Water to a house from a well: how to make a downhole water supply system?
One of the conditions for a comfortable suburban life is a reliable water supply in the cottage. Since central water supply in the country is a rather rare occurrence, the owner of the site has to decide on the issue of establishing an autonomous water supply system on his own. Watering a private house from a well is one of the most convenient ways to provide everyday comfort.
Types of wells: advantages and disadvantages of sources
Both sand and artesian sources can be used to equip a water supply system from a well. Using a sand well, it is easy to solve the issue of water supply in a summer cottage, at which the water consumption on average does not exceed 1.5 cubic meters per hour. This volume is enough for a small house.
The main advantages of a sand well are the speed of construction, low construction costs and the possibility of arranging without the use of special large-sized construction equipment
But for a country cottage, where they live year-round, a sand well is far from the best choice. The depth of aquifers during the construction of such wells does not exceed 50 meters, which is not a guarantee of water purity. Although the water in the sand well is cleaner than the well, it can contain all kinds of impurities and aggressive compounds. The reason for this is the proximity of the sandy aquifer relative to surface water. Well productivity is relatively small (an average of about 500 l), and the service life is short - about 10 years.
The best option is an artesian well, which is equipped at a depth of 100 and more meters. The main advantage of such a well is an unlimited supply of high quality water. Such a well is capable of producing up to 10 cubic meters / hour. This is enough to provide water for a large plot with a house. And the life of such a source, even with active use, can exceed more than half a century.
Water located at a considerable depth is filtered and purified naturally. Due to this, it does not contain impurities and pathogenic bacteria harmful to the human body
If a sand well can be drilled and equipped with your own hands, then when equipping an artesian well, it is necessary to attract specialists. Although the cost of drilling an artesian well is quite high, you should not save on this. This stage of work should be entrusted to professional drillers who, depending on the composition of the rocks under the site, determine the aquifer and equip the well in accordance with all the rules of drilling technology. Thanks to a professional approach to well completion, you will save yourself from a number of problems of the system during operation.
Equipment for arranging a water supply system
The technology for arranging water supply from the well with your own hands depends on the depth of the source and its characteristics.
An autonomous water supply scheme can be developed using the services of specialists, or you can take a suitable ready-made version from the network
One of the key elements in the arrangement of the water supply system on the site is the pump, which will ensure uninterrupted lifting and supply of water to the house from the well. To equip an autonomous well, it is enough to install a unit with a diameter of 3 or 4 ″, equipped with additional protection against “dry running”. This will prevent overheating and breakdown of the pump if the source reaches a minimum water level.
The water supply technology from the well also provides for the installation of a plastic or metal reservoir - a caisson, which is placed so as to have free access to it, but at the same time to prevent the ingress of dirt or water from the external environment. It is necessary to connect the pump in the well and to further control it during operation.
When arranging a water supply system from a well to a house, it is most often used with pipes with a diameter of 25-32 mm made of metal-plastic - a polymeric material that bends easily and is highly resistant to corrosion.
Water pipes are laid from the source to the house, deepening below the level of freezing of the soil (at least 30-50 cm)
Arrangement of water supply is impossible without a sewage system, which provides for the installation of a septic tank with receiving chambers and a wastewater treatment system. The technology for arranging the sewage system is described in detail in a separate article.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Options for autonomous water supply from a well
Method # 1 - with an automated pumping station
Having a shallow well on the site, if the water level in the source allows, a pump station or a hand pump is installed. The essence of the automated system is that under the action of a submersible pump, water is pumped into a hydropneumatic tank, the capacity of which can vary from 100 to 500 liters.
When working with a shallow sand well, the best option is to equip an automated water supply system that will ensure uninterrupted water supply to the house
The water storage tank itself is separated by a rubber membrane and a relay, thanks to which the water pressure in the tank is regulated. When the tank is full, the pump is turned off, if water is consumed, a signal is received to turn on the pump and pump out the water. This means that the pump can operate both directly, supplying water to the system, and after reducing the pressure in the system to a certain level in order to replenish the "reserves" of water in the hydropnematic tank. The receiver itself (hydraulic tank) is placed in any convenient place at home, most often in the utility room.
From the caisson to the place where the pipe is introduced into the house, a trench is laid, on the bottom of which a water pipe and an electric cable are laid to power the pump. If possible, it is better to purchase a heating electric cable, which, in addition to direct use, will protect the water pipe from freezing.
Method # 2 - with the installation of a submersible pump
With this method of water supply, the deep pump pumps water from the well into the storage tank, which is placed on an elevated point in the house.
Most often, a place for the arrangement of the storage tank is allocated in one of the premises of the second floor of the house, or in the attic. By placing a container in the attic, to prevent freezing of water in the winter months, the walls of the tank must be insulated
By placing the tank on a hill, the effect of a water tower is created, in which, due to the difference in elevation, a pressure arises between the hydraulic tank and the connection points when 1 m of water column is 0.1 atmosphere. The tank may be made of stainless steel or food grade plastic. The volume of the tank is from 500 to 1500 liters. The larger the volume of the tank, the greater the supply of water: in the event of a power outage, it will flow by gravity to the tap.
The installation of a limit float switch will allow for automatic switching on of the pump when the water level in the tank drops.
Submersible pumps are used in cases where the distance to the water level in the well exceeds 9 meters or more
When choosing a pump, well productivity should be considered. Despite the fact that the power of the unit will only affect the filling rate of the water storage tank, when choosing a unit it is better to start from the mark of the maximum water flow in the house.
The downhole pump along with the electric cable and pipe is lowered into the well, hanging it on a galvanized cable with a winch, which is installed inside the caisson. To maintain the necessary pressure in the system and prevent the pumping of water back into the well, a check valve is placed above the pump.
After installing all the elements of the system, it remains only to check the internal wiring to the connection points and connect the equipment to the control panel.
The total cost of an automatic water supply system is about 3000-5000 dollars. It depends on the depth of the source, the type of pump and the number of intake points inside the house. From 30% to 50% of this amount goes to the engineering arrangement of the system, the rest of the costs - to the elements that determine the level of comfort of living.
Useful video materials on the topic
Well pump and its harness for a household well:
Assembly of the pumping station at the borehole pump: