Varieties of plums for the Leningrad region
The more they say that the plum will not take root in the North-West of Russia, the more you want to plant this tree. The secret to successfully cultivating a tender plant is to use a zoned variety.
The difficulties of growing plums in the Leningrad region
Unpredictable weather conditions occur in the Leningrad Region, where winter with thaws resembles spring, and summer does not spoil with generous warmth every year. Spring is wet and cool here, so non-flying weather is often for natural pollinators. The column of the thermometer passes into the positive sector of the scale, usually in early April, and the average daily 15 ° C is set from the second half of June. The region’s east is the coldest, while more or less comfortable heat is in the southwest.
The region is not rich in agricultural land. Plum prefers neutral soil. Suitable are sod-carbonate soils with a neutral pH of 7. And such lands are located only on the Izhora Upland (Lomonosov, Gatchinsky, Volosovsky regions). The rest are acidic to varying degrees - sod-podzolic (pH 3.3–5.5) and podzolic (pH 4.0–4.5), and also poor in phosphorus and nitrogen.
Plum planting in acidic areas is preceded by liming of the soil.
When planting a plum, the desired height of the groundwater level is 1–1.5 m. But marshy soils and spring floods are commonplace in the Leningrad Region. Such soils need drainage, and tree planting is carried out at an elevation of 0.6–1.2 m. The diameter of the artificial embankment is from 2.5 to 3 m.
Video: how to plant a fruit tree on a hill
It turns out that growing plums in the Leningrad Region is fraught with a certain risk. When choosing a variety, emphasis is placed on those properties that will allow the tree to take root in difficult conditions.
How not to be mistaken with a grade
Buy seedlings in the nursery, where you will be offered a specific variety. Buying online or in the market can be confusing and frustrating.
I have something like “Collective farm greengage”, a yellow-green transparent peel, tasty, large. On this, the pros end. The stone does not separate well, it cracks in the rains, abundant fruiting is very rare (well, if after three years), often without a crop at all. He held it for a long time, finally removed it.
And meanwhile, the real greenhouse collective farm bears fruit annually, and its seedlings serve as excellent stock material. The disadvantage is the shedding of overripe fruits.
The collective farm plum Greenhouse does not surprise with its external beauty, you just need to try it
Groups of plum varieties
Varieties are divided into several types according to quality characteristics: color, size, shape, taste, as well as physiological properties of trees:
- Greenclod (France). Characteristic features: productivity, in most cases self-infertility, the root system is prone to decay, resistance to frost to -25 ° C and disease. The height of the tree is from 4 to 6 m. The fruits are spherical, purple or yellow-green with a rough skin, sweet. Non-transportable, poorly stored. Used in fresh and canned form. Popular varieties:
- Greengage Kuibyshevsky is a medium-late variety. An adult tree gives about 20-30 kg of plums, bears fruit regularly. Pollinated by Hungarian Pulkovo, Volga beauty;
- Greenclod tenyakovsky is a partially self-fertile early ripe variety.
- Mirabel. All varieties (Yellow, Big, Bona, September, Nancy) are characterized by small bright yellow fruits with a ruddy side and dense pulp. The bone separates easily. Mirabelle is good in canned form, used for baking.
Mirabelle plum fruits are similar in bright color and sweet taste.
- Hungarian. Plums are perfectly stored for up to 1.5 months in the refrigerator, due to the dense pulp they are suitable for freezing and making candied fruits. Wine from the Hungarian aromatic, has a rich taste. Popular varieties:
- Hungarian Belarusian - partially self-fertile mid-season plum; fruits are purple with a wax coating, medium size; productivity on average 35 kg.
- Vengerka Pulkovskaya - zoned variety, self-fertile, late; in wet weather, the fruit is prone to cracking.
Plum Hungarian bright and fragrant
- Stubborn. The fruits are small, with a specific astringency in taste, very dense, and therefore tolerate transportation well. Suitable for making marmalade, jam and jam. Stubborn is unpretentious to lighting and winds; it can be planted anywhere in the garden, creating a wind screen for other trees. Known varieties:
- Dubovskiy thorns (Volgograd region) - mid-season variety, fruits weighing 26 g, stored for 2-3 weeks;
- Summer tolerant is the Middle Volga variety, bears fruit on the 5-6th year, the fruits are well stored, but the flesh of the plums is dry.
Out of stubble we make excellent marmalade and jam
- Egg Plum (England). The shape of the fruit resembles an egg, non-transportable due to the delicate pulp. Suitable for fresh consumption and preservation. Plum "eggs" come in red, blue and yellow colors:
- Egg blue - zoned in the suburbs, characterized by high regular yields;
The fruits of the egg varieties have a classic egg shape
- Egg red is pale in color, tastes much more acidic than Egg blue;
- Livonia yellow egg, or Ochakov yellow - a variety of Baltic folk selection, which is also zoned in Belarus and North-West Russia. The grafted plant bears fruit in the 3-4th year, and grown from root shoots - twice as late.
- Egg blue - zoned in the suburbs, characterized by high regular yields;
One of the most delicious plums in our region is Ochakovskaya yellow with a honey flavor, but it is not very fruitful and produces plentifully every few years (this year a landslide crop).
The basis of the yellow “society” is mirabelle, followed by other varieties:
- Firefly (Eurasia-21 x Volga beauty) is a mid-season variety, resistant to diseases and pests. Crops are regular.
Firefly plum bears fruit regularly
- Lodva is an early variety, self-fertile (pollinator - Mara), large fruits - weighing more than 30 g, with a small bone. The pulp has a caramel flavor.
- Mara - Belarusian late variety, bone poorly separated from the pulp; self-infertile (pollinated by ordinary wild cherry plum, plum variety Vitba).
Plum Mara originally from Belarus
- Greengage early - early plum with a thin sour peel of a greenish tint. The pulp, on the contrary, is honey-sweet.
- Skoroplodnaya - plum early ripening, the tree has a fan-shaped crown; productivity about 9 kg.
Zoned (and not only) varieties
Zoned varieties are grown in the Northwest, but plums from other regions also bear fruit:
- Varieties zoned in the Volga region and Moscow region:
- Alyonushka - a quick-growing variety; fruits of saturated red color, large, with a slight acidity.
- Smolinka - an early, self-fertile variety; medium-sized tree; the fruits are dark lilac, gray from wax coating; the flesh is greenish-yellow, the bone is difficult to separate.
Smolink plum fruit covered with a wax coating
- Starting - an early ripe variety, comes into fruition in the 4th year; medium-sized plant. The fruits are dark red, sweet and sour.
- Oryol dream, Oryol souvenir - partially self-fertile varieties, trees bloom in mid-May, the fruits are dry.
- Sissy is an early ripe variety, the fruits are red outside and yellow inside. Advantages of the Sissy: miniature - height up to 2.5 m; good frost resistance, the bone is easily taken out. Disadvantages: crumbling fruits, late entry into fruiting (at the 5th year), flower buds may freeze. It is recommended to grow no further than the southwestern zone of the Leningrad region.
- Red ball - it is preferable to grow in a warmer zone of the region, it is resistant to clastosporiosis.
For plum Red ball you need to choose the warmest zone
- Study - disease-resistant, medium-yielding, partially self-fertile. Fruits are oval-ovoid, red-violet in color, with a bloom, mottled with subcutaneous dots, peel of medium thickness, sweet and sour flesh.
- Volga beauty - a self-infertile variety (pollinators: red early ripening, greenhouse collective farm); fruits of universal purpose; winter hardiness is average.
For plum, Volga beauty needs pollinators
- The Liizu variety (Livonia yellow egg x Sukhkruploom) was bred in Estonia, where the climate is milder, therefore Liizu is grown in any region of the region except the northern one. Fruits are red-violet, egg-shaped, universal purpose. The variety is self-infertile, for pollination use plums Skorospelka red, Violet, Morning. Average resistance to moniliosis.
- West European varieties Emma Leperman, Edinburgh self-fertile, vigorous; have large fruits - yellow-green and dark red with a purple hue, respectively. Zoned in the Kaliningrad region.
- Plums of the Finnish selection are self-fertile, but also pollinators are planted for them, winter-hardy, have sweet fruits:
- Kuokkala (Kuokkala) - a variety from the city of Jyvaskyla with flexible branches; the size of the fruit is not amazing, but there are many.
- Parikkalan Tummaluumu - mid-season variety; pollinator for yellow varieties.
- Kuntalan Punaluumu (Kuntalan Punaluumu) - an early ripe plum with aromatic fruits; medium height.
- Sinikka (Sinikka) - a late variety, popular in their homeland, and now in the Leningrad region due to the honey sweetness of the fruit, which can argue with the southern Hungarians.
- Vaarin Siniluumu (Vaarin Siniluumu) - fruits with brown flesh, the main color is dark blue, sweet.
The ability to pollute without the participation of insects is a valuable quality of a bog tree. There are no self-fertile plum varieties. To obtain high yields, it is advisable to plant 1–2 of any other varieties near the plum. For plums with partial self-fertility, this becomes mandatory. The pollinator variety must bloom simultaneously with the pollinated tree.
Don’t worry about pollination. Nearby, after all, in neighboring people, plums grow? Everything will be fine! We have plum branches from these branches every year, and this year is especially plentiful, although not a single bee flew during their flowering. And no one really picked pollinators for their trees, and the bees appeared 2 weeks after all the fruit trees had bloomed, but there were plenty of apples, pears, plums, cherries! Nature will always find insurance in case of force majeure.
If there is no pollinator nearby, then:
- another type of shoot is grafted into the crown, which will serve as a pollinator;
- among the flowering branches, a plum bouquet is fixed in a jar of water, collected from far-growing trees. Until it fades, the insects will have time to "stain" a flowering tree with its pollen.
Until a certain time, I did not wonder why my plum, bored lonely in the middle of the garden, did not stand for a year with empty branches. But it was noticed that after cold windy or wet springs of fruit, though not much less, but not by much. I think, either a self-fertile variety (large round fruits of blue color), or this is due to feral Hungarians growing nearby.
Of the most productive self-fertile plums for the Leningrad region, the following varieties can be distinguished:
- The spark is late-ripening, with a stable high yield, and it bears fruit seriously at the age of 3-4 years, when other plums only “accelerate”; medium resistant, ovoid fruits, yellow with a blush. Pollination is insured by the Red Ball, Sister Dawn, Dawn.
- Moscow Hungarian - late plum near Moscow, fruits of a dark red color, bluish from a thick waxy coating.
- Common Hungarian - a variety of folk selection, medium-sized, characterized by late entry into fruiting (for the 5-6th year); medium resistant to drought and frost. Fruits of irregular ellipsoidal shape, do not crumble, the flesh is rough, but juicy. Productivity is increasing in the company with Anna Shpet, Greengage Altana, Italian Hungarian.
- Timiryazev's memory is a medium-late variety, the fruits are sweet, the seed separates easily, the resistance to frost is medium, the plant is susceptible to attack by ticks, and the yield is high. It recovers quickly after damage.
Plum Timiryazev's memory is quickly restored after damage
- Hungarian Pulkovo - late variety, fruits of a dark red color with yellow flesh. For safety, it is pollinated by varieties Skorospelka red, Hungarian Moscow, Winter red.
- Viola - medium late winter-hardy variety; the main color of the fruit is green, the integument is blue. Pollinators: Hungarian Kuybyshevskaya, Red Skorospelka, Lada.
- Tula Black is a medium-late variety, the average yield is 12-14 kg, and the maximum is up to 35 kg. It can be propagated by root shoots and green cuttings.
Plum harvest Tula Black reaches 35 kg
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Plums with partially pronounced self-fertility:
- Belle TSGL - mid-season plum, fruit mass 40–50 g; resistant to most diseases. Pollinators are varieties Eurasia-21, Vengerka Voronezh.
- Red meat - has reddish-raspberry fruits weighing up to 50 g; medium, prone to freezing. It is pollinated with Skoroplodnaya and Ussuriysk plums.
Plum red meat sometimes freezes
- Hungarian Belarusian - mid-season plum, does not suffer from kleasterosporiosis. Pollinators: Kroman, Blufrey, Victoria, Perdrigon.
By the way, after the neighbor prunes flickered, my yellow yield dropped sharply. And the first 2 years were buckets. Coincidence or left without a pollinator - I do not know.
Additional Variety Selection Factors
The climate of the North-West is characterized by short showers, fogs, damp damp, and the sun is in great deficit here. In such conditions, the drain must have the appropriate immunity.
Flower bud resistance
Frosts and winter thaws in the Northwest “hit” the flower buds - the key to a future harvest. Weak in this regard are the varieties:
- Pchelnikovskaya - mid-season self-fertile plum; generally has good winter hardiness, flower buds become the most vulnerable at the junction of winter and spring.
- Pavlovskaya yellow is a relatively stable variety against fungal diseases, in some years it experiences invasion of aphids; remarkable for regular fruiting; flower buds freeze in winter at temperatures below -27 ° C.
- Seaside - a variety of Ussuri folk selection; gives small in volume (10-12 kg), but regular crops, fruits are yellow, with long-term storage they keep their shape, but lose their taste. The resistance of wood to frost is high, and flower buds are medium.
- A gift to St. Petersburg - an early variety, a 10-year-old tree gives 27 kg of tasty yellow fruit, with a tendency to shed; resistance to claustosporiosis is high; flower buds suffer from return frosts.
Flower buds do not freeze in varieties:
- Stanley - "American", obtained by crossing the French plum Pruno d'Agent and the American Grand Duke. The variety embodies the qualities of Hungarians and the ovoid shape of the fruit. The resistance of flower buds to freezing proves the 92-year-old Stanley life story.
Stanley plum can live a very long time
- Greenclod Tambovsky - remarkable crown, growing more in width than in height, which should be considered when landing; fruits are black-violet, fruiting from the 3rd year.
- Black Zyuzina - named after the village of Zyuzino, where this variety was bred; late ripening; the fruit is deep blue; processed plums retain a rich color.
- Early crop - ripens in late July, the fruits are greenish-yellow in color, under a thin sour skin hides a dense pulp with a honey flavor.
I like the Stanley (or Stanley) plum variety. The variety is high-yielding. The fruits are very beautiful, large, oval, dark blue. It tastes sweet and sour. It can be canned and dried. Very tasty are obtained in dried form.
In a region where heavy winds and even tornadoes are not uncommon, the motto for choosing a variety is the lower, the better. Do not exceed 2.5 m plum varieties:
- Greenclod tenkovsky,
- Red ball.
It looks like a midget against the background of other Omsk night, whose growth reaches a maximum of 1.4 m. Tall plums (Yakhontovaya, Anna Shpet) are grafted onto a dwarf or dwarf stock.
My Anna Shpet several years ago was overwhelmed with a strong wind to one side, tearing off part of the roots. If you occasionally have hurricanes, then consider Anna Shpet as a consumable. The fruits are completely unsuitable for freezing. After defrosting, the taste deteriorates sharply, the pulp turns into a gelatinous mass. In this sense, Anna Shpet is not a competitor even to any rootless cherry plum or turn.
The growing season in the region is 150–173 days. It is clear that early and middle varieties are more likely to give a crop.
- Early grades - the first decade of August:
- Skoroplodnaya has a fan-shaped crown, small yellow with a blush fruit.
- The early ripening red is relatively stable against clasterosporiosis; with increased humidity, the fruits lose their sweetness; the disadvantages include non-ripening and shedding of fruits. Desirable pollinators include Hungarian Pulkovo and Moscow, Greenhouse collective farm, Winter white. Skorospelka red itself, in turn, is an unsurpassed pollinator for many varieties.
Plum Skoropelka red - a good pollinator for other varieties
- The tent is characterized by non-maturing, resistance to disease; relative winter hardiness. The color of the fruit is purple, inside they are yellow-red. The pulp has an elevated sugar level.
- Mid-season (August 10–25):
- Early ripening round - self-fertile plum, winter hardiness at height, medium disease resistance, ripening time is medium, medium-sized tree with a spreading crown, fruits are dark red-violet with a slight bluish bloom, yellow flesh, sweet and sour, up to 10 g, yield in an average of 10-15 kg.
- Nika is a self-infertile plum, Donetsk pollen, Hungarian greengrod are suitable as pollinators. It resists diseases well, with a small yield the fruits become larger and vice versa with a difference of about 20 g. Fruiting is irregular.
Nick's plum has good disease resistance
- Bogatyrskaya - mid-growth; the fruits are large, universal, transportable. A tree aged 5–6 yields yields from 50 to 70 kg. Disadvantage: with a plentiful harvest, branches break.
Branches may break from abundant harvests at Bogatyrskaya plum
- Late varieties (end of August - beginning of September):
- Tula black is a local variety, medium late, but closer to late; self-infertile; the fruits are blue to black; has a high recovery ability after severe frosts; regularly bears fruit.
- Bolkhovchanka is zoned in the Central Black Earth region; the winter hardiness of wood and flower buds is good, the plum is self-infertile (pollinators: Collective farm reklod, Record); the fruits are large, of good taste.
- The Rossoshanskaya award is a medium-sized tree with oval fruits of a dark red color; the pulp has a granular-fibrous consistency, juicy. Plum hibernates well; annual fruiting.
In July everyone is mistaken for a peach, and in early August - for Chinese apples. Plums are large, tasty, sweet, with a slight acidity. The only, in my opinion, is self-infertility. There are also ordinary plums in the garden, tasty, but inferior to Chinese women.
There was always only fruit to try on my Early Ripening Red, and the taste and size, as described, are technical. And this year the Tula black vaccinations on another tree blossomed, and my Skorospelka tied a lot of fruits, as if of a different quality: large, beautiful and tasty. Every year, it is blooming, but apparently not suitable.
Plant Tula black! Every year it breaks under the weight of tasty fruits, except, of course, the terrible 2006.
Given the climate of the Leningrad Region, plum varieties for this region should be winter-hardy, self-fertile, high-yielding, and resistant to disease. Trees with compact crowns are preferable - they are convenient for grooming and harvesting, as well as resist winds.