Watermelon feeding at different stages of development with organic and mineral fertilizers
To get tasty and high-quality fruits of watermelon will require a lot of effort. Culture at each stage of development requires a certain element of nutrition and if it is not delivered on time, not only the plant will suffer, but also the future crop. Watermelon top dressing can be carried out with mineral and organic fertilizers, and it is better to combine them, which will ensure proper nutrition of plants.
How to identify nutritional deficiencies
When growing watermelon, an important procedure is top dressing. You can fertilize this culture with various compounds, which are easy to obtain both in finished form and in your own hands. In order for the berry to grow tasty and high-quality, when it is cultivated, certain elements must be contained in the soil, the deficiency of which can be determined by the state of the plant:
- Nitrogen. Since this element is involved in the process of photosynthesis, its deficiency manifests itself in the form of slow plant growth, the formation of thin and short shoots, small inflorescences, as well as leaves with a pale green color. In addition, the yellowness of the veins appears on the lower leaves, and then on the upper.
- Phosphorus. Despite the fact that this element is present in large quantities in chernozem, it is not found in the form that plants need, that is, they cannot absorb it. Gourds need phosphorus throughout the entire growth period. With a lack of this element, the root system of plants will be weak, the leaves are small with a characteristic gray-green or bluish tint. The main leaves located near the shoot gradually turn yellow, and brown spots appear between the veins. Then the upper leaves are affected. After drying, the sheet apparatus turns black. In addition to slowing plant growth, the ovary also appears late, and new leaves are formed in small size.
- Potassium. This element controls the water balance. Its lack is manifested in the form of a wilting plant. If the plant lacks potassium during the fruiting period, the quality of the berries will be reduced. To make up for the deficiency of this element in the soil, fertilizers with potassium content must be applied.
- Calcium. Thanks to this element, the vital activity of cell membranes is ensured. The lack of substance is manifested in the form of sterile flowers and the death of ovaries. Fruits that lack calcium, grow small and tasteless, and also have an underdeveloped end of the inflorescence.
- Magnesium. The disadvantage of this element is manifested in regions with high humidity. Yellowing of leaves and brown spots between veins testifies to lack of substance.
Video: signs of plant nutrient deficiency
Mineral fertilizers for gourds
In order to achieve high yields of gourds, macronutrients by plants must be absorbed in high doses. Mineral fertilizers are introduced into the ground during sowing. The introduction of one or another component depends on the phase of development of the culture. One of the important elements that provide watermelon nutrition is potassium. With a sufficient amount of this substance, flowering will be stable, productivity will increase, plant resistance to pests and diseases will improve.
It is worth considering that mineral fertilizers are used after moistening the soil, that is, after irrigation or rain, after which the soil is necessarily loosened. If you make nutrients without first wetting, then the effectiveness of their use approaches zero. To obtain a full-fledged crop of melons and gourds throughout the entire growing season, it is required to introduce both minerals and organics. Fertilizers can be in liquid or solid form. Let us consider in more detail what constitute one or another nutritional element.
A fairly common mineral fertilizer is urea (urea), ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate.
Urea is a popular nitrogen fertilizer that favorably affects the development of the plant, accelerating the process of photosynthesis. However, the excessive content of matter in the earth contributes to the rapid development of green mass. As a result, leaves and shoots will grow in a watermelon, and the number of flowers will be minimal. Harvest with large doses of urea will be characterized by unusual coloring and deterioration of taste.
Urea is one of the most popular mineral fertilizers among nitrogen fertilizers.
A nitrogen-containing fertilizer such as ammonium nitrate consists of 34% nitrogen. It is not recommended to feed gourds with this substance, since nitrates accumulate in the fruits, which negatively affect human health. However, if you understand, then increased doses of nitrates can be formed only when nitrate is introduced in excess quantities. Based on this, we can say that the introduction of nitrate under watermelon in small quantities will not do any harm to human health.
Ammonium sulfate differs from other nitrogen fertilizers in that it contains sulfur. The advantage of this fertilizer is its lower cost compared to urea and nitrate. In addition to gourds, ammonium sulfate can be used for fruit shrubs and vegetables. An important feature of this fertilizer is the fact that this substance is completely harmless to humans.
One of the nitrogen fertilizers that is used as mineral top dressing is ammonium sulfate, which contains sulfur in addition to nitrogen
One of the necessary fertilizers for any plants, including melons, are phosphate or more familiar to all - phosphate fertilizers (soluble phosphates) . Ammophos and superphosphate can be distinguished from the most popular.
Ammophos is a light gray granule that contains 12% nitrogen and 52% phosphorus. Do not confuse ammophos with ammophos, as these are slightly different fertilizers. In addition to nitrogen (12%) and phosphorus (15%), the ammonium phosphate also contains potassium (15%) and sulfur (up to 14%).
Some gardeners are of the opinion that in the composition of ammophos there is not enough nitrogen. However, it should be borne in mind that this composition is used, first of all, as phosphorus feed. The application of fertilizer improves the development of the root system of plants, increases resistance to diseases and weather conditions, improves productivity, makes the taste of fruits more tender, and also positively affects the safety of the harvested crop. Ammophos is especially relevant for arid regions where soils lack phosphorus.
Such fertilizers as superphosphate can be of different types:
Some formulations contain magnesium, molybdenum, boron and other elements. The amount of phosphorus in the fertilizer varies from 20 to 50%. The main advantage of superphosphate is that it is a water-soluble fertilizer. This allows the plant to quickly get nutrition when using top dressing in the form of an aqueous solution.
Superphosphate is a water-soluble mineral fertilizer with a high phosphorus content (20-50%)
Since potassium plays an important role in the development of plants, its additional introduction will not be superfluous.
One of the most common potash fertilizers for gourds is potassium chloride. This substance increases the resistance of watermelon to adverse environmental influences and diseases, strengthens the root system. The composition of potassium chloride includes 65% potassium and chlorine, which over time is washed out by irrigation and precipitation from the soil. As potash feed for plants, you can use potassium sulfate or potassium nitrate.
Organic watermelon dressing
Organic fertilizers can be divided into substances of animal and vegetable origin. They contain nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. All of these substances should be applied in appropriate doses.
As plant feeding, humus, infusion of grass, vermicompost, as well as wood ash are most often used.
An excellent option for feeding melons is humus, which is part of the soil formed during the decay of plant and animal residues. The highest concentration of humus is found in chernozem soils. As such fertilizer, rabbit droppings, horse and cow dung are used.
A rather simple and at the same time useful fertilizer is an infusion of grass. Each in their area during the season is fighting weeds, performing weeding. However, then it is not necessary to get rid of the grass by burning it - it can be used to prepare the infusion. Although such an organic feed will not replace humus, the combined use of fertilizers will allow you to get a good harvest.
Video: universal fertilizer from herbal infusion
Separately, it is worth stopping on biohumus, because the fertilizer prepared on the basis of this component is several times more nutritious than manure and rotted compost. Biohumus is an organic fertilizer resulting from the processing of organic matter in soil by California worms. After the processing process, organic excrement remains in the ground, suitable for absorption by plants. The advantage of vermicompost is the absence of pathogenic microflora and weed seeds. Fertilizer improves the taste of fruits and increases the resistance of plants to diseases.
Gardeners and gardeners widely use wood ash, which is a product from the combustion of wood, weeds, straw, foliage. The ash contains components that ensure the normal development of plants. These include zinc, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, boron. With the timely introduction of ash into the soil, the plant's resistance to pests increases, the resistance to infections and the taste of the crop improve.
One of the available fertilizers is wood ash, which contains elements such as zinc, magnesium, sodium, sulfur, phosphorus, calcium, boron
Among organic fertilizers of animal origin, the most popular are manure, bird droppings, and mullein.
One can say without exaggeration about manure that this is the most valuable and widespread organic fertilizer. Its composition may differ depending on the litter used for animals (sawdust, straw). It is generally accepted that the best manure is one that uses straw bedding. Thanks to the straw, the fertilizer gets a good structure, and in the process of decomposition of the organic matter useful elements are given. Depending on the degree of decomposition of manure, the quality of fertilizer also differs: the higher the degree of decomposition, the manure has a higher quality, since it is easier for plants to absorb nutrients.
It is also necessary to take into account the fact that fresh manure is not used, but only in overripe. Otherwise, fertilizing with such a fertilizer will negatively affect the immunity of plants, slow down their growth, and worsen taste. In addition, fresh manure generates a considerable amount of heat at the beginning of its decomposition, which can simply destroy plants. In addition, in such a fertilizer seeds of weed plants and eggs of pests are contained, which when brought into the ground will only bring harm.
Manure is a valuable organic fertilizer that is widely used to improve soil fertility.
Bird droppings are equally popular, especially chicken. The substance contains many useful elements, in particular, magnesium, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. The product is also characterized by rapid decomposition and active action. It should be borne in mind that it is not worth using litter in its pure form, since the fertilizer has a high concentration.
Careless use of chicken droppings can lead to burns of plants, since uric acid is present in the composition. Litter is used, as a rule, in the form of liquid nutrient solutions, diluting it with water, in the fall it is applied in dry form, and in the spring it is dug. Can be applied in the spring, but only in the form of well-overripe compost. Compost is a biological and organic matter that decomposes under the influence of the vital activity of microorganisms.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Video: Feeding from chicken droppings
Mullein - a fertilizer beloved by many gardeners, used as top dressing and representing an infusion of cow manure. The product is environmentally friendly. It contains a large amount of nitrogen, calcium, potassium and phosphorus, as well as a number of other useful elements. Mullein is a fermented mass on the surface of which there are always small bubbles.
Mullein infusion is widely used for feeding various garden and garden crops
Which is better: mineral fertilizers or organic
The opinions of gardeners regarding the use of fertilizers differ: some prefer only organic matter, while others believe that without mineral fertilizers you can’t get a good crop. How is the situation really? This point should be examined in more detail to understand which fertilizers are preferable and why.
To begin with, it should be noted that organics is characterized by a longer action compared to mineral fertilizers. This is due to the slow decomposition of organic substances in the soil, which contributes to the improvement of its structure, as well as the accumulation of humus. However, it should be borne in mind that the frequent use of organic fertilizing will contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in plants. This is due to the content of nitrogen in such fertilizers.
The advantages of mineral fertilizers include ease of use. Today you can buy the necessary compounds for specific plants, but even such fertilizers are not able to solve the issue of soil fertility. In addition, some substances acidify the soil, so the use of minerals on acidic soils without liming will be useless. This is due to the fact that most vegetable and fruit crops prefer neutral, slightly acidic and slightly alkaline soils. As for acidic soils, plants cannot absorb nutrients on them. So, for growing watermelon, neutral soil is needed, i.e. pH = 7.
Organic fertilizers can be successfully applied without chemical elements. In the case of the use of mineral fertilizers, sooner or later it will be necessary to make compost to improve the structure of the soil. However, using only organic matter, it is unlikely to achieve high yields, which is associated with a lack and improper balance of nutrients. Although organic fertilizers contain nitrogen, but it is not enough in the required time. Therefore, fertilizing with minerals in the right proportions positively affects the growth, development and fruiting of crops. This suggests that organics and minerals complement each other and it is necessary to apply both types of fertilizers.
Video: mineral or organic fertilizers
Watermelon dressing folk remedies
Among the whole variety of fertilizers, folk remedies are no less popular for top dressing. These include yeast and ammonia.
For yeast top dressing, ordinary baker's yeast is used. A nutrient solution based on such a component performs the following functions:
- increases soil fertility;
- stimulates plant growth.
Improving fertility occurs due to the content of beneficial microorganisms in the yeast, and the root system develops with such top dressing several times faster. As a result, a more powerful plant develops, which at the same time receives a greater amount of nutrients.
For watermelons, you can prepare a nutritious ratsvor from ordinary yeast, which contains beneficial microorganisms
Ammonia or ammonia (ammonia) can sometimes help in the process of growing watermelons. Since the substance contains nitrogenous compounds, plants receive the necessary substances during the processing for both shoots and leaves. However, the use of ammonia should be resorted to only as a last resort, that is, when the plant cannot be saved by other means.
Ammonia (ammonia) is often used to fertilize garden crops, since the substance contains nitrogen compounds
Any plants in the garden can be fed with root and foliar methods. Root dressing is the main way of introducing nutrients into the soil near the root system of the plant, which ensures its normal growth and development. The root method can be applied to both minerals and organics in liquid or solid form.
Liquid organics can be prepared from slurry, mullein, bird droppings or wood ash. Such substances are introduced during the period of active plant growth, i.e., in May - early June. In addition, liquid organics is used for slow growth and a noticeable weakening of plants. Solid organic fertilizers, such as manure from farm animals, droppings from poultry and rabbits, are embedded in the topsoil in the autumn.
If preference is given to mineral fertilizers, then well-soluble substances should be used for root dressing. These include nitrofoska, urea, ammophos and others. Insoluble mineral fertilizers (nitrogen, potash, phosphorus) are applied to the soil in the fall. By spring, the earth will be fully saturated with these useful substances and plants will be able to absorb them normally.
Root dressing is the main way to introduce nutrients into the soil near the root system of the plant.
Foliar top dressing
Foliar top dressing of watermelon, which is also called leaf (top dressing on a leaf), is the introduction of nutrients through the leaves, and not through the root system. The peculiarity and advantage of this method of fertilizing is that the nutrients enter the plants faster than the root method. However, with the foliar method, it is impossible to provide plants with a large amount of nutrition. Foliar top dressing is used most often for the introduction of micronutrient fertilizers in small quantities, i.e., it is as an addition to the root feed.
To distribute the nutrient solution over the stems and foliage of the plants, they resort to spraying. It is best to perform this procedure in the morning or evening hours. In the daytime, you can spray only in cloudy weather, which will allow the composition to stay on the leaves for a longer time. Regardless of the fertilizer used, organic or mineral, you need to be careful about the concentration of the solution. Too concentrated formulations, especially with nitrogen fertilizers, can burn leaves. In spring spraying, i.e. when the foliage is young, less dilute solutions should be used than when treating coarse foliage. Urea is most common when spraying: it can also be used in higher concentrations, compared to other nitrogen substances.
Foliar top dressing is introduced by spraying the stem and leaves of plants, which allows you to quickly deliver useful elements to the plant
Watermelon Fertilizer Scheme
As the watermelon develops, they feed the plant several times. Depending on the phase of development of the culture, certain fertilizers are applied. During sowing seeds, it is necessary to use a fertilized soil mixture consisting of earth and humus in a ratio of 1: 3, as well as potash, phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers of 1 tbsp. l
Fertilizers for watermelon seedlings
When growing watermelon seedlings, it must be provided with nutrition so that the plants do not lack in any element. During the growth, seedlings need to be fed 1-2 times. One of the most suitable fertilizers for this purpose is bird droppings. To prepare a nutrient solution, the litter is mixed with water in a ratio of 1:10, after which the plants are watered. In addition to litter, you can also use mullein, the fertilizer from which is prepared in a similar way. If preference is given to mineral fertilizers, it is best to use urea. Dilute the substance in accordance with the instructions. The listed fertilizers contain a large amount of nitrogen, which is necessary for plants at the initial stage of growth.
As for the top dressing itself, the first time the seedlings are fertilized during the formation of two true leaves, the second time - 2 weeks before planting in open ground or a greenhouse. A good influence on the development of seedlings has wood ash. It can be applied in different ways: pour a small amount under the root or dilute 1 tbsp. ash in 10 liters of water and pour the plants with a nutrient solution.
The first time watermelon seedlings are fed during the formation of two true leaves, the second time - 2 weeks before planting in a permanent place
Top dressing after planting in the ground
2 weeks after transplanting seedlings to a permanent place, it is fed with ammonium nitrate. To prepare a solution in 10 l of water, 20 g of the drug are diluted and 2 l is consumed per plant. Organic fertilizers can be used instead of mineral fertilizers: a mullein (1:10) or bird droppings (1:20) is bred with water, 30 g of superphosphate and 15 g of calcium chloride are added to a bucket of the composition.
You can also provide plants with the necessary nutrition with infusion based on green grass. The essence of fertilizer preparation is to fill a large volume tank with green grass, followed by the addition of water and insisting for two weeks or more: the mixture should be fermented. You can add wood ash or chicken droppings to the composition, thereby increasing the nutritional value of the solution. After fermentation, the resulting solution is diluted 1:10 with water and watered 1 liter under a bush.
Resorting to folk remedies, after transplanting watermelons, you can feed with yeast. The use of this type of fertilizer makes it possible to transfer the pick to the plants almost painlessly. Raw yeast is best suited for top dressing, but gardeners often use dry yeast. To prepare a nutrient solution from yeast, you must perform the following steps:
- Dissolve 100 g of the substance in 3 l of water with the addition of a small amount of sugar (1 tsp).
- Insist the solution for 7 days, after which it is diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10.
- 1 liter of fertilizer is poured under each bush.
Video: feeding watermelon with herbal infusion after planting in the ground
Top dressing before flowering
In the budding phase, watermelons also need to be fed. As nutrition, you can use 4 g of calcium chloride and ammonium nitrate, as well as 6 g of superphosphate per one plant. Fertilizers can be applied in dry form by watering before and after the feeding procedure.
Dressing when setting fruit
В период завязи для подкормки арбузов лучше всего использовать комплексные удобрения для бахчевых культур. Если таковые отсутствуют, то подпитывают растения 2 раза с периодичностью в 15 дней. В качестве питательного вещества используют борную кислоту, которая придаст плодам сладости. Для приготовления раствора в 5 л воды разводят 5 г кислоты и осуществляют внекорневую подкормку. Чтобы выполнить калиево-магниевую подкормку, необходимо в 0, 5 л воды растворить 2 таблетки Аспаркама. Вносят раствор также внекорневым способом.
При завязывании плодов подкормку можно выполнить таким удобрением: суперфосфат (10 г), калийная соль (35 г), сульфат аммония (24 г), которые растворяют в 10 л воды и поливают растения под корень по 2 л на куст. Суперфосфат хоть и растворяется в воде, но его необходимо предварительно залить кипятком. Калий в такой подпитке ускоряет созревание, а фосфор отвечает за размер плодов. Однако нужно учесть, что переизбыток фосфора приведёт к формированию небольших плодов.
Правильная и грамотная подкормка арбузов способствует дружному цветению и хорошему завязыванию плодов
Чтобы обеспечить арбуз на протяжении всего вегетационного периода необходимыми микроэлементами, растение подкармливают с периодичностью 10–15 дней внекорневыми удобрениями. Можно, например, использовать Унифлор-микро (2 ч. л. на 10 л воды) или другие препараты: Мастер, Террафлекс, Кристаллон, Новоферт, Нутрифлекс. Применяют вещества в соответствии с инструкцией, в которой указывается необходимая доза и фазы внесения. Если растение остановилось в росте, имеет мелкие либо пожелтевшие листья, хрупкий стебель, цветение отсутствует, то самое время применить аммиачную настойку. Для приготовления питательного раствора разводят 3 ст. l вещества на 10 л воды. После чего хорошо перемешивают и поливают арбузные кусты, избегая попадания на листья.
Нужно понимать, что универсальной схемы подкормки бахчевых и любых других культур не существует. Многое зависит от состава почвы, региона возделывания, состояния растений, за которыми нужно постоянно следить и своевременно вносить необходимые вещества. The main thing is not to overdo it. Если в почву вносилась преимущественно органика, необходимо вводить меньше азотных и больше фосфорных удобрений. Если земля, наоборот, испытывает недостаток гумуса, требуется большее количество азота.
Видео: подкормка бахчевых культур органическими удобрениями
Несмотря на кажущуюся сложность, получить сладкие и крупные плоды арбуза может каждый на своём приусадебном участке. Для этого потребуется соблюдать правила агротехники и, обращая внимание на состояние растений, своевременно проводить необходимые подкормки. Ведь правильное питание в нужный период развития растения является залогом качественного урожая.