of treatments is at least five: before budding, before flowering, after it, when the fruits are formed and after the leaves fall.

Video: fighting pear rust

Leaf blackening

Disease and lack of nutrients can lead to blackening of leaves on pear. One of the reasons is a bacterial burn, which is an accumulation of harmful microorganisms. The disease can spread to healthy trees by insects and birds, rainfall (rain, fog). In addition, the leaves may turn black with an excess of organic matter and nitrogen in the soil. The disease manifests itself as follows:

  • the petals of the inflorescences wither and fall, the peduncle acquires a light amber color;
  • leaves turn black, but do not fall;
  • affected shoots darken;
  • as the disease penetrates through cracks in the cortex, it dries and the formation of dead sites occurs.

Blackening of pear leaves may be caused by a bacterial burn or lack of nutrients

You can deal with a pear bacterial burn in the following ways and means:

  1. As soon as the disease has been noticed, it is necessary to cut off the damaged shoots on the ring and burn them. The slice in this case is treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate or 0.7% iron sulfate. In the first case, you will need to dilute 100 g of the substance in 10 liters of water, in the second - 70 g.
  2. If the disease is detected during flowering, the garden is treated 3 times with a frequency of 4–5 days with antibiotics such as tetracycline or streptomycin (1 thousand units per 10 liters of water).
  3. You can treat the tree with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. The use of copper-containing preparations is also effective (0.7–0.8%). Such treatments are carried out at the time of the appearance of inflorescences, during the flowering period and after its completion.

In addition to a bacterial burn, a discoloration of the leaf plate may be caused by a lack of calcium. To replenish this element, calcium nitrate is added at every second watering. If the tree lacks boron, the leaves can also turn black, the young shoots are deformed, the growth of the seedling is slowed down. To fill in the deficiency of this microelement will help spraying, as well as watering with boric acid. In addition, you must not forget about regular top dressing with complex fertilizers, which can strengthen the pear's immunity.

With calcium deficiency, pear leaves may also darken

Fighting moss

A pear covered with moss and lichen slows in growth and has poor fruiting. Gradually, the branches of such trees dry up and die. The resulting growths on the shoots represent a favorable environment in which harmful insects live. Procedures for combating moss on trees are carried out in early spring before bud swelling, usually in March and late autumn after harvest (in November).

Before autumn processing, fallen leaves are removed and burned without fail.

One of the main tools used to combat mosses and lichens is a 5% solution of iron sulfate (50 g of substance per 10 l of water). The finished fluid is treated with trunks and skeletal branches of trees. After a week, the mosses and lichens should themselves fall away. In addition, it is necessary to cultivate the soil under the trees.

Fruit trees covered with mosses and lichens have poor fruiting, branches gradually dry up and die off

If after such a procedure there are still areas on the tree branches with lichen and moss, they are removed mechanically. To do this, lay a plastic film or fabric of the right size under a pear and, using a wooden spatula or a metal brush, scrape branches and the surface of the trunk. Fallen pieces of moss are collected and destroyed. Do not use metal scrapers for these purposes, as they can damage the bark.

With the periodic appearance of moss on a pear, you should use the drug Scor: it is used according to the instructions in early spring. When the tree is cleaned, whitewash the trunks with lime mortar. For this, 1.5–2 kg of slaked lime is diluted in 10 liters of water. For whitewashing, you can also use ready-made compounds.

Video: how to get rid of lichens and moss on fruit trees

Fruit rot

Common diseases of pears and other pome crops include fruit rot or moniliosis, in which the fruits are affected not only on the tree, but also during storage . The disease appears as follows:

  1. First, a small brown spot appears on the fruits, which spreads quite quickly and covers the entire fruit. The pulp becomes brown, soft and deteriorates.
  2. After a week, the affected surface is covered with large yellow-white pads (2-3 mm) of sporulation of the fungus.
  3. Spores form on the pads, which spread throughout the tree through wind, rainfall and insects.

Fruit rot actively develops in warm (+ 24–28 ° C) and wet (75%) weather, as well as in thickened plantings.

In order to combat fruit rot on pear, you must follow the rules of agricultural technology and crop care

To prevent the onset and development of the disease, it is necessary to follow the rules of agricultural technology and pear care. When the first signs of moniliosis are found, damaged fruits must be removed from the tree and destroyed. Rotten pears that have fallen from the branches are also subject to destruction.

In the fight against the disease in question, trees are sprayed quite a month before harvesting with iodine solution (10 ml per 10 l of water) with a repeat of the procedure after 3 days. For the same purposes, you can use Fitosporin. At the first signs of the appearance of rot, Zircon is treated. If the disease was observed on a tree last season, it is best to carry out such sprayings in the spring.

It is possible to combat fruit rot by chemical methods:

  1. At the beginning of bud blooming, they resort to spraying with a solution of Bordeaux liquid at the rate of 400 g per 10 liters of water, in the phase of the bud extension, 1% solution is used.
  2. The second time, after flowering, they are also sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid or other fungicides.
  3. The third treatment is carried out 2-3 weeks after flowering. When using copper chloroxide and Bordeaux fluid, you first need to check whether these drugs cause burns on the leaves.

You can resort to folk remedies:

  1. 40 g of citric acid and 25 g of iron sulfate are diluted in 10 l of water. The resulting solution is sprayed.
  2. A mixture of 10 liters of water, 6 kg of humus and 150 g of iron sulfate is prepared. With a hoe under the trees, grooves are made and irrigated with a ready-made solution.

Video: processing pears from fruit rot and scab

Scab

Scab is a fungal disease, the active reproduction of which occurs in the spring and summer, when the fruits and leaves of the trees become infected. Favorable conditions for the propagation of spores is humid and warm weather (above + 20 ° C). The main sign of the onset of the disease is the formation of black velvety spots on the leaves. If measures are not taken in time, the fungus will spread throughout the tree (shoots, flowers and stems of the ovaries). As the fruits ripen, their skin is affected by the fungus, which leads to the appearance of dark dry spots. The flesh beneath them becomes hard and coarse.

You can deal with scab on pear with the help of several drugs. First of all, it is a Bordeaux mixture. Experienced gardeners recommend using this fungicide as follows:

  • before flowering, spray with 3% solution in case of severe damage to the tree;
  • after flowering, apply a 1% solution.

When the pear is scabbed, dark dry spots appear on the peel of the fruit, the leaves are covered with black velvety spots

During the season, no more than 4 wood treatments are carried out. You can also fight the disease with the drug Horus, which does not contain copper. To protect the tree from scab, 2 treatments are carried out: before and after flowering. Spraying is performed at intervals of 10 days. After the procedure, the effect persists for a month. If infection with a fungus has already occurred, then chemical treatment is the only method of protection against the disease. In addition to the funds listed, the following drugs will help to cope with the scab: Topsin M, Merpan, Traidex.

How and how to process a pear from pests

In addition to diseases, the pear is also exposed to harmful insects, which must be controlled in a timely manner.

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Leaflet

One of the most dangerous pear pests, which can damage almost all foliage on a tree in a short time, is a leaflet. The danger is no longer represented by an adult (moth), but by an insect caterpillar that folds leaves into tubules and feeds on them. Before moving to the leaves, the pest damages the buds and buds, braiding them with a web.

Pear leaflet damages buds, buds and leaves themselves

Preventive measures to combat insects are carried out in early spring, clearing dead sections of the cortex and treating the stems with a 2% solution of Karbofos. The first preventive chemical spraying is carried out before the sap flow begins. The air should warm up to a minimum of + 10˚С, which helps the larvae to escape from under the bark. For the first, as well as two subsequent sprayings (before and after flowering), drugs such as Decis and Kinmix are used. Before flowering, other means can be used: Di-68, Atom, Rogor-S.

In addition to the listed insecticides, during the period of growth and ripening, processing can be carried out by Kemifos, Iskra, Karbofos, Zitkor. In the autumn period, at the end of the leaf fall, all the foliage under the tree needs to be collected, the soil of the near-stem circle loosened, and treated with Bordeaux liquid or copper sulphate.

Medianitsa

If sticky leaves were noticed on a pear, then most likely the tree is struck by a pear throat - a small jumping insect, which is one of the first to fly after the winter period. The pest gradually damages young shoots, leaves, as well as fruits and stalks. Thistle tree attacks and harms pear trees until late autumn. The presence of the pest can be judged by the black leaves, as well as by sticky honey dew, which covers the fruits and shoots. As a result of such damage, foliage and fruits fall prematurely. In addition, the fruits become smaller, their regular shape is lost, the shoots dry out. The tree's immunity decreases, growth slows down, fruiting stops.

Pear tinnitus damages non-lignified shoots, leaves, as well as fruits and stalks

If the pest is present on the tree in small quantities, you can try to destroy it by folk methods. One of these is tobacco fumigation. For the procedure, the weather must be calm. In the garden, you need to pile heaps of slightly raw straw and add about 2 kg of tobacco dust to them, and then set fire to them. To slow the straw smoldering process, heaps need to be turned over from time to time. Under the influence of smoke, insects will poison and fall from the trees.

With a pest invasion, insecticides cannot be dispensed with. Chemical spraying should be carried out during budding, and it is advisable to complete the procedure before flowering. Of the drugs you can use such tools: Aktara, Inta-Vir, Commander, Kinmix. After flowering, it is necessary to repeat the treatment with Spark or Agravertin. The procedure should be carried out in the evening in calm weather.

If the pear invasion is pear, then the use of insecticides, such as Kinmix, Aktara, Inta-Vir, will be required

It was noticed by gardeners that greater efficiency in the fight against tinnitus manifests itself after rain, which washes away part of the insect secretions.

It is also recommended to spray the trees before leaving the pest for wintering (early August) with one of the listed preparations. When using insecticides, the proportions specified in the instructions must be strictly observed.

Aphid

The appearance of aphids on pear can lead not only to loss of crop, but also to the death of the tree. The main sign of the presence of the pest is manifested in the form of twisting and subsequent drying of the leaves. Aphid is a small insect, which reaches a size of 0.5–2 mm. His body is soft, ovoid with long legs. In addition to twisting leaves, the main signs of the appearance of aphids include:

  • leaves, branches, and also the earth around a tree are covered with a sweetish liquid (pad);
  • on young shoots and buds a dark brown coating appears, which is a sooty fungus;
  • flowers and ovaries fall;
  • in those places where the aphid bit the fruit, a lilac hue of the peel appears.

When aphids appear on a tree, twisting and subsequent drying of the leaves occurs, the flowers and ovaries fall

There are a lot of methods to combat aphids and one of them is the proper feeding of trees. Nutrients contribute throughout the season:

  • in the spring - nitrogen, after the snow has melted, as well as organics after flowering;
  • in summer - nitrogen fertilizers, microelements that contribute to increased resistance to various pests and diseases;
  • in the fall - organic matter, potassium, phosphorus, ash.

Fruit trees should be fed in a timely manner and in the right quantities, since weakened plants attract aphids from a lack of nutrients, as well as from an overabundance.

With an insect, you can fight with folk or chemical means. Of the folk methods of struggle, you can use a decoction of dandelions. To prepare it, take 0.5 kg of stems with flowers and insist 1 day in 1 liter of water. Then the liquid is boiled for 15 minutes, two crushed garlic heads are added and the whole mixture is boiled for another 5 minutes. Then the broth is filtered and poured into 10 liters of water, adding 30 g of green soap. With this solution, foliage is sprayed once a week in the evening. You can also use tobacco dust or wood ash, which conduct pollination of leaves from the back.

Video: aphid control on fruit trees

To combat aphids today, many chemical preparations are offered that come in contact, intestinal and systemic effects. From contact insecticides, Karfobos can be distinguished. To prepare the solution, 75 g of the substance are diluted in 10 l of water, followed by spraying. Consumption per tree is from 2 to 5 liters, depending on the size of the crown. Stronger drugs include Actelik and Bankol. A working solution from the first agent is prepared by diluting 2 ml of the substance in 2 l of water. On one tree spend from 2 to 5 liters of fluid. The second drug is diluted in an amount of 5-7 g per 10 liters of water. When spraying spend about 10 liters of solution per 100 m² of area.

Of the systemic insecticides for controlling aphids, Aktaru and Biotlin can be used according to the instructions. However, it must be borne in mind that these drugs penetrate into plants, as well as fruits, and are excreted from them for a long time. In addition, they are considered the most dangerous for the human body.

Gall tick

This pest is very small and reaches only 0.18 mm in length. The color of the insect is white; by autumn it changes to pink or dark brown. Yellow-brown, and then blackening small swellings, which sometimes look like tumors, indicate the appearance of a tick on a pear. After the appearance of the pest on the sheet, he begins to suck out the juices from it. In such leaves, the process of photosynthesis is disrupted, the tree becomes weakened. With a large number of ticks, the fruits grow in small sizes.

Swellings on pear leaves indicate the appearance of a gall tick

To combat the pest, first of all, it is necessary to observe agricultural practices. One of these is autumn tillage, as a result of which the number of ticks and their larvae is reduced. An important role is played by top dressing with the use of mineral substances, due to which the nutrition of insects becomes difficult. In addition, in order to fight, it is recommended to clean the stems and skeletal branches of trees from the old bark, remove the area from last year's foliage, and regularly trim the crown. The absence of weeds in the garden also reduces the number of pests.

Tick ​​control on pear can be carried out with the following chemicals: Decis, Fufanon, Inta-Vir, Nitrafen. Spraying with these agents is carried out with an interval of 2 weeks. You can also refer to folk methods:

  1. Dandelion infusion copes well with insects. To prepare it, 1 kg of leaves is poured with 3 liters of water and insisted for three days. Then the infusion is filtered and a little liquid soap is added and spraying is carried out.
  2. Infusion of marigolds. To prepare a solution of 100 g of flowers, pour 1 liter of water and boil. The resulting broth is insisted for 5 days, and before processing, it is diluted with water 1: 1.
  3. Infusion of potato tops. To do this, take 1 kg of green tops, chop it and pour 10 liters of warm water. Insist 4 hours, then filter and add 1 tbsp. l liquid soap. The infusion needs to be consumed within a day.

A gall tick on a pear can be controlled with a chemical such as Decis

Spraying the pear should be carried out in the morning or evening hours. It is possible to carry out processing in cloudy weather, but not before precipitation.

Moth

The codling moth eats the fruits of a pear, and caterpillars also develop in them. When the pulp and seeds are damaged, the metabolism is disturbed, fruit rot appears, as a result of which they fall. Adult moths are butterflies that live for about two weeks. Active flight begins in June in the evening, eggs are laid on the skin of the fetus. After the appearance of the larvae, they gnaw through the skin, reaching the seeds. Outside the caterpillars go in late July-early August.

When the moth appears on the pear, the pulp and seeds of the fruit are damaged, which leads to their decay and decay

Fighting a pest, first of all, comes down to compliance with agricultural technology, which is similar to measures to combat the gall mite. As for the processing of pears, it is possible to spray the tree and soil with a urea solution, for which 700 g of substance are dissolved in 10 l of water. This procedure is carried out before the start of sap flow, since later burns are possible kidneys. Treatment with a urea solution allows the destruction of parasites that winter under and on trees.

The use of insecticides will be effective at the beginning of the laying of eggs. Of the drugs, you can use Bi-58, Ditox, Binom, which are sprayed before and after flowering. Processing pears before flowering can be done with Agravertin. Repeat the procedure with the same preparation immediately after flowering. After 19 days, spray with Kinmix, and a month after flowering with Spark.

Video: pear processing in spring from pests

Pear processing scheme for pests

Pear control measures should be carried out in a timely manner and with appropriate preparations. Since the main preventive work falls on the spring period, it should consider the timing of its implementation, pests and means of control.

Table: timing and preparations for processing pear trees from pests

Time of processingPestMeans of struggle
In early spring before budding AphidsDNOC 40%, Nitrafen (paste 40%), Ditox, Bi-58
After leaf bloomingFozalon, Metaphos
During swelling of the kidneys Gall tickNitrafen
After the appearance of flowersKarbofos
Before budding LeafletNitrafen
At the beginning of buddingChlorophos, Fozalon
With the mass appearance of caterpillarsMultiflorum pearKarbofos, Fufanon, Kemifos
After floweringPear toolDecis, Karbofos, Fufanon, Inta Vir
3-4 weeks after floweringMothDecis, Karbofos, Fufanon, Inta Vir

Preparations for spraying pears from diseases in the spring

Today, there are a huge number of drugs that can be used for spraying fruit trees in order to combat certain diseases. Below is a table that discusses the most common tools, their purpose and application.

Table: spring spray pear preparations

TitleWhat diseasesHow to cookWhen to apply
Bordeaux mixture 1%Scab, spotting, moniliosis (fruit rot), rust100 g per 5 l of waterSprayed before and after flowering, then with a frequency of 10-15 days. 6 treatments needed
Bordeaux mixture 3%Scab, spotting, moniliosis100 g per 1.7 l of waterSprayed before blooming and during budding. Perform 1 treatment
Blue vitriolScab, various spotting, moniliosis, phylosticosis, desiccation50 g per 5 liters of water. The consumption for one young tree (up to 6 years) is 2 liters, for an adult - up to 10 liters.Before budding
Colloidal sulfurScab, powdery mildew40 g per 5 l of waterSpend processing when diseases occur with a frequency of 1-2 weeks. 5 treatments needed
UreaScab, spotting, monilial burn700 g per 10 liters of waterBefore budding
GentamicinBacterial burn1-2 tablets / ampoules per 5 l of water. This volume is enough for 8-10 young treesMay June
inkstoneLichens, fungal diseases500 g per 10 l of waterSprayed before budding
Coming soonScab, rust2 ml per 10 l of waterBefore the leaves appear, before and after flowering

Growing a pear on a personal plot, you need to know how certain diseases and pests of this crop look. Only in this case can appropriate measures be taken in a timely manner to save future crops and trees from damage.

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