Taming the exotic: growing pomegranate in the garden and at home
What exotic fruits you will not see on supermarket shelves! Thanks to the active work of breeders, farmers and logistics companies, we have the opportunity to enjoy aromatic and healthy fruits year-round. But there are people whom the purchased exotic is not able to fully satisfy. Excitement pushes them on a more difficult, but very entertaining way: to grow a curiosity on your site or at least on the windowsill. One such crop is pomegranate.
The basic principles of growing pomegranate in the garden and at home
Garnish with juicy fruits can pomegranate grown in the garden and at home; in both cases, the fruiting plant can be obtained by growing from a cuttings or seeds. Pomegranate is rarely found in the gardens of central Russia and even in the south of the regions. The reason for this is the plant's thermophilicity: it takes 180 to 220 days for the fruit to ripen, with the total active plus temperature during this period not less than 3100 ° C. The winter period is a threat in frosts from -15 ° C and below. But adherence to a specific agrotechnical scheme will help to overcome obstacles on the way to the basket of your grenades.
Pomegranates need a lot of warm and sunny days to ripen.
The difficulty of caring for a pomegranate depends on winter temperatures: the higher they are, the less effort will be spent on covering work, but otherwise the pomegranate is unpretentious. Neither the composition of the soil nor the irrigation or fertilizers have any special requirements. What should be called archival conditions is light, heat and protection against drafts.
Planting and feeding
Place for planting a pomegranate should be:
- protected from the wind;
- well drained;
- with suitable soil type.
Pomegranate is not very demanding on the latter, however, crushed, calcareous, permeable loamy soils are preferred. An abundant pre-planting application of organic matter (compost, well-rotted manure) will also be required, followed by appropriate watering, and even later, fertilizer application in the recommended quantities.
Important! It is necessary to fix the planting material in the pit not strictly vertically, as is usual with most seedlings, but with a slope of 45-60% to the south. This will allow the plant to receive more light and heat, and will facilitate its shelter for the winter.
A pit is torn out, the standard size for fruit trees is 60 * 70 cm . The planting scheme depends on the variety: the larger the adult plants, the greater the distance between them. At first, regular watering and loosening are extremely important: the earth in the root circle can not be allowed to dry and harden, you can resort to mulching. If the soil is poor, fertilizer will be required already in June: 15 g of phosphorus, 10 g of nitrogen, 8 g of potassium. In autumn, when loosening the soil, potassium and phosphorus are added (15:25), the root circle is mulched with rotted manure, for example, with infusions of carob and chicken droppings. In the future, this feeding scheme becomes annual.
If the soil is poor, fertilizer will be required in June
Cropping and shaping the crown
A growing seedling can be formed with a tree - it will be very beautiful, but the need for shelter for the winter speaks in favor of a bush form.
Pomegranate pruning is carried out according to the general rules.
When forming a bush of fruit pomegranate, the law of the transition of quantity to quality is relevant: a large number of branches will lead to chopping of the fruits, their poor ripening. Therefore, the crown is formed of 3–6 branches, growing new shoots as needed to replace the aging ones. This can be done gradually, replacing frozen or diseased branches, but also with a frequency of once every 20 years for a garden and once every 5–7 years for a room pomegranate, complete cutting of aboveground shoots is also necessary. Also guided by the general rules of pruning garden trees and shrubs: elimination of weak, growing inside the crown, creating a thickening of branches and shortening of young shoots.
Optionally form a pomegranate bush of 3–6 branches
Three trimmings are carried out on a regular basis:
- The first pruning is carried out in the spring, before the buds open. It is necessary to remove weak, frozen branches, as well as shorten last year's shoots by a third or half.
- In autumn, after harvesting, pruning is carried out according to the same principle as in spring, with the exception of shortening the young shoots that are planned to be left: they are sent under shelter intact.
- The third step in the formation of a healthy pomegranate crown is the removal of basal shoots and thickening shoots throughout the growing season.
Pomegranate as a potted crop
At home, the most successful will be the cultivation of dwarf pomegranate. Famous varieties - Baby and Carthage, also on a bag of seeds or a seedling you can see the Latin nana, which means "dwarf".
A plant grown from the seeds of a purchased pomegranate or a cuttings of a garden plant will be too large for a living room, unless you know the art of bonsai and can form any tree dwarf.
The conditions for keeping pomegranate in the room is a temperature of 20–25 ° C in the summer and 10–12 ° C in the winter, subject to a transition to dormancy. In the summer it is advisable to take the pomegranate into the open air, because in the absence of good circulation, the plant will begin to wither, lose leaves and flowers. The light for the pomegranate is bright but diffused. Watering is regular, not allowing the earthen coma to dry out, spraying is desirable .
Dwarf forms of pomegranate are often grown at home.
How to feed pomegranate at home
Pomegranate growing in a pot must be fed every 2 weeks. The choice of fertilizer depends on the time and phase of development:
- nitrogen - in the spring;
- phosphoric - during the flowering period;
- potassium - in the fall.
Once a month, the use of complex fertilizers for indoor plants is permissible, but it should be borne in mind that in such mixtures there is a high content of nitrates. If pomegranate bears fruit and you are going to eat fruits, and not just admire them, then you should carefully monitor the amount of fertilizer applied .
General rules for feeding room pomegranate:
- fertilize only in moist soil and in cloudy weather;
- drain excess water from the pan;
- reduce the frequency of fertilizing when approaching the dormant period and completely exclude it with its onset.
Pomegranate is very responsive to fertilizing: it begins to grow and bloom actively, foliage acquires a glossy shine.
How to pinch
Indoor pomegranate is prized primarily for its decorative effect, which means that efforts will be required to give it the most attractive look. This will help regular pinching and fixing the young twigs in position with the help of a wire. The first pinching of the seedling that has moved in growth occurs after the appearance of the fourth pair of leaves: its removal will cause the shoot with the remaining three pairs of leaves to grow in two tops. Pinching each new shoot above two to five pairs of leaves, you will form a healthy lush bush or even a bonsai tree. The rules used for garden forms are not repealed. At the same time, it is important to find a middle ground: they are not afraid to cut off the excess, but also not to overdo it so as not to weaken the plant.
Video: forming a room grenade
Growing problems and solutions
Strong, well-groomed diseases and pests are extremely rarely attacked by pomegranate plants, and if this happens, you need to not only deal with the problem, but also eliminate its cause.
Possible pomegranate pests
Pests can very quickly lead a plant to death or greatly weaken it, making it impossible to bloom and bear fruit. Therefore, having noticed any negative changes in pomegranate foliage (it is she who suffers in the first place), it is necessary to establish the type of parasitic insect and quickly eliminate it.
Photo gallery: signs of pomegranate damage by pests
- Aphids on a plant are easy to spot.
- The shield leaves noticeable marks on the foliage
- Mealybug covers leaves with soot deposits
- Due to the activity of whiteflies, the leaves curl and fall off
- Detecting a spider mite is not so easy, damage is initially insignificant
Table: pomegranate pests, signs of their presence and ways to eliminate
|Pest||Signs of Parasitism||Methods of struggle|
|Mealybug||The plant lags in growth, does not bloom, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. Sooty plaque often appears.|
|Spider mite||Spots appear on the leaves, a light cobweb, they can be deformed.||The systemic drug Aktara is effective. The day before treatment, it is advisable to wash the plant. Prevention: maintaining high humidity.|
|Shield||When a pest appears on the leaves, light brown spots form, shoots are bent.||The scabbard is removed with a cotton pad moistened with alcohol, and washed twice a day with soap suds. Then, Bitoxibacillin or Actaru is used.|
|Aphid||Leaves become shiny and sticky. They sometimes form a gray or black coating.|
|Whitefly||Whitish spots are visible on the leaves, larvae are located on the lower part of the leaf. The plates discolor, twist and fall off along with the buds. An adult pest is a small white butterfly with two pairs of narrow wings.|
Photo Gallery: Pomegranate Pest Control Products
- Green soap is an effective insecticide
- Fastak is scary for whiteflies
- Bitoxibacillin will cope with the scale
- Mealybug can be eliminated by Fitoverm
- Actellik eliminates aphids
- Inta-Vir is effective in the fight against aphids and whiteflies
- Aktara - a broad-spectrum insecticide
- Glue traps attract insects with pheromones
Problems caused by non-insects
Pests are not the only thing that can concern pomegranate owners. In the garden, a plant can affect branch cancer. Outwardly, this disease looks like cracking of the bark on branches with spongy swelling at the edges, shoots or a plant completely dry out. The reason is the previous mechanical damage to the branches, freezing during wintering. The development of the disease is stopped by removing the affected parts of the plant or by sawing it on a stump in order to obtain a healthy shoot.
Branch cancer can lead to complete plant death
In addition, problems arise, the cause of which lies in improper care, the characteristics of the variety. Sometimes natural changes are taken as a problem.
Pomegranate trees bloom, but no fruit
There are many reasons that prevent a desired fruit from starting to tie in place of a flower. Pomegranate flowers fall without ovary formation if:
- It’s cold for the plant: the place for planting was unsuccessfully or the pomegranates freezes in the winter. In this case, flowering begins late, the fruits fall. Need a transplant and better insulation for the winter.
- The pomegranate variety is not self-fertile (i.e. a paired plant is needed) or bears fruit every two years. In the first case, you need to plant more seedlings or try to pollinate the flowers by hand (with a brush, a torn dusty flower), in the second - just wait for the next year.
- Pomegranate blooms with two types of flowers, and one of them does not bear fruit: the ovary should be expected only in place of a short, pitcher-shaped flower with a long pestle. To stimulate the formation of such flowers, you can treat the plant with Bud, Ovary, etc. preparations, as well as pick off infertile flowers.
- Watering is insufficient, and the plant drops its ovary to protect itself from drying out. Adjust the watering.
- The pomegranate did not have wintering or it went wrong: it is during the dormant period that the plant accumulates strength for fruiting.
- Too large a pot makes many plants “fatten”. Do not rush to transplant the pomegranate into a container where its roots will be too spacious.
- Inadequate or incorrect fertilizer also does not contribute to the formation of ovaries.
- Flowers were cut off by a strong wind. You should not be upset, because pomegranate forms flowers almost all summer, and in the absence of other problems, there will certainly be a crop by autumn.
- The plant is still very young and not ready for fruiting. Pomegranate from a seedling is ready to bear fruit in the second or third year, from a seed in the third or fifth, depending on the variety and conditions.
- It is possible that your pomegranate is a decorative variety. In this case, you have to come to terms with the fact that the plant will please only the eye, but not the taste.
The main condition for the flowering of a room pomegranate is pruning, since it only blooms on the branches of the current growth. Almost every year I “sadistically” cut my plant, and it blooms and bears fruit beautifully, but this year I spun and forgot! And as a result - not a single flower!
Blooming pomegranate - a magnificent phenomenon that pleases the eye
The pomegranate leaves are dry
Yellowing leaves disturb any grower. The reasons that this phenomenon may be caused are:
- A lack of moisture naturally leads to the drying of leaves or whole shoots. Keep the soil dry.
- Excessive watering, causing rotting of the roots, also externally manifests as yellowing leaves. The plant needs to be transplanted into dry soil, having previously removed and sprinkled with rotten roots with coal. Adjust the watering.
- Direct sunlight and lack of air circulation lead to wilting. Move the grenade away from the window, cover it with a screen or curtain. In summer it is advisable to take it to the balcony or to the garden.
- Dry air grenade is also not very like. Spray it, and in a critical situation temporarily cover the plant with a bag: the humidity of the greenhouse conditions will help the pomegranate to recover.
- Parasitizing insects (usually aphids or scale insects) can lead to leaf damage. Treat the pomegranate with an insecticide.
- Beginning of leaf fall is a natural process of dropping foliage in order to move to a period of rest. Help the plant: reduce watering, take out a pot of pomegranate in a cool, not very bright room until February.
Yellowing pomegranate leaves are a sign of improper care, ill health or the beginning of a dormant period
Pomegranate does not bloom
In the absence of flowering, first of all, assess whether the pomegranate is enough heat and light. If this is all right, consider whether you are fertilizing the plant sufficiently. Everything is normal - see if you cut and pinch the shoots correctly. Just regular pruning stimulates the pomegranate to form flower buds on new branches . And the plant gains strength for flowering during the winter, at which time it should not dry out or freeze. Another reason: your plant is the so-called “wild bird”, a specimen grown from seed, incapable of flowering and fruiting.
Pomegranate reproduction methods
Pomegranate is propagated:
- by seeds;
- layering (unbend and drip shoots, stimulating them to root before separation from the mother plant);
- inoculation of a cultural handle on a seedling.
Cutting gives the best results, and in the absence of cuttings they often resort to sowing seeds, which is also effective. Dressings and vaccinations are much less popular.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Growing from the cuttings
When propagated by cuttings, pomegranates will retain all the characteristics of the parent plant, it will be guaranteed to bloom and bear fruit.
- Harvesting cuttings produced in the summer or after removal of the shelter (February-March). In the first case, semi-lignified are selected, in the second - lignified shoots.
- They are divided into twigs with 5–6 buds, the lower pair of buds / leaves is removed, treated with a root stimulator according to the instructions.
Properly harvested pomegranate cuttings have 5–6 buds
- The soil for rooting should be prepared from equal parts of peat and sand, into which the cuttings are buried 3-4 cm with a slight slope.
- Be sure to create an impromptu greenhouse: a plastic bag, a cut plastic bottle, a glass jar will do.
The improvised greenhouse from the bag will provide the necessary heat and humidity
- Plantings are regularly ventilated and watered, preventing the soil from drying out. Cuttings will take root and will be ready for transplanting in 2-3 months .
The shank will be ready for planting in 2-3 months
From a seed
Algorithm for planting a pomegranate seed:
- A fruit of saturated color is chosen, without dents or spots. Inside it should not be rotted, the grains themselves are strong, gray-yellow in color. Soft, green, deformed seeds will not be a good seed.
- Red pulp is removed from the grains, washed with running water, treated with a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate or a growth stimulator according to the instructions.
- Grains are dried during the day.
- Seeds are laid out in a box or a pot of soil and sprinkled with a thin layer. As in the case of cuttings, greenhouse conditions with ventilation and watering are mandatory .
- A pick can be carried out after the appearance of three pairs of true leaves.
Pomegranate can also be grown from a seed
From the seed will not bear fruit. There is, however, a room modification. I have one at home (I took a twig from friends). Now it’s not a twig anymore, but an indoor tree about 30 cm tall, yields fruits all year round, the size of which is slightly larger than a walnut, but they are not inferior to store ones to taste)))
Obi Van Mack Gregor
I bought a bag in a regular flower shop with pomegranate seeds, and at a discount. She planted and they sprouted, and a year later they already gave 2 pomegranates. Now every year we collect the "crop" of pomegranates. It blooms with amazing beauty, simple and undemanding in care.
Pomegranate is considered an unpretentious plant, it is able to endure a short drought, but not without consequences: flowers, ovary, fruits may crack . Therefore, regular watering is required. The plant needs water when the top layer dries by 2-3 cm.
I advise all gardeners, so as not to suffer from the problem (water, do not water), plant the plants in transparent pots. They are easy to pick up at the disposable tableware store. And then place the planted plant in any beautiful pot. At any time, you can look at the state of the roots and understand when to water. My plants often suffered from overflow, and I suffered. Now all the plants are sitting in transparent plastic containers, at any time I can pull the plant out of the ceramic pot and see what my plant needs ...
Pomegranate watering rules:
- In February, when the buds are ready to start growing, watering becomes more frequent, the earth should always be moistened, like air.
- When the pomegranate has bloomed, the amount of moisture is reduced, because in areas of its natural growth, a slight drought is observed at this time.
- After the fruit is formed, watering is increased again, but carefully: the search will lead to cracking of ripening pomegranates.
With the approaching dormant period, watering is reduced gradually; in winter, moisten the soil only once every 1.5–2 months.
Features of growing pomegranate in various areas
In the Kuban and in Crimea, garden pomegranate feels quite at ease. Although here he needs shelter for the winter, the fruits have time to ripen and have a good taste. Favorite regionalized varieties are Gulosha pink and Ak Dona Crimean (in the vernacular Gulosha and Crimean). Also considered Nikitsky early and Juicy 1110, as well as dwarf forms for growing as a frame culture.
Some gardeners in the northern regions of the Krasnodar Territory, Rostov Region, Stavropol Territory and Astrakhan grow pomegranate as a cover crop.
Video: Pomegranate unleashing after winter
Если садоводам Центральной Украины есть на что надеяться, то для их коллег из средней полосы России выращивание граната — что-то из области фантастики. Но находятся смельчаки.
Что и говорить, климат в центральных районах нашей страны совсем непригоден для выращивания граната. Но все же я, рискуя прослыть экстремалом среди садоводов, отважился возделывать его у себя на даче. И могу заверить, что занятие это отнюдь не бесперспективное. Для плодоношения гранату требуются не только тёплая зимовка, но и длинный вегетационный период с высокими температурами. Потому в апреле, как только открою кусты, сразу устанавливаю над ними неотапливаемые парники. А осенью, когда температура на улице опускается ниже 10°, парники убираю и снова сооружаю укрытия.
А вот в Подмосковье результаты не такие обнадёживающие.
Примерно в 2000 году посадил несколько семян от купленного на рынке граната. Сажал сразу после того, как гранат был съеден. Через некоторое время 5 семян проросли. Два или три года росли дома горшках, а затем высадил в сад. За 9 лет не цвели, хотя ботву гонят от всей души. Вот и все что могу сказать. Будут ли цвести? Наверное, когда-то зацветут. Какова вероятность получить приличного качества плоды? Возможно никогда, т.к. для этого в Московской области не хватит тепла.
Сбор и хранение гранатов дома
Плоды граната созревают долго, до октября-ноября, но в прохладных регионах их необходимо снять до наступления заморозков. Вероятнее всего, полная спелость к этому времени не наступит, тогда вокруг растения необходимо соорудить тепличку, которая позволит поддерживать приемлемую температуру дольше.
Снимают гранаты очень осторожно, поскольку поврежденые плоды не будут храниться. Их в два-три слоя укладывают в ящики, выстеленные бумагой, и убирают в помещение с температурой 1–6°C и влажностью 90–95%. Допустимо хранить гранаты в общей камере холодильника.
Если попадаются треснувшие или с пятнами плоды, их выбраковывают и пускают в переработку (делают сок, замораживают).
Видео: способы получения гранатового сока в домашних условиях
При хороших условиях гранаты прекрасно хранятся всю зиму, не теряя вкусовых свойств и внешнего вида, однако сладкие сорта хранятся меньше кислых. Обнаружив подгнивший плод, его убирают, очищают и сразу используют или замораживают хорошие зёрна.
Выращивание граната в регионах, не балующих знойным летом и тёплой сухой зимой, можно назвать авантюрой, и чем севернее, тем больше экстрима в этом процессе. Если вы всё ещё полны решимости — дерзайте. Дело пойдёт — украсите свой сад прекрасным растением, а стол — полезными фруктами. Потерпите неудачу — не беда, всегда сможете найти культуру, которая на ваши старания благодарно отзовётся урожаем.