Sun-grape grapes Transfiguration at your summer cottage
Grapes, like no other culture, caressed by the warmth of the earth's juices and sunlight. And this is no coincidence. Indeed, according to an ancient legend, it was the Earth and the Sun that were the parents of the vine. The color of the fruit depended on their guardianship. The fact that they ripened under the light of the morning dawn, parents gave a delicate pink tint. Those that poured during the hours of the midday sun were awarded a golden glitter. And those that ripened under the cover of twilight were endowed with blue and black flowers of a burning-hot night.
The three main whales of the Transfiguration variety
Grape Transformation did not fit into this legend. Its coloring turned out to be absolutely fantastic - golden pink with delicate tints and transitions. The authorship of this miracle belongs to Viktor Krainov, a breeder from the city of Novocherkassk, the author of more than 45 hybrid forms of solar culture. He called his masterpiece "a real breakthrough and a coup" in the domestic selection of table grapes. Still would! Indeed, in the list of the main qualities of the Transfiguration variety are listed:
- high commercial properties of fruits;
- super low cracking;
- the practical absence of gray rot in the growing process.
These are the three main whales: you can rely on them in further hybridization and for them you can safely recommend this variety for propagation on large and small private plantations.
The Transfiguration fell into the annals of the RF State Register for the Protection of Breeding Achievements only in 2014, after the author left this world, and like-minded people continued to work on the variety. The hybrid form obtained by crossing the varieties Kishmish Luchisty and Talisman turned out to be very successful. The early ripening period of only 105–110 days made it possible to grow crops not only in the regions traditional for viticulture, but also in the temperate zone of Russia, where the duration of the warm summer season was 3.5–4 months.
The color of the fruit of the Transfiguration can vary from golden to pink. It all depends on the degree of sunlight.
Almost perfect Transformation
Why "almost"? Yes, because the variety has many more positive qualities than negative ones. The culture fell into favorites not only for experienced growers, but also for beginners. After all, working out and fixing your grapevine skills on it is no more difficult than growing potatoes.
An ideal cultivar from Kaliningrad to the Urals
From the description made by state. the registry of the Russian Federation, it follows that the grapes Transfiguration under any weather conditions gives a full-fledged stepson harvest without a tendency to peeling, while maintaining vivid taste, marketability and transportability. The flowers are bisexual with good pollination; therefore, the variety is not required for replanting seedlings of other varieties or artificial pollination into the plantation. Grapes form many large clusters of cylindrical-conic type, which, with proper care, provide high productivity. In this case, the mass of one cluster can vary in the range from 500 to 1200 grams, and in some cases exceed this weight. Large elongated berries with an average weight of 10–11 grams, a length of up to 4 cm and a slight waxy coating were very fleshy and juicy. A considerable sugar content in fruits - up to 20 g, gave them both sweetness and pleasant acidity. According to the tasting results, the grade was rated by experts at 8.5 points.
Variety Transfiguration is considered large-fruited. Its fruits reach 4 cm in length
Among professionals, Transfiguration is considered a table variety, but this does not mean at all that the production of homemade wine from it is contraindicated. On the contrary, the drink turns out to be gentle, semi-sweet, rich and completely without the aromas of wine vapor.
If we add to the description also high productivity, increased frost resistance, and resistance to grape diseases above the average, we get the ideal variety for growing from Kaliningrad to the Urals and from the south of Karelia to the outskirts of the Krasnodar Territory.
The average mass of the grape brush Transformation is about 800 grams
In general, the sunny berry over the years of working with it has confirmed its name - Transfiguration. After all, she proved that she can not only transform in color, but also adapt to the climatic characteristics of a number of regions of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, the Baltic states, not to mention the Transcaucasus and Central Asian republics. It is important to note that winegrowers from the southern latitudes have the opportunity to harvest 2 times a year - in July and October, bringing its productivity to 20 kg from the vine. Not every fruit is capable of such generosity!
Transformation Variety Weaknesses
The position of the author of the article and the summer resident, who had grapes of this variety on her six hundredths, obliges to report on the shortcomings. And there are only two of them:
- The variety is not suitable for regions with winter frosts above -200 ° C, because the Transfiguration refers to cover crops.
- The variety requires constant care, from inspecting the first seedlings when buying planting material and ending with the technology of building a winter shelter.
In order not to make your own mistakes when growing Transfiguration grapes, it is recommended to study someone else's experience. It may be useful. Therefore, we move on to the stages of cultivation.
Reviews of experienced and newcomers
The variety to which I have no complaints. Let's just say, for a beginner, it’s worth planting, so that, as they say, the first pancake did not turn out lumpy. Taste and color are individually for each person. In my understanding, the main thing is stability, stability and productivity. After all, other varieties disappointed me.serg74
This vine grows in open sunny space, therefore the color is golden
Engaged in growing grapes for 5 years. Variety Transfiguration - the second grape planted on its site. The most not problematic in leaving. True, tired of constantly removing stepsons. They grow as if not in themselves. If not harvested, the grapes will simply be tasteless.Elena
This year I had the first fruiting of the Transfiguration. Ripened by mid-August. This is due to underload. Must keep up with us by the end of August. We really liked it. Plain tasty grapes. Crispy, sweet, juicy. I didn’t get sick. Left one bunch to hang. I hung almost the whole of September. The taste remained the same. Several berries burst, but did not rot. The rains stood. For me - an excellent competitor to Pleven.Vitsya
Perfect fruits with a smooth color and a sweet taste - the dream of winegrowers
Agricultural technology from the selection of seedlings to planting in the ground
Perhaps, someone with no habit will seem to be a difficult process of agricultural technology. After all, you will have to count the kidneys, and sharpen the tool, and apply fertilizer according to the scheme, and build drainage grooves, and harvest cover material. But there is nothing sweeter than fruits grown with your own hands. And therefore - to the cause!
Selection of planting material
Saplings or grape cuttings should be purchased only in specialized stores, where variety is guaranteed without traces of cross pollination. When buying a sprout at private courtyards or from neighbors in the country, it is impossible to be sure of such a guarantee.
When choosing the roots, special attention is paid to the roots themselves, or the root system of seedlings, and the flower and fruit buds of the plant. As for the roots, they should be strong and straight - without signs of damage, curvature, extra growths and peeling of the bark on the basal neck. It should not be on the root material frostbitten, rotten or dried up areas. After all, the roots are the heart of the plant, and if their condition is deplorable, then the seedling will be frail, if any.
If the roots are the heart, then the seed buds of the seedling are its arms and legs. No them - no movement, no transformation, no flowering, no fruiting! There is only an empty stick, not able to give offspring. Therefore, the presence of 3-4 healthy buds on cuttings or seedlings are required! At least one kidney germ 9–11 cm long is also required.
The total length of the seedling with roots should be at least 40–45 cm in length. Shank can be shorter - 30–35 cm.
Quality grape planting material, has strong roots and one kidney sprout
Place under the vine and preparatory work in the fall
A place for a future vineyard is selected in the fall, if the rooting of seedlings is planned for next spring.
Since grapes are a sunny culture, the place needs to be selected as open as possible to the sun, but protected from the north winds by a fence or wall of the house. Both taste and color of future fruits depend on the correct site. Indeed, in the sun the prevailing pink color of the Transfiguration is complemented by a warm-golden hue of the skin. In the shade - the color will rather be saturated with pink-raspberry, but without a golden tint, and the berries will acquire excessive acidity.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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In the fall, the earth is dug up to one and a half bayonet shovels, fertilized with humus, peat or humus and in this state remains to lie down until spring. During the winter months, the soil will rest, the soil will sag, the internal voids formed from the digging will come to naught. The area for digging is determined from the calculation of the required space for one seedling of 90-100 cm. It is recommended to cover the dug up perimeter with a heat-shielding film, but you can skip this step in the autumn and transfer it to spring.
Seedling preparation and spring support work
We start spring again with a digging. It is produced with the onset of stable heat and the end of the threat of return frosts on the soil. But a full-fledged digging process at this time is not required, provided that the autumn plowing was of high quality and quite deep. From gardening tools, only a pitchfork or rake is required for easy stirring and enriching the previously dug up earth with oxygen. Further, holes are formed to a depth of 40-50 cm, which are again fertilized with humate and superphosphate granules. It is strictly forbidden to bring in any fresh manure or unreacted substrate, so as not to burn the roots or bring in any earth larvae.
While work is underway on the soil, it is necessary to give time to the seedlings for adaptation and acclimatization. Without them, the implantation of roots in the ground under new growing conditions will be painful and long. Therefore, babies need help.
Healthy rooted grape cuttings ready for planting in the open ground
The procedure begins, as with the purchase of material, with an examination of the seedlings for their survivability and health. If during the time elapsed from the moment of acquisition to the moment of planting in the soil, the plant gave new tiny sprouts from the buds, then they should be removed, leaving only the largest viable sprout. And at the same time remove last year's dried leaves or twigs, if any. The top of the main sprout with garden shears is removed, leaving only a part of the stem with five eyes. The roots are also rejuvenated and healed by cutting off the tips so that the total length of the roots does not exceed the mark of 15–17 cm. Next, the roots are placed in a container with settled water at room temperature with the addition of stimulants, such as “Kornevina” or “Humata”. In such an adaptive environment, the root system of young plants can be up to 24 hours, settling and saturated with juices in anticipation of their hour of planting in open ground.
There were a couple of actions left until the landing process was completed. The root of the seedling, prepared in accordance with all the rules, is lowered into a hole, straightened and dug with a soil substrate. If the seedling with a shoot served as planting material, then it is he who will give rise to the whole vine. If the rooted cuttings have gone into the ground, then only 2-3 eye-buds should remain above the ground. The future crop will be formed just from them. If you used the grafted process, be sure to make sure that the place of grafting protrudes 3-4 centimeters above the ground.
Abundant watering of a seedling during planting is the key to its successful growth
Watering a young plant is carried out with plain water abundantly and without any additives. After watering, the seedling is covered with earth in a second layer, and the place around it is rammed with the palms of the hands. Both watering and tampering are done in order to remove air pockets from the subsoil space, which often serve as “houses” for larvae and interfere with the proper development of the plant.
Mulch in the near-stem circle is also a very desirable element. After all, it, whether it is finely chopped bark, shavings or sawdust, will prevent moisture from getting out of the roots, protect the trunk and roots from slugs, those who still love to chew on young stems, will serve as a beautiful natural decor in the vineyard.
Care for grapes in summer and autumn
Grape Transfiguration, although positioned as a culture requiring regular care, is actually not a capricious variety. The correct initial planting of a seedling is like the first brick in business. He laid it right - it means that you will not have to correct, supplement, redo anything later. Therefore, immediately, from the moment of planting, everything needs to be done so that then it will not be excruciatingly painful for the vine.
Soil moisture requirements
The key to success in growing grapes of any variety is to maintain moisture in the soil. A small bush will need systematic watering until flowering and ovary formation. Dry land in the near-stem circle, like swamp covered with mud, is detrimental to culture. Only moderate watering will give all the necessary juices to the plant.
If the location of groundwater on the site is such that the roots are constantly wet, it is necessary to construct a drainage system. To do this, dig a shallow groove near the trunk, which would provide a drain of excess moisture away from the roots.
If there is little moisture in the near-stem circle, and the seedling barely survives, then the mulch will be rescued from humus, peat, sawdust. It covers the space at the stem so that the thickness of the protective layer is 3–3.5 cm. Mulching is especially important in the spring, when the soil has not yet warmed up enough. In summer, warm litter should not be done so as not to provoke overheating of the roots.
Photo gallery: stages of flowering, fruiting and pruning
- Flowering bunches Transformations are subject to thinning, otherwise productivity will decrease
- With proper care, the variety is able to produce up to 20 kg of fruit from one bush
- To preserve the fruit intact and intact clusters recommended to tie
- The variety Transfiguration leaves 7-8 eyes on one branch
The role of fertilizers
Fertilizing is a key moment in viticulture. In a land devoid of essential trace elements, there will be no normal plant development or double crop. The bush should receive:
- nitrogen, responsible for building green mass;
- phosphorus, contributing to an increase in the ovary and the proper development of the fruit;
- potassium, a positive effect on the wood of the vine;
- iron, copper, and zinc that increase disease resistance;
- calcium, slowing down the processes of aging and decay of plants;
- boron and sulfur, responsible for the rational metabolism and for the growth of chlorophyll in plant cells;
- magnesium and silicon, which prevent premature aging and falling of leaves.
The whole complex of micro and macro elements should be well balanced - only then will it work as a single team to achieve a common goal. The following fertilizer table will help you navigate them correctly. The proportions are indicated in grams per one bush.
|Spring, the first root dressing|
|Top dressing 10 days before flowering (June)||The first summer root top dressing (early July)||Second summer foliar top dressing (early August)||Nutrition of roots after harvesting (Sept. - Oct.)|
|Nitrogen||Urea or ammonium nitrate, dry granules 50 g||Urea 40 g, added to organics|| Feeding on ingredients is similar.|
the one that is held before flowering. But the concentration of all components is reduced by half. This top dressing forms the harvest of this year, and lays the flowers of next year.
|Potassium phosphorus||Potassium superphosphate, dry granules 40 g||Superphosphate 20 g|
Potassium salt, 10 g
Both ingredients are added to organics.
|Potassium superphosphate 50 g with water. Spraying leaves.||Superphosphate 20 g|
Potassium salt, 10 g
The ingredients are dissolved in 10 liters of water.
|Copper-containing preparations||Hom or Oksikhom||Home, Oksikhom|
|Complex fertilizers for grapes||Alternative to dry granules: Mortar, Meister-Agro||Alternative to cocktail:|
Florovit, Crystal, Calimagnesia
|Alternative: Crystal, Kalimagnesia|
|Organic fertilizer||Wood ash||Chicken droppings in proportion to water 1:15||Overripe manure, peat, humus|
Photo Gallery: Fertilizers for grapes
- Complex fertilizers are prepared and applied to the soil strictly according to the instructions from the manufacturer
- Fertilizing grape seedlings will contribute to their growth, increase yield and prevent disease
- Feeding with florovite is carried out 10 days before flowering
Wasps are called one of the main pests. They flock to honey bunches, arrange nests there, which spoil both the quality of the fruits and their presentation. Ways to combat wasps are divided into mechanical, botanical and chemical. The mechanical ones include:
- traps from plastic bottles with bait inside;
- mesh bags worn on bunches.
The trap consists of two halves of a plastic bottle. Sweet water is poured into one of them, which attracts wasps
Both methods are quite time-consuming, because one wasp brings with it several hundred of its comrades. Catching all is unrealistic. Putting bags on 300-500 bunches is even more difficult. Spicy plants with a strong smell, such as basil, mint, lemon balm, garden geranium, wormwood, coriander, and tarragon, will help to partially solve the problem. They will scare away not only wasps, but also other harmful insects, lovers of grape nectar.
The burning and harsh aromas of herbs, unfortunately, will not affect aphids, spider mites, thrips, leafworms, scale insects, and other pests. If there are signs of their presence, namely: leaves in the hole, weak shoots, twisting of leaves, brown spots - then you must immediately switch to insecticidal preparations. In the gardener's first-aid kit for such a case, Intavir, Fitoverm, Calypso, Aktofit, Omayt should always be. All of them have their own specialization. For example, Omight is positioned as an acaricidal or anti-mite drug. Calypso is effective against gnawing insects: leafworms and flower beetles.
When leaflets appear, treatment with insecticides should immediately begin
As for wasps and chemical methods of dealing with them, it is possible to use a smoke bomb or vinegar solution, with which grapes are lubricated. However, after collecting the fruits treated with these methods, it is necessary to thoroughly rinse them until the chemical residues are completely removed.
Diseases and their prevention
A vine without timely care is very susceptible to attack by disease. They are easier to prevent than to treat. The fertilizer application scheme presented in the previous chapter will not only ensure proper growth, flowering and ripening of fruits, but also increase the resistance of plants to a number of diseases. The most characteristic of them are as follows:
- Mildew or downy mildew. The disease begins with spots on the foliage, then a spider web, joining of buds and berries join. The cause of the disease is increased soil and air humidity. For prophylaxis before flowering, copper-containing preparations are used: Hom, Aksih, Polykhom.
- Oidium or powdery mildew. Oidium is characterized by a white coating on the leaves and fruits, as well as an unpleasant outgoing smell. The disease develops either due to a lack of moisture, or due to a sharp change in humidity conditions. Colloidal sulfur preparations will help solve the problem.
- Bacterial cancer. The grape stem is susceptible to the disease, on which an air bubble forms under the bark. Increasing in size, he tears the bark, creating cavities in the stem that are vulnerable to parasites. Such an anomaly is usually a consequence of severe frosts and wintering of the vine without shelter. Having found cancer, the growths should be carefully cut, and the place of the cut should be treated with Bordeaux liquid or a solution of iron sulfate.
- Spotted necrosis. This is a fungal disease, manifested in the death of tissue on the cortex. Autumn prevention measures, such as deep digging of the earth around the trunk, harvesting fallen leaves, thinning out the bush, processing seedlings before planting with a solution of 4% iron sulfate, will help prevent necrosis.
Photo Gallery: Transformation of Grape Diseases
- Signs of mildew or downy mildew - spots on leaves
- Oidium develops either due to a lack of moisture, or due to a sharp change in humidity conditions
- Problems with powdery mildew will help solve drugs with colloidal sulfur
- Bacterial cancer occurs due to severe frosts and weak winter shelter
In one article, it is not possible to talk about all fungal and viral diseases. You just need to remember that they are possible either from improper care, or from the variety not meeting the climatic conditions of the growing region.
Pruning and shelter for the winter
Pruning plays an important role in crop formation and fruit size. In addition, a thickened vine will contribute to the development of various diseases. Therefore, grapes cannot exist without pruning. It is carried out in the spring before the swelling of the kidneys or in the fall. It is believed that for grapes Transformation enough 7-8 eyes on one branch. The rest, if there are more, are removed by the secateurs. The recommended number of shoots for one vine is indicated as 26–28.
Without pruning and forming fruiting vines, you can’t count on the grape harvest
Flowering clusters are also thinning out. Only one is left on one sprout. Otherwise, the plant will give birth to many small-berry brushes, the taste of which will differ significantly from the properties declared by the breeders.
Shelter for the winter is carried out after all autumn feeding. The vine is removed from the support, trimmed by 75% until two real shoots are preserved, bent to the ground with the help of garden staples. The trunk circle is mulched with humus and covered with hay or burlap. With such a blanket, the grapes will be cozy and warm - they will rest without any problems until the next growing season.
Many politicians of our time have encouraged and are encouraging to invest in wine and vineyards, because this is a win-win business. The transformation will definitely please everyone who decided on an experiment to grow it. It will not turn out to be a bunch, which is impossible in principle, it will turn out the fragrance of the vineyard - one of the brightest pleasures of life.