Vaccination of an apple tree on an old apple tree: dates and technique
If there are old apple trees in the garden, then they can be given a “second life” by grafting them with the desired variety. Gardening can be carried out in different ways in spring or autumn. If you follow the steps, then even an amateur gardener can perform the procedure.
When is the best time to vaccinate an old apple tree
During tree grafting, several goals can be pursued:
- rejuvenate an old tree;
- save the properties of the variety;
- increase the stability of the new variety thanks to the old stock;
- accelerate fruiting.
A similar operation is carried out in spring or autumn. Each season has its own pros and cons. If you adhere to the opinion of most gardeners, it is preferable to vaccinate in the spring. This is explained by the following:
- the grafted part is better taking root;
- during this period, various methods of operation can be used;
- if the vaccine is unsuccessful, it can be repeated.
Vaccination is performed, as a rule, before the onset of sap flow and budding.
In addition, during the spring procedure, a weak sapling can grow stronger during the summer, which will allow it to easily transfer the winter.
Before starting gardening, you should pay attention to the weather forecast for the next 10-14 days, because due to spring frosts all efforts can go down the drain.
Autumn splices have the following advantages:
- the weather is more favorable, since there is no longer summer drought and the tree receives more moisture;
- the seedling is hardened, which increases its survival;
- the scion takes root better.
If the procedure is carried out in the spring, then the optimal time is at the beginning of April, until the buds begin to bloom. The most suitable temperature is + 7–9 ° C. Autumn operation is carried out in September-early October. It is important to take into account that after vaccination, warm weather (+ 10-15 ° C) should last at least a month.
How to plant an apple tree on an old tree
To date, there are many ways to vaccinate fruit trees. Some of them differ in the complexity of the procedure, which requires some experience. Therefore, it is worth highlighting just a few of them, which even an amateur gardener can perform:
- vaccination for bark;
- vaccination in the split.
The simplest way to vaccinate an apple tree is copulation.
The most simple methods of grafting an apple tree in the spring include copulation. Using this method, the scion and stock are fused with approximately the same diameter. If the thickness of the branches is very different, then the operation is carried out by the method for the bark or in the split. In addition, it is these methods that are best suited for grafting on an old tree, since the same copulation is not suitable for splicing thick branches. Such garden work is best done in dry and cloudy weather. Precipitation and high humidity should be avoided, as the grafted graft can rot. It should also be borne in mind that the apple trees must be vaccinated with the corresponding varieties according to the ripening period: for the summer they are vaccinated with summer varieties, and in winter, they are vaccinated in autumn or winter. If you do not adhere to these recommendations, the vegetation of the scion and stock will be different, as well as the preparation of the tree for winter.
To carry out the procedure, you need the following list of tools:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- grafting knife;
- screwdriver or wooden wedge;
- grafting film or electrical tape;
- garden putty;
- clean rags.
The main tools for the vaccination procedure are a garden knife, garden putty and pruner
Vaccination for the bark on the sawn trunk of an old apple tree
This method of vaccination is performed during sap flow. This period can be defined as follows: a bark is cut on a branch and they try to separate it from the wood. If the bark falls behind easily, it's time to start the procedure. First of all, you need to prepare a stock. For this, a branch or trunk of an old apple tree is cut down, after which the place of cut is cleaned with a sharp knife. As the grafted graft, the middle part of the harvested shoot is used. This is explained by the fact that the kidneys are close to each other on top, and in the lower part they are not suitable for vaccination due to poor development.
For bark, an apple tree is grafted as follows:
- The lower part of the handle is cut obliquely by 3-4 cm, while the surface must be flat. A kidney should be located opposite the cut.
When preparing the scion, its lower part is cut obliquely by 3-4 cm
- Step back up by three kidneys and make another cut.
- A bark is cut into the bitch at the saw cut along the length of 3-4 cm and, with the help of a bone of a knife, slightly lifts it over the edge.
A 3-4 cm incision is made on the bitch
- Insert the grafted shoot. It is necessary to do this so that the oblique section of the scion completely fits into the section of the bark.
During grafting, the stalk must be inserted in such a way that the oblique section of the scion completely fits into the bark incision
- The bark is tightly pressed to the twig and wrapped with tape or other material.
- The place of operation, as well as the upper part of the handle, is treated with garden var. After 30 days, the winding must be removed and rewound so that there is no cutting into the bark of the cuttings.
After vaccination, the wound must be covered with garden var
Video: grafting an apple tree over the bark
The number of grafted branches depends on the thickness of the stock: on a branch with a diameter of 2-3 cm pinch one stalk, 5-7 cm - two, 8-10 cm - three.
Vaccination on a stump from an old apple tree
Sometimes there are situations when there is an old apple tree in the garden that produces few fruits. In addition, after cutting the old tree, a stump may remain, which continues to grow. In the first case, the tree can be removed and get the same living stump on which to subsequently vaccinate the desired variety of apple trees.
Vaccination on a stump is used if you want to get a new variety on a living stump or in place of an old tree
The operation begins with the preparation of stock and scion and is carried out as follows:
- A stump is prepared, for which they cut off an old apple tree or refresh a cut of an old stump.
- Gently strip the stock.
Stump before vaccination carefully cleaned
- A grafted stalk is prepared, for which purpose an oblique cut on both sides is made in its lower part.
The graft must have an even and without bending cut on both sides
- Vaccination is performed in a split (you can and for the bark). To do this, with the help of an ax, a stump is split and a scion is inserted into the formed gap.
The prepared scion is inserted into a hemp cleavage
- Wrap the stock in the place of splitting with a film, and the vaccine is covered with garden var.
The place of vaccination is treated with garden var, and the trunk is tightly wrapped with tape or tape
Video: inoculation with a splitting method on the example of plum
The cambial layers on the stock and scion must necessarily coincide.
The cambial layers on the grafted graft and on the stump must necessarily coincide, otherwise splicing will not occur
If 4 shoots are spliced at once, and not 2, then the stump is split in the form of a cross and a wedge of wood is inserted into one of the splits. Two cuttings are placed in it. Then the wedge is removed and with its help the second cleft is expanded, into which 2 more shoots are inserted.
Caring for a tree after a garden operation
Trees after vaccination, regardless of the time of its implementation, need some care. So, during spring splicing, the site of the operation needs to be examined every week. It is possible to judge that the cleavage was successful and the grafted cuttings took root by the state of the kidneys. If after a couple of weeks they swelled, then leaflets began to appear, which means that the operation was successful. If after a month the kidneys did not swell, but dried out, then the vaccination failed. In this case, it is necessary to remove the winding, remove the cuttings, and treat the places of vaccination with garden putty. To ensure good growth of the scion, it is necessary to periodically remove excess shoots that grow below the vaccination site. Thus, more nutrients will come to the cuttings.
If the kidneys are swollen and leaves begin to appear, then the vaccine has taken root
If the garden operation was carried out in the fall, then the condition of the twigs is also checked after 10-14 days. If the procedure is unsuccessful, the place of vaccination should be treated with putty. It will be possible to repeat it in the spring, using new cuttings. If the branch has taken root, after 2 weeks you need to loosen the winding, as well as to spud and water the tree. It will be useful to cover the near-trunk circle with a layer of humus or compost, which will provide the apple tree with nutrients and will help to maintain moisture in the soil. To prevent damage to weak shoots by birds, you need to tie pieces of red fabric to scare them away. Immediately before the cold, the vaccination site is insulated with a plastic bag and wrapped with paper on top, which will prevent overheating from the sun.
Re-grafting an apple tree is a fascinating procedure, but at the same time requiring accuracy and adherence to the timing. The main methods of grafting an apple tree on old trees are the method for bark and splitting, due to their simplicity and good survival rate.