Topping cherries: basic fertilizers and the rules for their application
Cherry, like any other garden crop, needs regular care, including top dressing. There are several rules that you need to familiarize yourself with before starting this event, as well as studying the fertilizers used and their properties.
The main types of fertilizers and their characteristics
To feed cherries, a large number of fertilizers are used. Gardeners successfully use both organics and minerals. Familiarize yourself with the main characteristics and the minimum and maximum dosage (more details are given in the table).
Do not forget that all fertilizers must be applied to pre-moistened soil.
Urea is used for root and foliar top dressing
Urea is a popular fertilizer used by many gardeners. Contains nitrogen (46%), necessary for the development of green mass of the plant. It is recommended to use in combination with potassium salt if you are carrying out root dressing. Depending on the age of the cherry, you will need 50 to 300 g per 1 tree for top dressing.
The best water temperature for preparing a urea solution is 80 ° C.
Urea is also used for coccomycosis. This dangerous fungal disease is very contagious and can affect not only cherry trees, but also other crops, such as apricot. For the prevention and control of it, 3-5% (30-50 g of urea + 10 l of water) solution is used. They need to wash the cherries in early to mid-October.
When the cherry is damaged by coccomycosis, its leaves turn yellow and holes appear on them
Superphosphate is an essential component of autumn top dressing
Superphosphate is one of the most commonly used fertilizers by gardeners, with many beneficial properties. It contains a nutrient - phosphorus (20–50%), due to which top dressing helps to slow down the aging of the cherry bush, increase the taste of berries, and the formation of the root system. With a lack of phosphorus, the leaves of the plant turn purple (sometimes only on the reverse side) and become covered with yellow spots.
If the plant lacks phosphorus, then purple spots form on it
Simple superphosphate goes well with nitrogen fertilizers, double - with potassium salts. It is not combined with ammonium nitrate, chalk and urea, so take a break of 7-10 days between applications of these fertilizers.
100–150 g of substance is used per 1 m2.
Potassium fertilizers must be used carefully to feed cherries, because cherries are sensitive to chlorine.
Potassium chloride and potassium salt are often used to feed cherries.
Potassium chloride is often used by gardeners to feed fruit trees. This fertilizer improves the growth and development of the root system, positively affects winter hardiness and drought tolerance, activates shoot growth, which increases productivity, and the fruits themselves become more sugary and fleshy.
Potassium chloride is available in various forms, and for feeding cherry it is better to choose granular (otherwise it is also called seeds).
Potassium salt is also a source of potassium, which helps to improve metabolism and increase the immunity of the plant. Cherry has an average resistance to chlorine, which is part of this fertilizer, so carefully follow the dosage when feeding. No more than 40 g rely on a seedling, about 100 g on an adult tree.
There are several types of ammonium nitrate that can be used to fertilize cherries.
Ammonium nitrate, like urea, is a source of nitrogen necessary for the growth of plants, especially young ones. For feeding cherries, you can use simple ammonium nitrate (it can even replace urea), as well as ammonia-potassium, which can improve the taste of fruits thanks to the potassium in its composition.
The maximum dosage of this fertilizer is -150 g for a seedling and 300 g for an adult tree, if you want to use saltpeter instead of urea.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Compost is a popular organic fertilizer with which you can enrich the soil with useful substances. Since cherries require regular top dressing, you must be able to properly prepare such a mixture. In a container or on the ground, lay a layer of peat (10-15 cm), on it - vegetable debris (leaves, vegetable tops, straw). Pour the stock with a solution of chicken manure or manure (1 part of manure to 20 parts of water or 1 part of manure to 10 parts of water, insist for 10 days). On 1 m2 of the workpiece, add 400 g of ammonium nitrate, 200 g of potassium sulfate and 500 g of double superphosphate. Fill the blank with a layer of earth or peat (10 cm). Cover with foil. After 2 months, the pile needs to be shoveled, and after 4 months from the moment of preparation, the compost is ready for use. 5 kg is enough for a young tree, at least 30 kg for an adult.
Ash saturates the soil with plenty of nutrients
Ash is an affordable and useful fertilizer containing a large amount of substances necessary for the growth and development of plants. Ash is rich in potassium and phosphorus, and also contains sulfur, zinc, iron, magnesium and calcium. Feeding with ash or ash solution can improve metabolic processes, regulate water balance and increase winter hardiness of cherry trees.
Ash Application Description
In horticulture, lime is used not only for whitewashing, but also to reduce the acidity of the soil and saturate it with useful substances. So, calcium contained in lime helps cherries increase immunity, improve metabolism and strengthen the walls of blood vessels, which will beneficially affect the root system of the bush. Liming should be done once every 4–5 years, especially if you use organics for top dressing. For alumina, light and loamy soils, 400–600 g / m2 will be needed, for heavy, clay soils, 500–800 g / m2.
Signs of acidic soil are the appearance on the surface of green moss, horsetail, puddles with rusty water or light bloom.
In addition, lime is often used in the fight against coccomycosis. One of the control measures is whitewashing a tree. Composition of the mixture: hydrated lime (2 kg) + copper sulfate (300 g) + water (10 l).
Whitewashing cherries will help cope with coccomycosis
The introduction of dolomite into the soil will help reduce acidity, as well as fertilize it
Dolomite flour, as well as lime, is used to lower the acidity of the soil and improve its quality. The introduction of dolomite contributes to the saturation of the soil with nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium, positively affects the development of beneficial microorganisms and helps fight insect pests. The application rate of 500-600 g per 1 m2.
If you need to reduce the acidity of the soil, then when choosing a suitable product, focus on the time of year: lime copes with oxidation more efficiently, but it can only be used in early spring or late autumn. Dolomite is used at any time of the year. In addition, it is recommended to treat the peeled soils with it.
Description of mineral fertilizers
Topping cherries: scheme and rules for fertilizing
So that top dressing does not damage the cherry, you must follow the rules for fertilizing.
To care for cherries, you need to leave the trunk circle
In order to ensure the correct feeding of cherries, do not forget to make a trunk circle. A near-stem circle is a cultivated area of soil around a trunk where some fertilizers are applied (for example, mineral salts). The introduction of other fertilizers (for example, organics or solutions), as well as irrigation, is carried out in the outer furrow of the near-stem circle. The width of such a furrow should be 20-30 cm, depth - 20-25 cm.
The diameter of the trunk circle varies with the age of the cherry:
- In the first year, irrigate in a circle at a distance of 10-15 cm from the seedling.
- In the second year, the near-stem circle will be held at a distance of 25–35 cm from the seedling.
- In the third year, the distance will increase to 40-50 cm.
- In the fourth and subsequent years, when the crown is finally formed, the borders of the trunk circle should coincide with the boundaries of the crown. Some gardeners assume that the diameter of the trunk circle is 1.5 times the diameter of the crown.
Watering and top dressing are carried out in the outer furrow of the trunk circle
Cherry top dressing by years - summary table
This scheme is universal and can be used in all regions.
|Cherry age||1 year||2 year||3 year||4 year|| If you have fertilized in a timely manner, and your tree develops correctly (bears fruit, does not turn yellow before the time, etc.), then you can switch to a less frequent mode of feeding. To do this, it will be necessary to apply 300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium chloride and 1 time in 4 years to organic matter (30 kg of humus or compost in 1 external groove) once every 3 years in the autumn near the trunk.|
If the cherry grows poorly (weakly forms shoots, does not bear fruit, etc.) and it lacks nutrients, then annual feeding should be carried out for another 3 years.
Perform preventive soil liming once every 5 years.
If you use lime, first dig the soil, and then sprinkle the powder on the surface. Do not forget that you can use lime either in early spring or in autumn, around the end of September. Also, do not carry out the liming procedure simultaneously with nitrogen (urea) and organic (compost) fertilizers.
|5-6 year||7 year||Cherry is considered fully fertilized and no longer needs annual feeding. 1 time in 2 years in the spring add urea and 1 time in 4 years to the organics in the same doses as for the 7th year after planting a seedling. Liming is carried out once every 5 years according to the same rules.|
|Spring period||Prepare the landing pit. Parameters: depth - 40–50 cm, diameter - 50–80 cm. ||Starting from the third year from the moment of planting, the cherry begins to bear fruit, therefore, it requires frequent top dressing. ||At the beginning and mid-April, add 150 g of urea to the trunk circle and dig over the soil.||In the early to mid-April, pour the external grooves with a solution of ammofoski (30 g of the drug per 10 liters of water). Each tree should take 30 liters.||In mid-April, add 300 g of urea to the near-stem circle and dig.|
|Summer period||No top dressing||No top dressing||Summer treatment should be carried out during the appearance and development of the ovary, as well as during the ripening of the fruit. ||At the end of July - beginning of August, add 300 g of double superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulfate to the near-stem circle.||No top dressing||Feeding is not carried out.|
|Autumn period||No top dressing||Option number 1|
In the period from mid to late October, dig a near-stem circle and add 2-3 kg of humus and mineral fertilizers (100 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride / m2) into it.
Option No. 2 (for acidic soil)
In the period from mid to late October, dig a near-stem circle and add 2-3 kg of humus to it, and 2 kg of dolomite flour into the outer furrow.
|In mid-September, add compost or humus to the outer furrow at the rate of 20 kg per 1 tree and dig it up.||Feeding is not carried out.||In mid-September, add a mineral mixture to the trunk circle: double superphosphate (400 g) + potassium sulfate (150 g). Dig the ground.|
At the end of September, fertilize the outer furrows, adding 40 kg of humus to each tree.
Some gardeners claim that the fertilizer applied during planting should be enough for the first 3-4 years of cherry life. In this case, it is recommended to pay attention to the length of the branches: if the growth is less than 30–40 cm annually, then the cherry should be fed according to the specified scheme.
Rules for feeding garden trees - video
As you can see, cherries, although it requires careful care, but it is uncomplicated and quite affordable even for beginner gardeners. Follow all the rules and recommendations in a timely manner, and you will ensure yourself a quality crop.