Triple Crown Blackberry: Triple Crown of Plenty
Blackberry has long been considered a wild berry. For industrial cultivation and breeding in household plots, breeders bred garden varieties of blackberries. The determining requirements for cultural varieties are: a pleasant taste of berries, large-fruited, adjustable productivity, the absence of prickly spikes on the stems for convenient picking berries. One of the best varieties that fully meets these requirements is the Triple Crown.
History of growing Blackberry Triple Crown
The main varieties of garden blackberries come from America and Mexico, where this plant has rightfully been appreciated for its high yield and wonderful taste. The mild climate of the temperate latitudes of the North American continent makes it possible to grow this berry on blackberry farms and in fields with mass harvesting.
Blackberry Triple Crown will delight both the taste and the size of berries
Blackberry Triple Crown (Triple Crown) was obtained in 1996 in the agricultural laboratory of Beltsville in Maryland (USA) and the Pacific Western Research Station. The basis for the new variety was the plants of the creeping Blackberry Columbia Star and the upright Black Magic. As a result of eight years of experiments conducted in Oregon, a blackberry variety with new qualities was obtained. These are unpretentiousness in cultivation, convenience in service and processing, high productivity. As a result, the piggy bank of varieties of garden blackberries replenished with another wonderful variety.
The name Triple Crown is translated from English as the Triple Crown (Papal Tiara). Blackberries of this variety are distinguished by the largest berries from dessert varieties. The unusual name is due to the remarkable properties of the plant. This is an exquisite taste of berries, strong, fast-growing shoots and a generous harvest.
Blackberry Berries Triple Crown is unusually good - large, juicy, sweet, very attractive in appearance
The berries are very large, with an average weight of 8 g, oval in shape, with small seeds. Ripe blackberry is dark purple, has a glossy sheen with a blue or burgundy hue. It grows in a plentiful bunch. Berries ripen in late July - mid-August. Ripening is extended over time, which makes it possible to harvest until the end of October. The taste of Blackberry varieties Triple Crown is sweet-sour, without cloying. A pleasant aftertaste with cherry or plum notes is noted. The berries are dense pulp, very juicy and fragrant. Blackberries are used both fresh and in the form of various preparations - jam, compote, jam, juice.
A feature of the variety is the strong straight stems of the semi-spreading type, whose length reaches 6–7 meters. The growth force of the shoots is simply amazing - in the first year the lashes grow up to 2 m. The branches are directed up or to the sides. The shoots are completely devoid of thorns, which allows you to comfortably harvest. The leaves are bright green, serrated, in shape and density resemble currant.
By time of maturation, the Triple Crown belongs to medium-late varieties. The standard yield of the variety is 13–15 kg of berries from one bush, which is the highest among the non-studded dessert varieties.
For most regions of Russia, the Triple Crown is a new variety; cultivation is only mastered. But, given the unique qualities of the variety, it has good prospects for development.
Large sweet-sour Triple Crown berries ripen gradually - from late July to late October
Key Features Blackberry Triple Crown
According to the agrotechnical classification, the blackberry belongs to the Rosaceae family, the genus of raspberries, the subgenus of the blackberry. A comparative analysis of raspberry and blackberry varieties allows us to conclude that, with similar indicators, the yield of the latter is 2-3 times higher. The harvested crop does not lose its presentation and quality of berries for 7–10 days at a storage temperature of + 5 to +7 ºС. This allows you to transport the crop for several days and over long distances. The period of plant vegetation is also of certain importance. The risk of damage to peduncles by spring frosts is minimal, since blackberries bloom later than raspberries.
For growing blackberry seedlings, the Triple Corona is most suitable for areas with a temperate climate, i.e., warm, long summers and mild, snowy winters. These plants belong to the summer type of fruiting, therefore, in most regions of Russia they need protection from the adverse factors of the autumn-winter period. For guaranteed good wintering, it is necessary to create conditions in advance for the timely passage of critical phases of development by the plant. An important role is played by the correct choice of a place for growing blackberries, qualitative indicators of soil composition, rational use of fertilizers, regular watering.
In the northern regions of Russia, where there is a risk of the ripening of the Triple Crown berries, there are subtleties in spring pruning of plants: leave only the strongest, most viable stems, and cut the shoots of substitution to the maximum. In this case, the harvest will not be so plentiful, but the blackberry will ripen sooner before the first winter colds.
Important: before the first frosts, the blackberry shoots must be ripe and completely healthy, and the root system is well developed.
Blackberry varieties Triple Crown has a number of undoubted advantages:
- large sweet berries of high quality;
- the ability to maintain presentation in long-term storage and transportation;
- the ripening period is long (from 2 to 3 months, it depends on the region of cultivation), while the size of the berries is the same throughout the entire period of fruiting;
- plants are resistant to diseases and are not affected by pests;
- in summer, at high air temperatures, the berries do not dry out, but in case of extreme heat they require shading;
- undemanding to the quality of the soil - plants develop well on any type of soil, provided there is sufficient watering and fertilizer;
- serves as a real decoration of the garden: in spring, blackberry bushes are covered with large white or light pink flowers, in summer and autumn - spectacular, shiny black and dark red berries;
- the absence of thorns on the branches facilitates mass harvesting, so growing blackberries can be of industrial importance.
For all its merits, the Triple Crown variety has some disadvantages:
- insufficient winter hardiness of bushes - in the northern regions, with the early onset of autumn cold weather, the crop sometimes does not have time to ripen in full;
- the need for sheltering plants for the winter period - in autumn, shoots are removed from the support before frost and cover with protective material.
The production of blackberries is so technologically advanced and cost-effective that over the past 15 years it has significantly replaced raspberries in many producing countries. A dynamic increase in the area for blackberries is observed in Spain, Ireland, France, Hungary, Bulgaria and Poland. And Serbia, Croatia, Montenegro even established the production of wine from its berries.V.V. Yakimov, experienced gardener, Samara
Gardens of Russia Magazine, No 2, February 2011
Features of planting and growing
Like all plants that live in gardens and gardens, blackberries have their own growing characteristics. The main stages: planting, top dressing, watering, seasonal pruning and shelter for the winter.
Site selection and planting seedlings
Blackberry grows best on loose, breathable loams of medium acidity (pH 5.5–6.0). Although the presence of a large amount of organic matter in the soil will help increase productivity. A layer of humus with a thickness of about 25 cm will be quite enough to improve the condition of the soil. When planting, it must be taken into account that the blackberry does not like the increased moisture content of the soil, because at the same time its root system undergoes significant cooling in spring and autumn. The result may be a decrease in resistance to cold and a slowdown in the growth and development of the plant. In the place where it is planned to break the berry, the distance from the groundwater level to the surface of the earth should not exceed 1–1.5 m.
Important: you can not grow blackberries in areas with high salinity, marshy, as well as on sandy and rocky soils.
When choosing a place to plant a blackberry, you should give preference to an open area of space, preferably south or southwest orientation. Shading leads to a slow growth of young shoots, and the berries are smaller and become tasteless. If possible, it is best to plant blackberry bushes along the fence. In this case, the fence will act as a natural protection of plants from the wind, and shoots from damage. So that the fence does not greatly obscure the plants, the distance from it to a row of bushes should be about 1 m.
By planting blackberry bushes along the mesh fence of the site, you can get a beautiful hedge
Before planting seedlings in the ground on the site, it is necessary to carry out preparatory work. To do this, 2-3 weeks before the proposed planting, the soil needs to be dug up. As a rule, digging depths of 30–35 cm are sufficient. This will help to get rid of weeds, which, during the period of growth of young seedlings, can take nutrients from the soil.
- Digging a landing hole. The blackberry bush has a developed powerful root system, so the place for planting should be quite spacious. The most suitable would be a pit with a width and depth of 0.5 m.
- Pre-prepared fertilizers are mixed with the soil from the dump; the resulting mixture is filled into the planting pit by about 2/3 of the volume.
- During planting, the sapling is held upright, its roots are carefully spread.
During planting, the roots need to be straightened, and the root neck should be deepened into the pit no more than 3-5 cm
- The remaining mixture is poured into the pit to the very top, not reaching a soil level of 1–2 cm. The depression formed in this way under the seedling will help rational moisturization of the root system.
- Then the soil in the pit is compacted, and after planting the seedling must be watered. 5–6 liters of water will be sufficient for irrigation.
- In order to prevent the appearance of a crust on the soil and protect the young plant from weeds, as well as give additional nutrition to the roots, it is advisable to mulch the trunk circle. For this, organic material is suitable - sawdust, peat or rotted manure.
After watering, you need to mulch the trunk circle with organic material
Organic and mineral fertilizers used for planting blackberries:
- compost or humus 5–7 kg;
- superphosphate 120 g;
- potassium sulfate 40 g
Table: the distance between blackberry seedlings depending on the type of planting
|Type of landings||The distance between|
|Garden (personal) plot||2.5–3 m||2–2.5 m|
|Farm||2.5 m||1.2–1.5 m|
In recent years, we have come to the conclusion that the most suitable option for our region is a dense planting of bushless varieties of blackberry bushes, so we reduced the intervals in new plantings to one meter between bushes in a row. In a rather dry climate of the Middle Volga region, such a planting scheme seemed justified: berries were less baked in the sun in the summer heat, watering costs decreased, and productivity increased due to more intensive use of the land at the same cost of trellises and fertilizers.V.V. Yakimov, experienced gardener, Samara
Gardens of Russia Magazine, No. 1, January 2012
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When choosing a time for planting in open ground, preference should be given to spring planting. Seedlings are planted in early spring until the buds of the plant have blossomed. The ambient temperature should not fall below + 15ºС.
Annual seedlings must be with a closed root system, i.e., be in containers or boxes. You need to pay attention to this when purchasing seedlings. Two-year-old blackberry seedlings have thicker lignified roots, they can be planted in open ground with an open root system (separating the plant from the uterine bush). Saplings of any age must have a growth bud. When planting, the seedling is cut to 30–40 cm. After planting, young plants need to be regularly watered for 40–50 days.
Blackberry plants are freed from shelter in early spring until buds open, preventing leaves from appearing, as tender and juicy leaves die after thawing even at mild freezing temperatures. And in plants, raised in a timely manner, the leaves will appear gradually and become more resistant to frost.I.A. Bohan, candidate agricultural Sciences, Bryansk
Gardens of Russia Magazine, No. 9, December 2010
Blackberry cultivation on a trellis
Given that blackberries have shoots up to 7 m long, growing this plant requires the use of a special design - trellis, which is made of copper or galvanized steel wire with a diameter of 3-4 mm or a mesh with the same parameters. For fastening the wire, wooden or metal supports are used, concreted or dug into the ground. The height of the supports usually does not exceed 2 m (the height of a person with a raised hand). The wire is installed in tiers in increments of 50 cm, starting from a distance of 0.5–0.8 m from the ground level to a height of 1.8 m. The preferred installation height of the upper tier is 1.6–1.7 m.
To securely fix the blackberry shoots on the trellis, various methods are used, including weaving. In the spring, after being released from winter shelter, shoots that will yield in the summer are tied to the upper tier of trellis, 1-2 times wound around the wire and tied to the middle tier. Then the stems are lifted and tied again to the upper tier, after which they are fixed. Annual young shoots are fixed on the lower tier, 2-3 times wrapping around the wire.
Depending on the length of the shoots, there are different types of blackberry garter on the trellis: in the form of a spiral, in the form of a wave, the garter in a straight line
Feeding and watering
Fertilizing is of great importance in the process of growing blackberries and contributes to the proper development and sustainable fruiting. Fertilize plants in spring and autumn in accordance with the table. It should be borne in mind that if full fertilizer was applied during planting, then the next top dressing is done no earlier than two years later.
Feeding plants should only be after watering.
Together with the application of fertilizers, it is desirable to spray the shoots with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid. This will prevent the development of microorganisms.
Table: blackberry top dressing with mineral and organic fertilizers
|Frequency of fertilizer application||Type of fertilizer (quantity per 1 m²)|
|Annually||6-8 kg||6-8 kg||50 g||-||-|
|Once every 3-4 years||8 kg||8 kg||-||100 g||30 g|
The deep occurrence of the root system of plants determines the drought tolerance of the Triple Crown. But the plants still need regular and sufficient watering, especially when the crops are ripening or in very hot weather. The optimal volume of water when watering an adult blackberry bush is about 15–20 liters per week. Drip irrigation is recommended, in which moisture uniformly and gradually penetrates the soil, without over-moistening it, but also not overdrying.
Timely pruning of blackberry bushes makes it possible to maintain their shape, as well as regulate the density of plants. On an annual shoot, all inflorescences should be removed. This will stimulate the development of roots instead of plant growth of green mass. In biennial seedlings, the shoots are shortened, leaving stems 1.5–1.8 m long. Pruning is done in early spring until the buds open.
Parts of the stems that are frozen in winter are cut to the nearest living kidney. Thinning blackberry bushes in the spring, usually leave from 8 to 12 shoots. A smaller number of stems left allows you to accelerate the ripening of berries and increase their size.
To enhance growth and development in the summer, plants should be re-thinned. Choose five - seven of the strongest shoots, the remaining annual branches are cut. The tops of the remaining annuals are shortened by 8–10 cm. During autumn pruning, shoots bearing fruit in the summer are cut to the root.
In order to prepare annual shoots for winter shelter in advance, in the spring a branch 30-30 cm long is tilted and fixed on the soil surface using hooks or staples. Thanks to this arrangement, the shoot grows in the horizontal direction, which will make it easy to cover it for the winter.
Video: Autumn pruning blackberry
Shelter for the winter
Like most blackberry varieties, the Triple Crown has low winter hardiness and does not withstand extreme cold. Frosts critical to it are already up to 18–20 ° С. To preserve plants during wintering, in the autumn after pruning, they are prepared for shelter for the winter. The stems are first bundled, then laid on the ground. To fix the laid shoots, special brackets or hooks are used. It is necessary to prepare the blackberry for wintering before the first frost, since at an air temperature of -1 ° C the stems become brittle and brittle.
There are several ways to lay the stems: bending the shoots to one side and tying the tops to the base of a neighboring bush; tilting shoots towards each other and linking them together as close as possible to the base of the bush; "Braiding" along a row. With any of the above methods, the shoots after laying should be no higher than 30-40 cm above the soil.I.A. Bohan, candidate agricultural Sciences, Bryansk
Gardens of Russia Magazine, No. 9, December 2010
Stems laid in this way are covered with a special protective material such as spunbond, usually in two layers. For the regions of central Russia with their snowy winters, such shelter is quite enough. You can use sawdust, a dense synthetic film, and also coniferous branches for shelter. Using conifers will additionally protect the shoots from rodents .
The color of the protective material does not really matter
For blackberries, the most dangerous time is the winter - the period when the snow has not yet fallen, and the frost has already begun . It is important to cover plants before the first frosts. It is also advisable during the winter to additionally throw snow on them, arranging high snowdrifts.
Video: preparing a blackberry for wintering
This year the Triple Crown variety (Zolotaya Korona, translated ...) showed itself very well. The berry was just a wall ... The quality of the berries in this variety is excellent, sweet, very dense and very large ... According to the characteristics of the originator, Triple Crown is a medium-yield variety (up to 12 kg from the bush), but he gave me so many berries this season that he even doubted whether this is so? Photos in June and August.Svetlana-Minchanka
How much partial shade, how many hours under the sun? What is the description? Blackberries require a lot of sun and heat. There is nothing terrible in such an increase. The crown will still show itself until the fall. “Push” in June is still possible. Any nitrogen-containing fertilizer for berry growers in recommended doses is suitable. The variety is excellent, the bush is very powerful. Winters well, naturally lying under cover (I only have 50 Polish spanbond on top twice)Yuri-67, Kiev
Of course, with regard to the late ripening blackberry, the triple crown is called the queen here. This plant never fails; the blackberry season closes with baskets of magnificent berries. For productivity and long fruiting, some summer residents call it, jokingly "a workhorse." Blackberry variety The Triple Crown is tall (up to 3 meters), studless, with excellent quality berries. Indeed, they are sweet, tasty, uniform, with small seeds, almost imperceptible, very large, gathered in a bunch. The highest yield of more than 15 kg per bush. This variety occupies an intermediate position between two species of blackberries (cumanica and sundew), respectively, a semi-upright bush type (shoots and creeping and straight). I took the best from the “parents”: in taste it is closer to the sundew, and in the shape of the bush and the absence of thorns, to the fog. This is a transitional form, the most common among blackberry varieties. Late-ripening variety bears fruit from August to October inclusive. Needs a strong, high trellis. The bush is plastic, easily bends to the ground during covering from frost. It tolerates heat well, the berries are not baked. She is not afraid of cold weather, but in order to avoid damage to flower buds and young seedlings, it is better to shelter for the winter. The variety has great commercial value.Kirill, Moscow
The agricultural technology of growing the Triple Crown is not particularly difficult. Spiked bushes develop well on any type of soil. You just need to take care of the shelter of the blackberry for the winter, and she will thank the gardener with a generous harvest of magnificent berries.