We plant grapes in early spring: how to conduct the procedure competently
In early spring, garden work begins. At the same time, it is time to plant grapes. Choosing a place, preparing a hole, planting it right is a lot of trouble. But everything is not as complicated as it seems at first glance. The main thing is to know how to do it.
Preparing for grape planting in spring
About grapes in general, one can say: despite the fact that it is a plant of warm countries, seedlings of some of its varieties can adapt to climatic conditions in which even simple varieties of our apple trees cannot successfully develop ...I.V. Michurin
Surely every gardener at least once thought about breeding grapes on his site. And some have successfully cultivated it for a long time. Cultivation of grapes always begins with preparing a place for it.
Choosing a date and place of landing
In the spring, when the air temperature does not fall below + 10 ... + 15 ° C and the threat of frost passes, experienced gardeners recommend starting planting grapes.
There is a belief that grapes can be planted when the cherry blossoms. This means that the earth has warmed up.
Since almost the main condition for the growth of grapes is warm soil, it is necessary to warm it up. For this, in early spring:
- The earth is watered with hot water at a temperature of + 50 ... + 70 ° C.
- Cover it with a black film.
- They put reflective screens.
Grapes love unshaded places, therefore it is advisable to arrange the rows of culture from north to south for better sun exposure. It grows well on light, loose, fertilized soils. Groundwater, located close to the surface of the earth, is not the best neighborhood for these plants, since there is a risk of freezing of bushes in winter and rotting of roots in spring. If there is such a problem, experienced gardeners recommend:
- dig holes for grape bushes not too deep so that the distance to the groundwater is at least 1 m;
- put drainage at the bottom of the pit - heavy stones or fragments of slate, so that in spring the water does not crowd up the ground under the grape bush.
It is advisable to plant vineyards on flat places, because in the lowlands plants may not have enough sunlight, and the hills are open to all winds, which is especially undesirable in winter, when the bushes shelter from wind and frost. However, you can plant them on a slope on the south side. This increases the heat transfer, since on this side the earth warms up more. And, as you know, the more heat, the better the grapes grow.
Various buildings can play the role of a screen from the wind when choosing a place for a vineyard next to them. The optimal distance from the walls to the vine bushes is 1 m.
From personal experience I can say that the plants growing near the white fence from the corrugated board on the south side in my country house begin to bear fruit a week earlier than others of the same type, but growing in other places of the site. The white fence reflects sunlight and heat onto adjacent beds that are mulled by roofing material. Thus, a double effect is obtained. In addition, this fence is a good protection against the wind.
Since the grape harvest depends more on the area for it than on the number of bushes, the distance between them has a huge impact on fruiting. It is recommended to plant bushes at a distance not closer than 3 m from each other and 3 m in the aisles. However, given the small areas of our gardens, they allow 2.5 m.
The optimal distance between the grape bushes in a row is 3 m
Landing pit preparation
A properly equipped pit should be prepared under the plant:
- They dig a hole with a size of 80x80x80 cm. The grapes are planted deeply, as delicate roots can withstand only -6 ... -7 ° C.
The depth of the landing pit for grapes should be 80 cm
- Be sure to make humus (in the absence of it - compost), about 4 buckets in the pit. Organics are vital for good plant growth and development.
Humus is introduced into the pit for the grape seedling
- They make potash and phosphorus fertilizers - about 200 g per pit.
In addition to organic fertilizers, when planting grapes they also use mineral
- All this mix well.
This is a classic pit preparation scheme that the older generation prefers as a reliable and proven method.
Another option for preparing the pit:
- A pit of a standard size is being dug.
The dimensions of the planting pit for grapes are standard for any methods of arranging itRecent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
- 10-15 cm of rubble is poured at the bottom.
A layer of rubble is poured at the bottom of the pit
- A narrow tube is inserted around the edge, designed for irrigation in dry weather.
An irrigation pipe is inserted along the edge of the grape pit.
- The pit is filled with earth dug out of it earlier and connected to humus. Such a mixture needs 4 buckets.
Landing pit covered with earth mixed with humus
- The soil is crushed.
- The pit is watered very well.
- After the moisture is absorbed, more earth is poured under the north wall of the pit so that it forms a small slope. It will serve as a screen in case of a possible cold snap.
Grape planting in spring
When the place is ready, you can plant a grape seedling there:
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked in water for 24 hours so that they come to life.
- In a seedling prepared in this way, the roots are trimmed by about 1 cm.
- They have a seedling in a pit, previously watered, with roots on the south side, and buds on the north.
- Sprinkle it with earth mixed with humus, approximately to the middle of the trunk and condense the earth around the bush.
- A bucket of sand is poured into the pit around the seedling and on top is a thin layer of ash.
- Mulch with a layer of earth so that 10-15 cm remain to the top of the pit.
Grapes have roots on the south side, buds on the north
When planting, it is important to ensure that the upper section of the trunk of the seedling (stem) is slightly below the level of the pit, and the distance from the buds on it to the ground is no more than 2-3 cm.When the vines grow, it will be easy to bend them for shelter for the winter. Some winegrowers plant so that the kidneys are buried in the ground by 2-3 cm.
Grapes are very fond of loose, nutritious and warm soil. If there is a threat of frost, you can cover the plant with a dark film until the weather settles.
The container method differs from the above in that the grape seedling is planted together with a lump of earth in which it grows. When transplanted, they release it from the shell, which plays the role of capacity. Thus, the roots are not exposed during planting, which helps the plant to take root faster in a new place.
The black film of the container is carefully removed directly in the pit when landing by the container method
Planting grapes under the trellis
Grapes - a climbing plant, its whips can grow very densely, in connection with which it is cut and shaped. It is most convenient to do this when it is woven along special "paths" - trellises.
Tapestries support vines and facilitate the formation of bushes
If there is already a trellis, then it is recommended to tilt the seedling stem when planting at an angle of 45 ° so that its vines grow in the direction of the support, and not from it. If it is planned to install it when the grapes grow, then the main thing is to comply with the planting scheme of 3x3 m seedlings and place bushes in the plane of the future trellis. In this case, subsequently it will be convenient to put support to the overgrown bushes.
An easy option for preparing a place and planting a grape seedling
Those who are engaged in the reproduction of grapes for a long time and successfully are familiar with the less time-consuming method of preparing the pit:
- A pit of the required depth is made with a manual drill.
- Crushed stone or broken brick is laid at the bottom.
- A hill of land is poured, on which the roots of the seedling are located, previously trimmed, as indicated above.
- Earth mixes with humus and sand, but you can do without it.
- The seedling is filled up to half.
- Seal the earth around him.
- Watered with water. A 10-liter bucket is enough.
- When the water leaves, fill the hole to the top, covering the seedling to the buds. You can water again.
Grapes sapling is covered with soil to half
Depending on the region, the depth of the pit with this method can range from 35 to 55 cm. In the southern regions, where there can be snowless or little snowy winters, but strong cold winds, it is advisable to plant deeper - 50–55 cm to avoid freezing of the roots. Where there is a lot of snow in winter, for example, in the middle lane, grapes can be planted to a depth of 35–40 cm. Abundant snow cover in winter will prevent the southern plant from freezing.
Video: methods of planting grape seedlings in open ground
Features of spring planting of grapes in different regions
In different areas where grape cultivation is carried out, the weather required for successful planting occurs on time. In Crimea, this time falls at the end of March; by April 20–25, all work should be completed. In the Odessa region of Ukraine, they begin to deal with grapes in mid-April. But some varieties require a certain positive temperature without the threat of frost, so they are planted from May 5 to 9.
In Belarus, grapes can begin to be planted in the 10th of April, but after planting the plants cover it with a film, since in early May night frosts are still possible there. From mid-April, they also began to deal with grapes in the Moscow Region, where they also cover the culture with film until a stable temperature regime is established.
In more northern areas, until recently, the cultivation of grapes in household plots was not particularly popular due to the harsh climate. But those who wanted to grow their bushes found a way out. In Chuvashia, for example, before planting grape seedlings in a permanent place, they carry out a certain preparation of the seedling at home, the meaning of which is that the roots of the stem appear before the buds. Thus, the roots develop faster, become stronger and are quite viable by the time of planting in June.
In cold climates, grapes are grown in greenhouses. A prerequisite for this is ventilation.
One of the options for such a greenhouse: on one side it is made a screen that reflects heat on the beds. The other side is a transparent film, which in warm weather can be rolled up and rolled down when it gets cold.
In cold climates, grapes can be grown in a greenhouse
There are no particular difficulties with preparing the place and planting grape seedlings in the spring. Like any cultivated plant, it requires attention and care, which a novice can handle if desired.