Timiryazev's memory - a plum variety with a long history
The famous plum Memory of Timiryazev is the patriarch of Russian gardens. This is an amazingly persistent and solid variety. And the bright rosy fruits, densely stuck around the autumn branches, are a long-awaited reward to summer residents for patience and care.
The story of the creation of plum varieties Pamyat Timiryazev
Plum Timiryazev's memory was obtained from crossing Victoria and Skorospelka red varieties. The authors are agronomist-pomologists V. A. Efimov, H. K. Enikeev and S. N. Satarova. After the long variety testing in 1959, the plum was included in the State Register with the recommendation to cultivate it in the Penza region of the Middle Volga region, as well as several regions of the Central:
Even unripe plums of the Pamyat Timiryazev variety look appetizing
Description of the tree and fruits
Trees of this variety are medium-sized with a spreading crown of a hemispherical shape. Light brown shoots grow on them. The leaf blade is medium in size, light green, with a slight wrinkle, has a characteristic pubescence on the underside.
Flowering of this plum usually occurs in the second decade of May . The corolla is white, the stigma of the pestle protrudes above the anthers of the stamens. The flowers densely cling to annual shoots and bouquet twigs. Some summer residents recommend limiting the number of ovaries, which positively affects the quality of the crop.
Plum Timiryazev's memory gives a lot of flowers, which is why some summer residents recommend limiting the number of ovaries in order to achieve high yields
The fruits of the variety Pamyat Timiryazev are medium-sized, round-oval, weighing 22–25 g. The peel is yellow with many red dots and a bright blush on the side facing the sun. The surface of the fruit is not pubescent, covered with a pronounced wax coating. The pulp is also yellow, dense, juicy, aromatic. The plum bones are oval, small (weigh less than 6% of the weight of the fetus), are easily separated. The dense pulp provides the fruit with excellent preservation during transportation.
The fruits are universal in application: they are consumed fresh, in billets, they are also tasty in marinade as a side dish for meat dishes.
I have already refused the heat treatment of fruits, as my household does not perceive jams and jams. Better in winter is a compote of freshly plum. The fruits, without defrosting, pour boiling water, bring to a boil over medium heat and turn off. For 3 liters of compote, add only 2-3 tablespoons of sugar. Plums remain dense, do not boil, and the compote itself is not sugary, fresh, pleasantly drunk.
Before freezing, it is better to remove the seeds from the sink, then they can be used immediately from the refrigerator
Another way to preserve the crop is to rub it with sugar. To do this, separate my fresh fruits from the seeds, scroll through a meat grinder and add sugar in a ratio of 1: 1.5. Stir the resulting mass thoroughly with a wooden spoon until sugar is completely dissolved, pour into jars. Thanks to the allocated pectin, the mass is well gelled and stored outside the refrigerator. This preparation can then be diluted with water to taste and drunk as fruit drink, used as a layer for baking or served with breakfast with fresh pancakes and sour cream. Vitamins and aroma of plum with this method of processing are not lost.
Timiryazev's memory is a medium-late self-fertile plum variety. The fruit ripens in late August and early September. The frequency in fruiting is not very pronounced (in the description on the VNIISPK website, it was noted that the crop failure was 5 times over the past 16 years). Due to the high self-fertility, the crop on the trees ripens almost every year.
The variety is quick-growing, when planting annual seedlings after three to four years they receive the first fruits. For especially impatient summer residents, it is possible to get an even earlier crop by grafting the variety on an existing adult stock. In this case, the abundance of plum fruits will please the next year.
Trees are durable, grow and actively bear fruit until 20–21. The plum variety Pamyat Timiryazev is characterized by high productivity:
- young trees produce 9–11 kg of fruit;
- 20–25 kg of excellent quality plums are harvested from an adult tree. Maximum yield - 35 kg!
Among the disadvantages of the variety, low winter hardiness of wood is noted. However, she has a pronounced regenerative ability, allowing to recover after a lesion. Shoots and buds are more resistant to frost.
Young plums not too resistant to frost. It’s better to wrap Timiryazev’s memory for the winter, by the way, such a shelter will also provide reliable protection against rodents
Planting plum varieties Pamyat Timiryazev
For seedlings, well-lit areas located 1.5–2 m above the groundwater level are chosen. Between the nearest trees leave a gap of at least 3–3.5 m. Plum does not like shade.
Trees growing in open spaces receive full heat and light from the sun, which provides the fruit with a rich aroma and sweet taste. Outside the recommended zone, in more northern regions, this variety is also growing. Due to vitality and self-fertility, it can give a good harvest, but the taste of the fruits is less expressive, devoid of the richness of the shades for which it is cultivated by true connoisseurs.
The best time for planting plum seedlings is considered spring. On a free, well-lit area, protected from cold northern winds, they dig a landing pit with a diameter of 80 cm and a depth of 60–70 cm.
In clay areas with acidic soil, it is important to separate the surface fertile layer. Lower non-productive formations are removed. To deoxidize and fertilize the soil, dolomite flour (3-5 kg) is thoroughly mixed with the upper sod layer of the earth, rotted manure (2-3 buckets) and wood ash (1 l). There are enough nutrients at such filling of a landing hole for 2-3 years.
- At a quarter of the depth of the pit, limestone gravel is poured to drain and provide the tree with calcium.
- Sprinkle with a knoll the soil mixture on which the seedling is placed.
Before installing the plum sapling in the hole, make a mound to spread the roots on it
- Fill up the remaining soil, shaking the tree slightly so that there are no voids.
- On the south side of the seedlings have a landing stake and tied.
- Gently ram the soil around the stem so that the root neck rises 4–5 cm above the ground. With further subsidence, it will be in its place.
The root neck when planting the plum should be 4-5 cm above ground level
- An irrigation hole is formed, where 2-3 buckets of settled water are gradually introduced, adding each time, as soon as the moisture is absorbed.
- The trunk circle is mulched with humus, peat, rotted sawdust or freshly cut grass. This makes it possible to retain moisture and keep the surface soil layer loose.
Video: planting plum with fertilizer planting pit
After planting, the stem is cut to a height of 45-50 cm.
Features of cultivation and care
If during planting the pit was filled with fertilizers (as mentioned below), then they will be enough for 2 years of seedling growth. In the third year in the spring, you can add 1-2 tablespoons of urea per well. In summer, add 2 tablespoons of simple or 1 tablespoon of double superphosphate, and 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate under each tree. To feed potassium, you can add 200 ml of wood ash under each tree. Instead of mineral fertilizers, 1 bucket of rotted manure or humus is suitable.
It is important not to use fresh manure, as it contains a lot of nitrogen. Nitrogen fertilizers should be given only in the early spring, so as not to stimulate the intensive growth of greenery. Phosphoric and potassium fertilizers are applied in summer and autumn.
During the growing season 2-3 times renew the layer of mulch, which inhibits the growth of weeds and, decomposing, also enriches the soil with the necessary organic compounds.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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For normal growth and development, pruning needs pruning. There are two types of cropping:
- sanitary - is reduced to the removal of sick, broken, frozen twigs. Crossing, rubbing and growing inland crowns shoots are also cut. This contributes to its better ventilation and lighting, preventing damage by pests and diseases;
- formative - its goal is to create a cup-shaped crown. Such trees do not grow large, their crown is better illuminated, so the fruits receive enough light and heat. Forming Trimming Steps:
- In the first three years, five or six strong skeletal shoots are left, directed in different directions.
- Each spring they are shortened by a third of the length.
- When the plum begins to bear fruit, remove the central conductor above the largest side branch, giving the crown the shape of a glass or bowl.
Using an apricot as an example, you can see how the formed cup-shaped crown looks like.
Watering the plum of the Variety Pamyat Timiryazev variety needs moderate, as it has medium drought tolerance. They give water after checking the condition of the soil lump under the mulch and making sure that the soil under it is dry. With excessive watering, air is expelled from the ground, which the roots need as much as moisture. During the growing season, trees are abundantly watered during flowering, the formation of the ovary, immediately after harvesting. The last, water-charging, watering is carried out in October, a month before the expected cold weather.
Diseases and Pests
Plum varieties Pamyat Timiryazeva shows high resistance to kleasterosporiosis and fruit rot, but it is rather significantly damaged by ticks and other sucking parasites.
To protect plantings from any pests and most diseases, you need to provide trees with proper care and care:
- the crown should be evenly lit by the sun, not be thickened;
- all patients affected by frost or broken shoots must be removed and destroyed on time.
Sick or broken in the summer shoots in the autumn must be removed and destroyed
For prevention, which is better than any treatment, the following activities are carried out in autumn:
- during leaf fall, the plum is treated with Bordeaux liquid, spilling shoots and soil under the trees with working solution from top to bottom;
- fallen leaves under the trees are collected and burned to exclude the possibility of the spread of fungal diseases;
- the soil around the trunk is loosened, weeds are harvested, the shoots are cut.
It is noticed that if you spray the crown of trees with a simple solution of laundry soap, spider mites run away. By the way, even a simple shower when watering significantly reduces the number of pests.
It is more difficult to get rid of the gall tick, the appearance of which can be recognized by the presence of young shoots of reddish growths on the bark. To combat this pest, systemic insecticaricides such as Danadim are needed. Before budding, against the wintering forms of pests, the drug 30 Plus (MME) is used once. The consumption of working solution for one tree is 2–2.5 liters.
The appearance of a gall mite on the plum can be recognized by the presence of young shoots of reddish growths on the bark
In case of aphid damage, the drug Biotlin is used. With an interval of two weeks, this plantations process 2-3 times all plantings, since aphids usually affect different fruit trees. Three weeks before harvesting, spraying with Biotlin is stopped.
To successfully combat aphids on a plum, all fruit trees are treated with medicinal solutions
In late autumn and early spring, the trunk and skeletal shoots of the tree are thoroughly whitened as high as possible. This protects the wood from frost pits and prevents the penetration of pests into the cracks of the bark.
Of the tested varieties that have positively proven themselves, I note the memory of Timiryazev. The variety was created in 1938 by H. Y. Enikeev. I was vaccinated in 1999, and has been bearing fruit annually since 2000, except last summer. Weight from 25 g or more, dense skin, medium-sized stone, separates well. Taste without frills, I appreciate the reliability.
I have a young plum - according to the description it is very similar to the Memory of Timiryazev, it surprised me with a change in the color of the fruits. The taste of the fruit is excellent, the bone separates poorly. This year, how it bloomed ... How it started ... Well, I thought we’ll eat the cream. SHCHAZ! The fruits began to rot and quickly (somewhere in a week and a half) all dried up and crumbled. There are a dozen left ...
Quote (Alay @ 09/13/2016, 9:30 a.m.): Cracking up !! What a big one for the Memory of Timiryazev! My were a little smaller, and the bone separates well. But perhaps due to so many years of transplantation, it has degenerated a little. I continued her shoots. About fifty years already!
Natalka78 said: I bought a plum in May Timiryazev’s plum, in 2 months the increase was more than a meter, please tell me, is this normal for plums? What did i buy?
This suggests that she is "very good." In Timiryazev's memory, winter hardiness is close to average. If the coming winter is brutal, then the plum can freeze. To prevent, it should now be somewhat limited. Nitrogen and heavy watering are prohibited (only a minimum). I apply the tweezing of the upper growth kidney. Then strong growth stops, growth grows. If you begin to pincer in July, then fruiting is possible the next year.
Variety-workaholic plum Memory Timiryazev original color filled with delicate sweetness of the fruit, the stability of the crop and weather resistance cleared his place of honor in our gardens.