Sweet cherry Night - a delicious hybrid variety
Among the recently popular hybrids of cherries and cherries, the so-called dyukov, the variety Nochka, originally from Ukrainian Donetsk, turned out to be successful and in demand. About the features, advantages and disadvantages, the rules of planting and care, possible pests and diseases, about combating them and about prevention, you need to know when choosing this duke for planting in your personal or summer cottage.
Description of Duke Night
Cherries Cherries. Duke. So called hybrids of cherries and cherries, the creation of which is a promising and developing direction of selection. Combining good winter hardiness and unpretentiousness of cherries with excellent taste and large berries of cherries, they get more and more new varieties combining the best features of parents.
Cherry Nochka was received in Ukraine (Artyomovsk) by crossing Nord Star cherries and Valery Chkalov cherries.
Crochet in the night rounded shape resembles a cherry, but has straight and smooth dark brown shoots, like a cherry. The height of the tree does not exceed 3 m, which is quite convenient for care and harvesting and does not require efforts to restrain growth.
Skoroplodna, brings the first fruits in the third year after planting. It blooms in mid-May, the berries ripen in late July. The berries are large (7–10 g) almost black in color; they grow in brushes of 6–8 pieces. The taste is more reminiscent of cherries, without sourness inherent in cherries.
Berries Nights are brushed with 6-8 pieces.
The negative point is productivity. For a tree of this height, 12 kg per season is not much. But thanks to its good frost resistance (it withstands frosts down to -30 ° C), this berry can be enjoyed by the unbalanced inhabitants of Central Russia.
In addition, in favor of this duke speaks of high resistance to coccomycosis.
The night, like many other dykes, is self-fertile and it needs pollinators. Cherries can play this role:
- Nord Star.
As well as the pollinator can be sweet cherry.
Planting a cherry
Planting cherries Noch is no harder than any other. For an experienced gardener, this is not difficult. For a beginner gardener, a step-by-step planting process is presented below.
- You need to start by choosing the place where the Night will grow in the next 20–25 years. It must meet the following conditions.
- Not to be in lowlands, damp and flooded places. It is best located on a slightly elevated, southern or southwestern slope. The optimum slope is 10–15 °.
- It is good if there is a natural protection from the wind from the north or northeast side - a house, a fence, a forest.
- The soil should not be acidified or saline. Cherry grows best on slightly acidic or neutral soils.
- Within a radius of 100 m, and better closer, there should be pollinator plants (see above).
- Next, choose a landing date. Optimally, this is early spring, before the sap flow begins. Can be planted in the fall, but only in the southern regions, where there is a low risk of freezing of a weakly planted seedling.
- The acquisition of seedlings. This is best done in the fall, when both the choice is larger and the quality of the planting material is better. Signs of a good seedling.
- It must be one-year, two-year is allowed. More adult should not be taken, because it takes root worse, enters fruiting longer. The height of the seedling is usually 0.7-1.3 m.
- The root system is well formed, without damage and signs of disease.
- The bark is smooth, clean, without cracks, stains, gum.
A cherry seedling should have a well-developed root system
- You can store the seedling until spring in the basement at a temperature of 0-5 ° C, after dipping the roots in a mash of equal parts of mullein and clay, wrapping it in a rag and placing it in a bag. You can also dig in a semi-horizontal position, covering from frost and rodents.
- In the fall, you also need to dig a hole for landing in the selected place. Fill it with a nutritious mixture of 2-3 compost or humus buckets, two liters of ash and 300 g of superphosphate.
- In spring, as soon as weather conditions allow to begin planting, a small mound is formed in the pit, on which a seedling is placed, straightening the roots well. Layered in layers of earth, densifying well. The place of vaccination should not be deepened, it should be 3-5 cm above the surface of the earth.
The neck of a cherry seedling cannot be buried, it should be 3-5 cm above the ground
- A trunk circle with an earthen roller is formed in diameter.
- Well watered (2-3 buckets of water) and mulch.
- All branches are shortened by 20-30 cm, including the central conductor, and tied to a peg.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Growing a properly planted cherry will not be difficult. Caring for it comes down to pruning, watering and top dressing.
Pruning is started at the age of 5-6 years, when the tree is completely rooted and strengthened. Since the height of this duke does not exceed three meters, you don’t have to worry about forming cropping. Every year, in late autumn or early spring (during the period of lack of sap flow), sanitary pruning is performed (cutting dry, sick and damaged branches). And you will also need regular anti-aging pruning, which is reduced to the removal of ceased fruiting drooping branches. When the crowns are thickened, the branches growing inside, but not particularly carried away, are partially removed, since flower buds and berries also grow on them. Anti-aging scraps completely stop at the age of 15 years.
The formation of the crown of cherries ends in the fourth year
The night is drought-resistant, tolerates heat well. He does not like waterlogging and is undemanding to watering. It is usually enough to water before flowering (if there was no rain) and after harvesting. Well, she needs pre-winter water-loading irrigation, like all other trees.
Top dressing has a good effect on the quantity and quality of the crop, so do not neglect them.
Table: timing and composition of cherry nutrition Night
|Spring, before flowering||Urea, ammonium nitrate, nitroammophosk - 20-30 g per 1 m2 for digging|
|Flowering period||Humus or compost 5-6 kg per 1 m2, can be used as mulch after watering.|
Foliar top dressing with 0.1% boric acid solution significantly increases the number of ovaries.
|After harvest||Liquid top dressing, immediately after watering. One liter of mullein or 0.5 l of bird droppings is insisted for 10 weeks in 10 liters of water, then diluted with water five times and watered from the calculation of one bucket per 3 m2.|
Diseases and Pests
The night has a very high resistance to coccomycosis, but can be subjected to other fungal diseases (moniliosis, kleasterosporiosis, scab) in the absence or insufficiency of preventive measures.
Prevention of diseases and pests of cherries
Preventive measures are carried out, as a rule, in the early spring and late autumn, in the period of lack of sap flow. The composition of these events is slightly different for different garden crops, so they are usually carried out simultaneously in the entire garden.
- Collection and destruction of fallen leaves, in which some pests and pathogens usually winter.
- Sanitary pruning of dry, diseased and damaged branches.
- If necessary, the clearing of cracks in the cortex, followed by disinfection with 1% solution of copper or iron sulfate and treatment with garden varieties on a natural basis (beeswax, lanolin, etc.).
- Digging near-trunk circles with turning the reservoir to raise pests that settled for wintering in the soil layer.
- Whitewashing trunks and skeletal branches with lime.
- Tying trunks of young trees with roofing material for protection against hares.
- Treatment with insecticides (insect control drugs) and fungicides (antifungal drugs):
- DNOC - once every three years in early spring. From the vast majority of diseases and pests.
- Nitrafen (insecticide and fungicide at the same time, a wide spectrum of action) - in the early spring.
- Decis (insecticide) - in early spring and season with the appearance of pests.
- Copper sulfate 3% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- Iron sulfate 5% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- Bordeaux mixture 3% solution - in late autumn and early spring.
- In early spring, hunting belts are installed on the trunk, which will stop the movement on the crown of weevils, ants carrying aphids, and other insects and caterpillars.
Usually these measures are enough so that the cherry does not get sick and is not attacked by pests. It is necessary to carefully monitor the trees during the season and, when signs of disease or pests are present, carry out directed actions against them.
Possible diseases, symptoms and treatment
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Kleasterosporiosis (perforated spotting)
A fungal disease that usually appears in spring or autumn, since favorable conditions for it are high humidity and an air temperature of 20–25 ° C. The spores of the fungus winter in the bark and fallen leaves, and also spread by insects and the wind. It is flowing fast. From the appearance of small black dots on the leaves, to their growth in a circle of red-burgundy color, two weeks pass. Then the parts of the sheet inside the circles dry out and fall out, forming holes. Leaves dry and fall.
Two weeks after infection with clasterosporiosis, holes appear on the leaves of the cherry
If the disease is detected before flowering, the tree can be treated with nitrafen, even if it was already used in early spring. After flowering and during the season they are treated with biofungicides:
- Horus. Up to three treatments per season. Last no later than seven days before harvest.
- Quadris. Up to three treatments per season. Tracking 3–5 days before harvest.
- Coming soon Up to three treatments per season. Last 20 days before harvest.
Moniliosis (monilial burn)
For the first time, spores of a fungus introduce bees during spring flowering. The fungus through the pestle of the flower drops into the stalk, leaf, shoot. As a result of the defeat, they blacken and sag, the tree looks like charred. In summer, the fungus manifests itself as fruit rot, affecting berries that are mummified. If you do not take action, the tree may die.
Ways and methods of control, the drugs used, are the same as with kleasterosporiosis. In addition, if the shoots are damaged, they must be immediately cut to 20-30 cm of healthy wood or even “into a ring”. Affected parts of the plant (flowers, ovaries, leaves, shoots) are immediately collected and destroyed.
Photo Gallery: Cherry Moniliosis
- In spring, moniliosis primarily affects flowers and flocks.
- A tree affected by moniliosis looks like a charred
- Sick berries need to be collected and destroyed
Cherry has its own pests, which are called: cherry sawfly; cherry weevil; cherry aphid; cherry fly.
Cherry slimy sawfly
Outwardly, it resembles both a slug and a caterpillar, but, compared with the first, it has a smaller size (4-6 cm). Sawmills there are many varieties, but all of them, or rather their larvae, eat away the juicy part of the leaf plate, leaving veins. If you do not stop in time, then the larvae will eat up most of the leaves, which as a result will turn yellow and fall prematurely. The tree will leave weakened in winter. Larvae winter in the soil, fly out in the spring and lay eggs on already new, young leaves.
The larva of a cherry sawfly resembles both a caterpillar and a slug at the same time
Since the sawfly does not cause significant damage, they usually fight it with non-chemical means - they collect larvae by hand, wash it off with a jet of water, dig the soil in the autumn, etc. Insecticides are resorted to only in case of mass injury.
Beetles and larvae of weevil winter in the soil of the tree circle. In early spring they come to the surface and climb a tree. Beetles eat flowers, leaves, young shoots. At night and in the early morning, when the temperature does not rise above + 5–8 ° C, the beetles sit on branches without movement. At this time, they can simply be rubbed onto a spread fabric or film, assembled and destroyed. But as soon as it warms above 10 ° C, this opportunity will be missed. The bugs will wake up and the reception will not work.
So that various beetles, caterpillars, ants could not climb the crown - you can install fishing belts in the lower part of the trunk.
You can fight further only with the use of insecticides (Nitrafen, Decis, Fufanon, etc.).
Cherry weevil eats flowers, berries and cherry leaves
As you know, ants carry aphids on a tree. Therefore, first of all, you need to take care of the destruction of anthills on the site and the installation of hunting belts on tree trunks. In addition, apply systemic insecticides such as Iskra, Fitoferm, which are not toxic to humans and animals.
Ants carry cherry aphids on a tree
Winters in the topsoil in the form of a pupa. With the onset of heat, it leaves and at first feeds on the sweet secretions of cherry aphids, after which it lays eggs and the caterpillars hatched from them eat ripe cherry berries. The main advice is to destroy the cherry aphids and you will not have a cherry fly. She will simply have nothing to eat after waking up and she will fly away to other gardens to seek food.
Cherry fly winters in the soil of the free circle
And I planted the variety "Night". It has large, sweet and sour fruits. To all this duke is frost-resistant and partially self-fertile. Although for a stable, high yield you need a pollinator, for example, the Turgenevka or Ksenia variety. Resistant "Night" and to some diseases, such as coccomycosis.
My grandmother, in the Voronezh region, and my husband in Kazan, the duke grows on the site, it still reminds me of cherry, but a little sweeter. They like cherries are not afraid of the cold. As far as I know, they grow varieties: Ivanovna and Nochka. Ripen towards the end of June. We grow them in an open area, there are a lot of berries, they were brought with me, they were frozen on a compote, it is poorly stored, or I didn’t store it like that, but the compote from frozen ones is just super. They grow with us at a distance of about four meters from each other. Many of their varieties are self-infertile. Grandmothers still grow a self-fertile variety of cherries so that pollination occurs. Buy seedlings only in trusted places to know what your variety is, otherwise they can slip the defective ones. Growing agricultural technology is almost the same as for ordinary cherries, they just love a little more heat.
Of course, spoiled residents of the southern regions among the variety of varieties of cherries and cherries may not opt for the Nochka cherries due to its low productivity. But for Central Russia, right up to the suburbs - this is one of the not so many options to enjoy juicy, large berries with a taste of sweet cherry in your garden. And the relatively low yield of the variety is not a reason to abandon the choice for planting this sweet cherry. And to plant Nochka and to grow even an aspiring gardener under the force.