Vaccination of a pear on a pear

Vaccination of a pear with a pear is sometimes necessary in cases where it is necessary to replace the variety, expand the variety of varieties on the site without planting new trees and in some others. Many beginner gardeners are afraid to start such an operation, thinking that it is too complicated. We will try to dispel their fears.

Vaccination of a pear on a pear

Sooner or later, the time comes when the gardener thinks about grafting fruit trees. The reasons for this may be different. Let's talk about how to plant a pear on a pear.

Is it possible to plant a pear on a pear

Of course you can. It is known that intergrowth of scion and stock is most well between plants of the same species. Often, pears of frost-resistant, hardy varieties, Ussuri pear and wild are used as stock.

A stock is a plant to which a part (bud, stalk) of another plant is growing. A graft is a bud or a stalk of a cultivated plant, grown on a stock.

Advantages and disadvantages

Vaccination of a pear on a pear has certain advantages:

  • Good survival and compatibility.
  • Improving the characteristics of the variety due to the use of hardy winter-hardy varieties as a stock.
  • Acceleration of the beginning of fruiting in case of grafting into the crown of an adult tree.
  • The ability to have on one tree two or more varieties of pears.
  • The ability to quickly replace an unsuccessful pear variety by alternately replacing skeletal branches.

The disadvantages of pear stocks compared with others were not found.

How to vaccinate pears on varietal and wild pears

Immediately, we note that there is no difference in the methods and methods of grafting on varietal and wild stocks. Therefore, to separate them in the description does not make sense.

Tip. Before performing any of the vaccination methods described below, it is worth practicing on wild plants to acquire the necessary skills.

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Budding

This is the name of the process of implantation of a grafted plant into the rootstock of a kidney. It can be carried out either in early spring during the period of active sap flow, or in the second half of summer (early August), when the second stage of cambial layer growth begins. It is these layers of scion and stock that must be maximally combined when vaccinations are carried out. The readiness of the tree for budding is determined by the easy separation of the bark from the wood.

When performing vaccinations, it is necessary to maximally combine the cambial layers of the scion and rootstock

Perform budding in cloudy weather as follows:

  1. On the day of vaccination, cut off a young shoot from a pear of the selected variety.
  2. Choose the place of grafting on the rootstock - it should be at a distance of 10-15 centimeters from the root neck of a young plant (or at a distance of 5-10 centimeters from the base of the branch when grafting into the crown of a tree). In regions with a lot of snow, in order to ensure better winter hardiness of the pear, the vaccination site is chosen at a height of at least one meter. In this case, all the kidneys below are blind.
  3. A kidney with a thin (2-3 mm) layer of wood and a section of bark 12-14 mm long is cut from a harvested shoot with a sharp blade or a budding knife. This fragment is called by gardeners.
  4. At the selected location, a T-shaped incision or a slice is made, equal in size to the area of ​​the flap.
  5. Insert the shield into the incision or apply to the cut, press firmly and wrap it with a woven tape, leaving the kidney free.

    Okulirovanie spend in cloudy weather

Spring budding is carried out with a growing eye - after the operation, it quickly begins to grow. In the summer, a sleeping eye is used, which will only grow in the spring of next year.

Grafting Method

Vaccinations with the cuttings are carried out mainly in early spring before the start of sap flow. In different regions, dates vary from mid-March in the southern regions to the end of April in the northern regions. At this time, the highest percentage of survival is achieved. Cuttings are harvested for this in the fall, cutting suitable twigs 20-30 cm long with three to four good growth buds. It is better to store them in the basement or in the refrigerator at a temperature of + 2-5 ° C.

Copulation

This is a vaccination method in which the diameters of the scion and stock are equal or the scion is slightly thinner. In this case, the diameters of spliced ​​shoots should be in the range from 4 to 15 millimeters. Distinguish between simple and improved (serif) copulation, as well as copulation with a saddle. Here is a step-by-step instruction for their implementation:

  1. On the connected parts of the plant, identical sections are made 3-4 cm long at an angle of 20-25 °. The shape of the slices depends on the chosen method of copying:
    • For a simple one - an ordinary smooth cut.
    • For improved - additional cuts are made on the slices.
    • With a saddle - a platform is cut out on the scion, which is installed on a cut of the stock.
  2. Tightly connect the slices together.
  3. Wrap the place of vaccination with tape. You can use electrical tape with a sticky layer outward or fum tape.
  4. The grafted cuttings are cut, leaving 2-3 buds. Lubricate the cut site with garden var.
  5. They put a plastic bag on the stalk and tie it below the grafting site. In the package make several small holes for ventilation. This is necessary to create optimal humidity, which provides better survival. The package is removed after 1-2 months.

    Copying is simple, improved and with a saddle

Split vaccine

Such a vaccination can be performed on rootstocks with a diameter of 8 to 100 millimeters. The diameter of the scion in this case may not coincide with the diameter of the stock. With a large difference in diameter on one stock, you can plant several branches of a pear. However, they can be of different varieties. The sequence of actions is as follows:

  1. The trunk is cut at a right angle at a selected height. In the case of vaccination on a branch, it is cut as close to the base as possible.
  2. In the middle of the cut, use a sharp knife or an ax to split the trunk to a depth of 3-4 centimeters. In the case of a large diameter, two splits can be made crosswise or in parallel.
  3. Wedge the gap with a wedge or a screwdriver.
  4. The lower end of the handle is cut, giving it a wedge-shaped shape. Insert into the cleft, not forgetting to combine the cambial layers, and remove the wedge. As a result, the stalk is tightly sandwiched in the splinter.

    In the case of a large stock diameter, several cuttings can be grafted into the cleft

  5. Then, as usual, they fix the place of inoculation with tape, cut the stalk for 2-3 buds, lubricate it with garden varieties and equip a mini hotbed from a plastic bag.

    The vaccination site is smeared with garden var.

Vaccination for bark

The method is similar to the previous one, but this does not damage the rootstock wood. To grow the cuttings in this case, the bark is cut and bent, for which the prepared cuttings are placed. This method is used on trunks and branches of large diameter, grafting simultaneously up to four cuttings. How to do it:

  1. Trim the trunk or branch similarly to the previous method.
  2. Vertical cuts are made of the cortex together with the cambial layer 4-5 centimeters in length from one to four in number of grafted grafts grafted uniformly along the diameter of the trunk (branch).
  3. At the lower end of the cuttings, make an oblique section 3-4 cm long with a step.
  4. Insert the cuttings behind the bark, gently bending it and combining the layers of cambium.

    Insert the cuttings behind the bark, gently bending it and combining layers of cambium

  5. The following steps are similar to the previous methods.

General vaccination requirements

In order for the vaccination to work out and survival rate to be maximum, one should follow these recommendations:

  • To perform work, use only sharpened tools (copulation knives, budding knives, garden secateurs, grafting secateurs, hacksaws, axes).
  • Before starting work, the tool should be disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate, alcohol or a 1% solution of hydrogen peroxide.
  • All sections are done immediately before vaccination. The time from the moment the cut was performed to the combination of the scion with the stock should not exceed one minute.
  • The applied garden var should not include petrolatum and other oil refining products. For this, there are compounds based on natural components (lanolin, beeswax, coniferous resin).

    It is recommended to use a garden var based on natural ingredients

  • In the first year, the vaccination site should be shaded in order to better survival.

Photo Gallery: Vaccination Tool

It is convenient to use cutter knife to cut off shoots

The kidney for vaccination is cut off with an ocular knife

I use a garden pruner for harvesting cuttings

Using the grafting secateurs makes it easy to copy

Slices for grafting over the bark and splitting make a sharp garden hacksaw

A splitting for grafting on a thick rootstock is done with an ax

Video: fruit tree grafting workshop

The pear vaccination methods discussed are available for beginner growers. Training in wild trees will add confidence in his success. And after the first successful work, new experiments will surely follow in this fascinating direction.

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