We grow cabbage without keel
Each gardener, planting cabbage on his plot, imagines that from mid-summer to late autumn he will cut strong, crunchy, juicy heads of cabbage. But not always, unfortunately, these plans are destined to come true. It happens that the cabbage, and other cruciferous, suddenly stop growing, turn yellow, wither. It is possible that the reason for this is a dangerous disease called a keel. If she settled in your garden, then without serious control measures, good crops can be forgotten.
Kila on cabbage: a description of the disease and signs of manifestation
Kila is one of the most common fungal diseases. Not only cabbage is afraid of him, but also all of her closest relatives. On the roots of the diseased plant, jelly-like thickenings and growths form.
Nodular growths appearing on the roots are a clear sign of the keel
At first, the neoplasms do not differ in color from a healthy root, but gradually they decay and by the end of the season there are a lot of spores in the soil that have survived for five to six years. The pathogen feels especially good on heavy and acidic soils, which are poor in organic matter, potassium, calcium and trace elements such as zinc, boron and chlorine.
Infection can also persist on post-harvest residues and weeds, therefore, with minimal suspicion of the presence of a pathogen, it is recommended to burn them.
Any plant from the cabbage family, planted on an infected site, provokes spore germination. The pathogen affects root hairs, the diseased bush loses its relationship with the soil, so it is easily pulled out of the ground.
In adult plants, keel causes severe growth inhibition
Kee Risk Factors
Most often, the keel gets to the site through the purchased seedlings. It is very difficult to detect signs of the disease on a small seedling. He can look strong and healthy. If, upon a careful examination of its roots, you find at least some thickenings, then throw away such a sprout without regret: it is much easier to acquire new seedlings than expose your site to the risk of infection with this dangerous disease.
Seedlings affected by keel most often die. In a sick adult plant, a light purple hue of the leaves appears first, then they turn yellow and fade. In this case, you can’t count on the crop. In white cabbage, for example, if a head of cabbage grows, it will be small and deformed.
Cabbage, on which the keel was formed in the early stages, as a rule, does not form heads
If the cabbage was infected at the seedling stage, then this can be determined by the following symptom: growths will be concentrated on the main root. If neoplasms are found on the lateral roots, the soil has become a source of infection.
Cauliflower, early varieties of white cabbage, as well as many Dutch hybrids, are particularly affected.
Infection can enter the soil not only through infected seedlings. Other predisposing factors are:
- high acidity of the soil;
- laying in compost heaps of plant residues of diseased plants;
- introduction of fresh manure;
- excessive soil moisture without loosening. On heavy soils, a crust quickly forms, which prevents air from reaching the root system of the plant;
- crop rotation failure.
Any disease, including keel, is easier to prevent than to treat. In order to prevent the ingestion and spread of the causative agent of the keel, it is necessary to strictly adhere to preventive measures to protect against this dangerous and difficult disease:
- choose for planting varieties resistant to keel;
- strictly observe the rotation of crops on the site. Cabbage can be returned to its original place no earlier than after 5-6 years. In this interval, it is recommended to plant ridges with vegetables from the solanaceous, haze or lilac family;
- every 5 years to liming the soil. If the soil on the site is prone to acidification, the introduction of lime or dolomite flour may be more frequent. The rate of lime application in the soil depends on its composition and varies from 100–150 g for sandy soil to 300 g for peat bogs and heavy clay soils;
- make compost, organic fertilizers at the rate of 10 kg per meter of bed in the soil. Organics significantly improves the nutrition and structure of the soil. Feeding planted plants with a solution of peat humate also gives a good effect. Spend it at least 4 times per season;
- sow siderat plants. Winter rye is effective in this regard. Its sowing has a beneficial effect on fertility, helps increase soil breathability;
Rye will not give shelter to pathogens and pests of vegetable crops that persist in soil and plant debris, and thereby reduce their numbers
- strictly observe agricultural practices for the care of the crop: timely weed, regularly water and properly feed the cabbage;
- An important procedure is loosening and hilling of plantings, especially after watering and top dressing. This stimulates the growth of lateral roots, helps increase the plant's resistance to many diseases, including keel.
The keel is not transmitted through the seeds. But the key to successful cultivation of cabbage without a keel is a healthy and strong seedling that can withstand fungal infections. To obtain it, it is necessary to carry out pre-sowing seed treatment, which may include the following procedures:
- heat treatment. To do this, cabbage seeds are kept for 20 minutes in hot (+ 48-50 degrees) water. It is important to observe the temperature regime and to prevent overheating of the seeds (from this they can lose germination). Treatment with water at a lower temperature will not give a positive effect. You can save the required temperature range in a thermos or in a container with a large amount of water;
- withstand seeds for 6 hours in a 1.5% solution of mustard powder;
- treat the seeds with a growth regulator (for example, Ecogel) according to the instructions. This procedure will not only increase germination and germination energy, but also strengthen the immunity of cabbage;
- for 16 hours soak the seeds in a solution of ascorbic acid (0.1 g per 1 liter of water). According to gardeners, after such a treatment, cabbage seedlings grow squat, strong, have powerful roots.
After carrying out these procedures, the seeds are washed and dried.
Before transplanting, the affected plants are carefully examined and rejected.
Remedies for keel when planting cabbage
An effective measure of protection against keel is the treatment of seedlings and the introduction of useful additives in the soil when planting cabbage seedlings:
- 5-6 days before transplanting, it is useful to treat the soil with a mixture of copper sulfate (300 g) and quicklime (300 g), diluted in 8 l of water;
- maintain the roots of seedlings for 2 hours in a solution of Fitosporin;
- add a handful of ash to the prepared landing pits;
- it is useful to powder a bed with planted seedlings of cabbage with ash or chopped charcoal;
Wood ash is an excellent prophylactic and effective potash top dressing.
- You can add lime milk under each plant.
For the preparation of milk of lime in 10 liters of water, 1 cup of lime is bred and the cabbage is watered at the rate of 0.5 liter for each seedling
Measures to combat keel cabbage
At least one plant infected with a keel should get into the garden, and the disease will spread rapidly. If you find a diseased plant in a timely manner, then there is a chance to localize the infection and quickly clear the soil from it. To do this, do the following:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- Remove the affected plant from the garden, dry and burn. And be sure to burn on a metal sheet, after pouring the plant with a combustible substance, for example, gasoline. The bonfire should be bright and smokeless. With smoke of a sluggishly burning bonfire, pathogen cysts can disperse throughout the site;
- select a separate tool for working on the infected bed;
- the infection can spread through the soil on shoes, so do not go all over the site until you finish collecting the affected plants. Wash shoes thoroughly after work;
- keep the beds clean, remove weeds in a timely manner, especially from the cruciferous family.
If isolated specimens of diseased plants are found on the cabbage bed, experienced gardeners advise to destroy them, as well as remove part of the soil from the beds from the holes where the affected plants grew, and spill the soil abundantly with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
The above methods are most effective on narrow ridges with wide passages between them. In this case, the clean and infected soil does not mix, and localization measures will be more effective. For several seasons, it is not recommended to plant cabbage and other crops susceptible to the disease on the problematic bed. This should not be done in the neighborhood, since the spores of the fungus can be transported by earthworms, slugs and other organisms for a short distance, spread with rain or irrigation water.
When using the method of narrow ridges in the garden, a wide passage is left between them, which can be equipped with a enclosing wooden formwork
If there are no host plants near the pathogen, the number of viable cysts decreases over time.
Other vegetables will grow successfully on the infected bed. Planting of root crops should be avoided, since when they are harvested, infected soil can be spread to other ridges. It is preferable to grow leafy or fruit-bearing vegetables. Such quarantine is necessary, but only with its help it is impossible to get rid of the keel on the site.
If the spread of the disease on the site has acquired large-scale forms, then it is necessary to treat the soil. One of the most effective ways to combat keel is based on the ability of some plants not only to resist the disease, but to cause accelerated death of pathogens. These healing plants include:
- winter and spring garlic;
Tomatoes and potatoes are able to cleanse the soil of spores of keel in three years, onions and garlic, as well as vegetables of the cough family in two. Mixed plantings of the above crops are welcome. For example, a couple of tomatoes - spring garlic can destroy the viable spores of the keel in one season.
Kee spore test
Before returning cabbage or its relatives to the garden, it is recommended to test the soil for infection. For this, fast-growing Beijing cabbage is planted on the site and the plants are gradually dug up and carefully examined, from the moment of the appearance of these leaves to the formation of a head of cabbage.
If you do not find any growths and suspicious beads on the roots of Peking, then the measures taken were effective and gave a positive result. Otherwise, the cultivation on the problematic beds of the above plants must be continued.
Video: keel on cabbage - ways to combat fungus
A teaspoon of baking soda in each well before planting cabbage is a good remedy for keel, as my mother always did.irina201019
Colloidal sulfur, 2 matchboxes per 10 liters, watering when planting, or slightly dry in the hole. Plus, good Dutch kilo-resistant hybrids, of our varieties - Losinoostrovskaya8 and Taininskaya.Freight truck
Sow marigolds, spinach, calendula right now. These plants disinfect the soil very well. How much time to grow, how much let it be. Next year, when planting cabbage in each well, put a dessert spoon of calcium nitrate, pick it to mix a little with the ground and plant cabbage. When it begins to tie the head, you can once again pour the same calcium nitrate under the root. Everything.glata
For the prevention of keel, cabbage seedlings are watered with lime milk 2 to 3 days before planting (80 g of lime per 1 liter of water).Nevada
Be sure to alternate the planting of cabbage, it is recommended to plant cabbage after potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, beans, peas and return the cabbage to its original place of planting after 5-6 years. When planting seedlings of cabbage, ground from a keel on cabbage is watered with gray colloidal or Cumulus DF (30–40 g per 10 l of water) or SP - 40–45 g per 10 l of water.Nevada
Observing the above simple precautions, you protect your crop from the appearance and spread of a dangerous cabbage disease - keel.