We plant grapes: basic principles for beginners
Viticulture in the more northern territories than those that are traditionally wine-making, has about two decades. Two decades is nothing compared to the centuries-old and even millennia-old traditions of vine cultivation in southern Europe, the Mediterranean or in the Caucasus, therefore, beginner-growers have a number of questions, one of which is grafting.
Justification for grafting
At gardening fairs, in nurseries and shops, many root-bearing varieties with excellent characteristics are now presented; cuttings are rooted perfectly: so why use grafting? Suppose, in Europe, it was possible to stop the invasion of grape aphids - phylloxera imported from America by grafting local varieties on American stocks that are resistant to this pest. Such a scourge is not afraid of our latitudes, then what benefit can be gained?
The vaccine helps the winemaker win on the following points:
- avoid uprooting of the bush, which has completely lost shoots (due to frost, aging, damage by mice, etc.), and restore the crown within a couple of seasons;
- quickly propagate inaccessible, rare or expensive varieties;
- replace a bored or disappointed variety with a new one using an already developed root system;
- reduce exposure to disease;
- increase winter hardiness of the vineyard using cold-resistant stocks;
- to increase the tolerance of some varieties to unsuitable soils - excessively acidic, calcareous, arid or, conversely, with a high level of groundwater;
- to get earlier crops, planting on stocks of early and early ripening varieties - this is especially true in the northern regions;
- create family bushes combining shoots of different varieties on one root - this not only saves space, but also looks very decorative;
- to some extent improve the commodity characteristics of berries: certain combinations of stock and scion can affect the taste and size of grapes.
Grape aphids leading to grafting of vineyards in Europe
After reading such an impressive list of benefits, many winegrowers will probably have the excitement to start grafting immediately, but grape grafting is a bit more complicated than fruit trees. First of all, do not forget about such an important concept as affinity, or the compatibility of stock and scion:
- The stock is the basis of the fruit tree, then ON what is planted. The type of root system, plant resistance to diseases, and adaptability to external factors (cold, drought, non-favorable soils), as well as some fruit qualities (size, ripening speed, etc.) depend on its characteristics. Rootstock organizes nutrition and growth.
- Prioya - a stalk or kidney, which is grafted onto a rootstock, determines the varietal quality of the fruit and productivity.
In the latitudes not so long ago covered by viticulture, the topic of affinity for local varieties is poorly studied, unequivocal recommendations are given for individual groups of varieties, for most of them there are a lot of doubts and disputes. Therefore, it is worthwhile to be prepared for experiments involving both failures and joyful discoveries.
Grape Inoculation Methods
The technologies used for grafting grapes are the same as for other fruit trees:
- split / half split,
- simple copying
- improved copulation,
- eye budding,
- on omegoobrazny spike and others.
These are the ways in which parts of the stock and scion are cut and applied to each other. Many gardeners constantly use the lightest ones - copying and splitting, and are satisfied with the result: it is with these methods that it is worth starting to learn how to vaccinate. So, a simple copulation is available to anyone who knows how to handle a sharp knife:
Everything is extremely simple: we cut, connect, fix
There are three secrets to success:
- equal diameter of scion and stock;
- sharp and clean (up to sterility) knife - all vaccination tools must be clean in order to avoid infection of the slices with bacteria or fungi ;
- coincidence of cambial layers at the junction of the vaccine.
The last paragraph needs clarification. Consider the structure of the handle:
Cambium - a thin transparent layer under the bark of a tree
The cambium, which is also the cambial layer, is a thin, slippery to the touch structure that we can detect by removing the bark from the tree. It is he who is responsible for the growth of shoots in the thickness and the formation of vessels that feed the plant. The cambium is especially active in the spring, during the period of sap flow, which explains the most popular spring vaccinations. In contact, the cambial layers of the stock and scion grow together into a single whole (form a commissure), and the formation of common vessels begins: nutrition is established in the grafted plant, and the buds begin to grow. Therefore, contact of the cambium at least on one side of the junction is a prerequisite.
Improved copulation - a method that provides more reliable fixation of cuttings. In the slice, the so-called the tongue that keeps the scion from sliding off at the slightest movement of the joint:
A little more effort - and the scion is fixed much more reliably
The junction of any vaccine is always fixed with a film (sometimes also with electrical tape), and the upper section of the scion is covered with garden varnish or waxed.
Split grafting is also popular. At the same time, one is inserted into the rootstock split to a depth of 3-5 cm, and if the diameter of the rootstock allows two two-three-eyed (i.e. with two or three buds) cuttings, sharpened by a wedge. The cambial layers here should touch along the edge of the splinter. The cleavage is pulled together with twine, wrapped with a film, waxed or coated with clay:
If the diameter of the stock allows, two grafts are grafted at once
It is with this method that grapes are re-grafted most often - this is the grafting of an adult plant in order to rejuvenate or completely change the variety. Its main advantages are the accelerated production of a new crop and the absence of the need to spend efforts on uprooting the old root, on the site of which, moreover, it is undesirable to plant the same crop for several years (the so-called soil fatigue). At the same time, they are inoculated into the stem or to the root.
One cannot fail to mention such a method as eye budding - also a popular, but more painstaking, requiring skill. At the same time, a kidney with a part of the bark and cambium is cut from the graft and placed in a T-shaped incision in the rootstock bark. After the scion will grow, the rootstock above the grafted kidney is cut:
It is necessary to carefully cut the bud of the scion and place it under the bark on the stock
Having gained the experience of successful vaccinations with these methods, you can begin to master the more complex vaccines that are readily described by experienced growers on the forums.
However, the simplicity and good results are also promised by the advertisement of grafting secateurs, allowing grafts to be grafted on the so-called. omegoobrazny spike. However, negative opinions prevail about them:
This device is a toy for fans who, for whatever need, need to make several hundred “factory” vaccinations - on exactly the same stock and scion. If it touches to graft grafts, then they are all different ... And density, and thickness, and hump ... Sharpening such a pruner is a problem. Those cutting edges that are straight can still be sharpened, and bent iron is impossible in principle, not to mention finishing editing on a leather belt with GOI paste.Nikolaj vse-o-vinogradnoy-loze — koroleve-sada-3987.html
... and the strength of the vaccine is also apparently low. We have normal vaccinations with a long cut and a tongue, it will break the wind, the gad bird will sit down, but we don’t have to talk about breaking strength. IMHO, pampering this. Although the matter is of course the master.I will not say
On the right is a sample of cuttings treated with secateurs
Thus, the classical methods still seem more reliable and effective.
Preparation of vaccine material
Most grape grafts, which will be described below, require cuttings cut from annual lignified shoots. Procurement of the so-called Chubuk exercise in the fall. Golden brown strong clean shoots with a diameter of 6-12 mm are chosen. For the Chubuk, they take the middle part of the shoot, making cuts along the internodes a few centimeters from the eyes. The optimal length is within 35–55 cm. The stem is cleaned of leaves, antennae, preserving the kidneys. Sections can be waxed to prevent drying. Store blanks until grafting in a pit with sand 60 cm deep in the area, covering it with the onset of frost, or in a cellar or refrigerator - in a sandbox or notched plastic bottle. The best temperature is around 0 ° C.
An interesting and easy way to store cuttings in the refrigerator - in a plastic bottle
A few days before vaccination, cuttings are removed from the storehouse, sorted, soaked in water for 2 days, gradually raising the temperature from 10–15 ° С to 25–28 ° С. Honey (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or heteroauxin (0.2–0.5 g per 10 liters) is often added to water; disinfection in a potassium permanganate solution (0.15–0.2 g / l) can be carried out. Then they cut into two-three-eyed scions, making the upper sections 1–2 cm from the kidney, the lower ones 4–5 cm at the internodes.
Vaccination of grapes at different times of the year: dates, types and methods
You can plant grapes year-round - even in winter. But in each of the seasons, the types and methods of vaccination will be different. First of all, vaccinations are divided into green and desktop: the first include procedures carried out on an rooted plant from the moment of awakening until the leaves fall, table vaccination is carried out in winter by artificially removing cuttings from the dormant period in order to plant the already grafted graft.
There are several types of green grafts of grapes, depending on the characteristics of the stock and scion and the place where the grafts are attached. Stand out:
- grafting in grapes;
- grafting in the root;
- grafting grapes black to black;
- grafting grapes green to green;
- grafting grapes in black to green.
Consider for which seasons they are optimal, and what are the rules for their implementation.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Grape grafting in spring
Spring grafting is the most popular. The recommended dates are April-first decade of May. This is a fairly wide range, because first of all you should focus not on the calendar, but on the temperature conditions and condition of the bush:
- air temperature should not be lower than 15 ° С, and soil not lower than 10 ° С, however heat and strong sun should be avoided;
- in the vine should begin sap flow, or the expiration of the apiary - this happens before the buds swell on the stock.
In the spring, they use the vaccine in black and black with cuttings prepared from autumn. You can inoculate individual lignified shoots of an adult bush, grown rootstock seedlings, as well as re-grafting in the stem, however, the latter is more often carried out in the fall, so we will describe it below.
The peculiarities of the procedure during this period is the need for easy shelter of the vaccination site from the sun and cold snap, especially if the graft starts growing before the stock. Also, to enhance sap flow, abundant watering of the bush a few days before vaccination is recommended.
Spring vaccination in black to black successfully went up
Video: Grafting grapes black to black in spring
Vineyard Summer Vaccinations
In the summer period (June-early July) vaccinations are allowed in mild and humid weather. Inoculate mainly green to green or black to green. The sculls, respectively, are used harvested in the fall or freshly cut. You can meet the recommendation not to use polyethylene wrapping in summer vaccinations, but to wrap the jointing area with a damp cloth and cover it with a bag and shade on top to maintain high humidity. This is not very convenient, but can be applied if the traditional method with a film does not give results in dry weather.
Popular summer vaccination green to green
Green to green grafting is a basic, very simple and quick summer type of grape grafting that does not require advance preparation. Cuttings of the scion are cut off and immediately grafted onto the rootstock bush in any usual way, often by copying. The main thing is to act quickly and to prevent drying of the slices. Also, to minimize moisture evaporation, the leaves on the connected cuttings are cut off by half.
Video: Grafting grapes green to green
Vaccination of grapes with black and green is carried out in June or in May, in May, cuttings that have been preserved from autumn on grape shoots that have grown in growth are preserved from autumn. It is considered not the most effective vaccination, since the vegetative states of the scion and stock are different, however, this method also has supporters.
Video: Grafting grapes in black to green
Vaccination of grapes in autumn in the standard and root
The most popular fall method of vaccination is graft vaccination using the split method in order to renew the old bush. It requires careful preparation of the stem and good shelter for the winter. It is carried out in October-November at temperatures of about 15 ° C with a margin of 2-3 weeks before frosts.
Speaking about these types of vaccinations, it should be noted first of all that in many articles of the Internet the concepts of vaccination in the stem and rootstamp are used interchangeably, while in others the stem means the aerial part (up to 10-15 cm above the root), and under the rootstamp part of the trunk hidden under the ground to a depth of 5–7 cm. In fact, the vaccination technique in such cases differs only in the height at which the scion is attached.
Vaccination in the standard
Vaccination in the standard is used if the transition to root food is undesirable, i.e. root formation of the scion in case of contact with the soil or minimal distance from it.
Vaccination is carried out in the cleavage method.
The algorithm of actions is as follows:
- Prepare a shtamb, cutting it at a height of about 10 cm from the ground and carefully clearing the saw cut place.
- With a clean tool, make a split to a depth of about 3 cm.
- In the split from opposite sides, insert two three-eyed chubuk sharpened by a wedge.
- Stretch the split with twine, wrap it with a film and cover it with clay or garden varnish, as well as shade it from the sun or cover it from frost, depending on whether the vaccination is carried out in spring or autumn.
Video: Vaccination of grapes in the standard
To plant grapes on the underground part (cornstamb), perform the following sequence of actions:
- The earth around the stem is dug to a depth of 20 cm, the old bark, bare roots are removed, and the stem itself is cut down 6-8 cm above the top node.
- A split of 5–6 cm depth is performed, into which two prepared scions of the same diameter with the kidney outward are inserted into the wedge.
- The junction is fixed with a film, putty and carefully inoculated with the vaccine with earth 5-6 cm above the buds of the scion, and then well watered.
- After a month and a half, the embankment is loosened, the surface roots of the scion and shoots of the stock are removed.
- Closer to the fall, the embankment is raked, the dressing material is removed, and unwanted roots and shoots are repeatedly removed.
In case of failure, grape grafting to the root can be repeated after a year, cutting it down a knot below.
Video: Grapevine grafting in Cornstamb
Winter "desktop" grafting of grapes
It is carried out on one- and two-year-old seedlings or cuttings (with subsequent rooting) from January to March by splitting, simple / improved copulation, eye budding, omega-shaped spike, etc. Preparation of materials begins in the autumn according to the described scheme, and for the time being they are stored in fridge or cellar. The following acts as follows:
- About ten days before the vaccination, they begin to prepare a stock: they examine it, remove the growth, leaving a few eyes, remove the rotted roots, and the good ones are shortened to 12-15 cm. Next, a two-day soaking in water is necessary. The prepared stocks are placed in a box with wet sand or sawdust, covered with a bag and brought to a medium temperature of 22-24 ° C for 5–7 days.
After soaking, the stock is waiting for its time in a box with wet sawdust, the eyes are already noticeably swollen
- After 3-5 days, when the stock is already ripening in boxes with sawdust, a series of scion comes. Chubuki get out of the cold, placed for 2-3 days in a moist, cool environment (sawdust or moss). Then a quarter of the length is immersed in water at a temperature of 15-17 ° C for two days. It is recommended to add honey (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water) or heteroauxin (0.2–0.5 g per 10 liters); weak cuttings are strengthened by soaking in a solution of potassium permanganate (0.15–0.2 g / l). The temperature at this time is increased to 25–28 ° С.
Chubuki soaked in water with the addition of bioactive or disinfectants
- The stock and scion are ready when the eyes have swollen to 1–1.5 cm. The buds that are not awakened are removed, the forelock is shortened by two kidneys. Connect cuttings of the same diameter, most often by copying. Next, the junction is wrapped in polyethylene, and the top of the handle is covered with garden varnish, waxing is permissible.
These cuttings were tightly wrapped at the joints
- The grafted cuttings are placed in a box with sawdust or packages with peat mixture and left in a bright warm place (25–28 ° C) for 2-3 weeks. If after this time the cuttings are not yet planted, the grafted blanks are again placed in a cool place to prevent overgrowing. When the temperature is set at about + 15 ° С, the cuttings are heated for two to three days in the open air, dead buds and roots are removed and planted in the ground.
Cuttings started to grow and are waiting for landing in the ground
The advantage of desktop vaccination is a quick result: after two weeks you can evaluate the success of the event and, in case of failure, try again. Cons can be considered a fairly large amount of work on the preparation of the material, the need to allocate space under the container with cuttings in the room.
Video: Table grape grafting in winter
Grafted Grape Care
Recommendations for the care of grafted grapes are summarized as follows:
- The vaccination site, as has already been mentioned many times, should be covered with a film, waxing is also possible, and in the summer in dry weather the greenhouse from the bag will not be superfluous.
- Grapes at the stage of grafting inoculation need watering to maintain active sap flow.
- Antifungal treatment is acceptable in order to prevent infection of sections.
- In spring and summer, the junction is protected from the scorching sun, and in the case of autumn vaccination, it is sheltered for the winter, but in such a way that the shelter does not break the scion.
- Summer green vaccinations are especially fragile, they should be protected from accidental breakdowns.
Vaccination of grapes can be troublesome, except perhaps for quick summer options. It will take patience and a great desire to master the intricacies of this science, so as not to give up at the beginning of the path and gain experience that allows successful application of grafting in your vineyard. But the result may be developments and discoveries that, due to the still young tradition of grape grafting in our latitudes, will be especially interesting and valuable to the community of beginner winegrowers.