Usual and unusual time for vaccinating pears
With the help of fruit tree vaccinations, the possibilities of the garden are greatly expanded even in a small area. After all, one tree is able to "tolerate" several different varieties. And still the vaccine becomes almost the last opportunity to save a tree with healthy roots, but a weak or sick crown. In the end, it is a great moral satisfaction to see and understand that with your own hands it turns out to work a miracle.
Usual and unusual time for vaccinating pears
The pear is vaccinated throughout the growing season. If beginning gardeners have something “not fused” in the spring, you can try your luck in the summer. And to correct summer flaws there is an early autumn. There are even winter vaccinations that have certain specifics.
When to start pear vaccination in spring
Spring vaccination is supposed to be carried out in March-April, but whether it will be in early March, at the turn of the month or later, depends on the climate in the region. For an attentive gardener, nature itself gives an answer to the question of when to start vaccinations. Take a closer look if the ground thawed two spade bayonets deep or the kidneys are swollen, it's time to get down to work. If it suddenly freezes, vaccinations can withstand a short-term non-critical decrease in temperature. But being late is much worse, especially in areas with a short summer, because non-fused cambial layers of the scion and stock are vulnerable to autumn frosts.
Pear refers to stone fruit plants that are not prone to “cry, ” that is, gum expires when cuts on the bark or pruned shoots. Gum is a sticky juice that comes out with amber drops from wounds.
Stone-bearing suffers from gem-stoneing, the pear has no such problems
Since the pear is devoid of this feature, it is inoculated during the period of sap flow. As soon as a stable temperature is established + 10 ° C during the day and 0 ... + 2 ° C and higher at night, the kidneys will swell and turn light brown, so it’s time to prepare the tools and grafting material. It is difficult to say with certainty in what exact month the tree will be ready for grafting. In the southern regions this happens at the beginning of March, and in Siberia at the end of April, and year after year is not necessary.
The beginning of work can also be determined by the state of the bark . In spring, the cambial layer (it is he who is responsible for the growth and accretion of the scion) begins to grow, acquires a saturated green color, becomes “juicy”. Due to this, the cortex with the cambial layer is easily separated from the trunk, which is necessary for budding or vaccination for the cortex. The test for separability of the bark is carried out with the tip of a knife literally a couple of millimeters, immersing it in the bark and slightly picking it up. If it lags behind easily, then the time for vaccination has come. After testing, the wound is covered with garden var.
The cambial layer is very thin, but it depends on it whether the graft will take root
In our area, in the Donbass, the season of grafting of pome plants is about to begin. Opening the refrigerator, I look with lust at the cuttings - they seem to sleep. It was harvested in March, the neighbors had a “fat” branch cut down from the south side of the crown (what can you do, the Internet is a priority). And although frosts had passed at that time, damp, piercing to the bones, reigned in the atmosphere. It was these bad factors that made it possible for me to immediately prepare the cuttings. Since April 8, the sun has been breaking out on the street, the buds on the trees seem to crackle, so the leaves are bursting inside. Daytime temperature ranges from 12–15 ° C, nighttime temperature has risen to +6, which means that I will soon vaccinate. Once I already tried to spend the summer budding of the apple tree, but I did not take into account the main negative factor - the heat. And it becomes more aggressive year after year, in the sun it is more than 45 ° C. Therefore, I decided to get a second experience in the spring, our April is often the most “affectionate” month.
Swollen and expanding kidneys indicate that vaccination has arrived
Beginning of pear vaccinations by region:
- The middle strip, Moscow Region - 2-3 decades of April;
- Northwest region - at the end of April;
- Urals, Siberia - end of April - second decade of May;
- Ukraine - mid-March - early April;
- South of Russia - February-March.
My mother does vaccinations in the suburbs even in the snow. Last year I also had vaccinations in the snow on March 9th. Everyone took root. The main thing is that the cuttings are pretty and the right combination.
Features of vaccinations in the northern regions
Due to the peculiar climatic conditions, the Ural gardeners have a specific “schedule” of vaccinations. Mature eyes begin to appear here in early June, by the end of the month they are already 3-4 on the shoot, in August - 10-15 pieces. In a difficult climate, it is not necessary to wait for the maturation of the annual shoot and, therefore, the maturation of all eyes. To this is added the fact that the sap flow here almost does not stop and does not have a pronounced first and second wave. Therefore, budding in the Urals smoothly flows from spring to summer. Thus, it is possible to plant a pear from the end of April to August 5–20. The last vaccinations are carried out 15–20 days before the average temperature drops to + 15 ° C.
Advantages and disadvantages of spring vaccination
The light side refers to the fact that the tree after hibernation actively starts growing, its regenerative abilities are high and the cambium grows together quickly. The result is visible after 2-3 months, and if you fail, in the summer you can make a second attempt.
A little comfortable working conditions overshadow the picture - the wind, tangible coolness. It is also unclear how successfully the stockstock have wintered, and mud and puddles make it difficult to climb to the object.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Vaccination in summer
If the spring deadlines are missed or something “has not grown together”, for example, the bark did not come off or the slices were clumsy, the pear is planted in the summer. At this time, the second wave of sap flow begins, that is, the same internal processes occur as in the spring. And the readiness of the bark is checked similarly to spring testing. Bark becomes elastic from about mid-July, and then they begin to vaccinate pears. Depending on weather conditions, work can be carried out until the beginning of September. The specifics of summer vaccination are determined by heat and irregular rains, therefore, dry air, so it is better to work in the morning or in the evening. "Transplanted" kidneys are covered with cellophane and shaded with foil . If the need is ripened for grafting with a cuttings, which happens infrequently, do this between about July 1 and August 10.
The grafted kidney is wrapped in cellophane so that it does not dry out from the summer heat
Duration of vaccinations:
- Midland, Moscow Region - end of July - first decade of August;
- North-West - end of July - beginning of August;
- Non-Black Earth - the second half of July-August 15;
- Ural, Siberia - in the first week of August;
- Ukraine - from the second decade of July and throughout the month;
- Southern regions - August.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages include the fact that you do not have to bother with the procurement and storage of cuttings, time lost in spring is saved. It is possible to visually determine whether the stock is healthy, and the results of the vaccination will be known in the current season. The procedure can be performed several times.
The main disadvantage is hot weather, when it is difficult to “catch” a gray day, vaccinations require protection from overheating and drying out.
Vaccinations at this time of the year are not widely practiced due to the inconstancy of autumn weather - more capricious than in spring. Little time is allocated for autumn vaccinations - the beginning of September is a plus or minus week and the results are relatively worse than in summer or autumn .
Vaccination start dates:
- Midland, Moscow Region - the first 2 weeks of September;
- Northwest region - last 3 weeks of September;
- Ukraine, southern regions - finish before the beginning of October.
Advantages and disadvantages of autumn vaccinations
Autumn is the third attempt with a failed spring and summer vaccination campaign, therefore, you can save a year; established cuttings for the next season will be hardened.
Awkward is the long wait until spring, when the final results of the vaccination will be known. Wounds on a stockstock heal more slowly because sap flow slows down; in winter, the junction is prone to frostbite. The percentage of survival is low.
Winter vaccination is carried out from December to March, using cuttings hardened by frost and dug out annual root stocks . The method of improved copying is used. Advantages of winter vaccinations are undeniable:
- No need to rush, because stock and scion are at rest;
- Depending on the nuances of storage, intergrowth occurs either already in the store or in the spring on the site;
- High percentage of survival.
For winter vaccinations, stock and scion are prepared in advance and stored indoors until spring.
How to harvest pear cuttings
At first glance, the preparation of the future scion is simple: I cut the branches I liked and ... Here the first question arises - are any branches suitable for vaccinations or should they be special?
How to select a stalk for vaccination
Cuttings are annual branches cut off by secateurs from a tree or, as it is called in scientific terms, annual growths. Such shoots are determined visually: these are the tops of branches or lateral branches that grew and lengthened during the season. The bark on them is smooth and even, with gloss, saturated color. The point on the shoot, where the annual growth begins, is indicated by a knot or thickening with transverse annular influxes - the renal ring. Here is such an annual growth and cut, leaving a fragment of a young branch with two buds on the tree. Some cut the shoot below the kidney, in order to protect young annual wood.
The renal ring is formed at the junction of wood last year and this
When to procure vaccine material
The time when you should stock up on vaccination material - cuttings or kidneys depends on the time and type of vaccination.
- In autumn - after leaf fall, when a wave of cold weather has already passed from -10 ° C to 16 ° C, cuttings are cut. They are already sufficiently hardened and “disinfected” by frost. A huge plus in the autumn harvest is that the young shoots will not freeze if an abnormal frost occurs or in early spring, when it is still cold.
- If the winter is mild and the temperature does not fall below -20 ° C, there is no difference when to cut the cuttings in December or February.
- At the junction of winter and spring, it also turns out to prepare good cuttings. The bonus is that such material does not have to be stored for a long time.
- Summer vaccinations are performed immediately, so cuttings or buds are cut immediately before vaccination so that the slices do not dry out. In this case, the score goes not even for hours, but for minutes. Let's just say, summer cuttings should be lignified at the bottom. To find such in June is difficult, but in July, and almost all of them are ready for pruning.
Not every gardener has enough free time to often visit the garden. A working person only has time to work with trees, which is a weekend. For those who like to organize their work, focusing on signs or “good” days, do not forget to look into the lunar calendar. Who knows, maybe the moon really affects vaccination survival?
|Auspicious days||Bad days|
|April||17–18, 20, 22, 24–28||16 - new moon|
30 - full moon
|May||20, 29||1 - full moon|
15 - new moon
|June||17, 25–27||13 - new moon|
28 - full moon
|July||22–25||1 - full moon|
13 - new moon
|August||18-21||11 - new moon|
26 - full moon
|September||15–17, 25||9 - new moon|
25 - the full moon at 05:52
Video: harvesting cuttings for vaccination
The generally accepted timing of vaccination is adjusted depending on local climatic conditions. The quality of the cuttings depends on their timely harvesting and storage conditions.