Sugar beet cultivation: from sowing seeds to harvesting
Sugar beets, in contrast to the usual dining room, are quite rare in personal plots. Basically, this crop is grown industrially by professional farmers. But it has some advantages (hypoallergenic, high productivity), for which amateur gardeners appreciate it. Caring for sugar beets is not much different from what other varieties of this crop require. However, there are some important nuances that you need to familiarize yourself with in advance.
In nature, sugar beets are not found. This plant was bred by breeding as an alternative to sugarcane for a long time, in 1747. The work was started by the German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf. But in practice, his theoretical calculations were checked in 1801, when at a factory owned by his student Franz Karl Ahard, he managed to get sugar from root crops.
Sugar beets are mainly grown for the needs of the food industry
Now the culture is widely used in the food industry and in agriculture - as livestock feed. It is grown almost everywhere, most of the sown area is located in Europe and North America.
Sugar beet is widely grown on an industrial scale
The "ancestor" of sugar beets is still found in the Mediterranean. Wild leaf beet has a thick, as if “wooden”, rhizome. The sugar content in it is low - 0.2-0.6%.
Root crops of sugar beets are large, white, cone-shaped or slightly flattened laterally. Varieties are somewhat less common in which they resemble a bag, a pear or a cylinder. Depending on the variety, they contain 16–20% sugar. The root system of the plant is very developed, the stem root goes into the soil by 1–1.5 m.
Most often, sugar beet roots resemble a cone in shape, but other options come across.
The average weight of a vegetable is 0.5–0.8 kg. But with proper care and good weather conditions, it is possible to grow specimens - “champions” weighing 2.5-3 kg. Sugar in them accumulates mainly during the last month of vegetation. The sweetness of the pulp increases in proportion to the increase in weight. Even the sugar content of the root crop strongly depends on how much heat and sunlight the plants will receive in August-September.
The rosette is quite spreading, it has 50-60 leaves. The more they are on the plant, the larger the root crop. The leaf plate is painted in a salad or dark green color, has wavy edges, is located on a long petiole.
The rosette of leaves on sugar beets is powerful, spreading, the mass of greens can be more than half the total weight of the plant
This is a plant with a two-year development cycle. If you leave the root crops in the garden in the autumn of the first year, the sugar beets will bloom next season, then seeds will form. They are quite viable, unless the cultivated species is a hybrid.
Sugar beet blooms only in the second year after planting in the ground
The culture shows good cold tolerance. Seeds germinate already at 4–5 ° С, seedlings will not suffer if the temperature drops to 8–9 ° С. The optimal indicator for plant development is 20–22 ° С. Accordingly, sugar beets are suitable for growing in most of the territory of Russia.
In cooking, sugar beets are rarely used. Although it can be added to desserts, cereals, pastries, preserves, compotes to give the dishes the desired sweetness. After heat treatment, the taste of beets only improves, and not at the expense of good. This is a worthy alternative to sugar for those who consider it a “white death." But before use, the root crop must be cleaned. The taste of the skin is specific, very unpleasant.
One of the undoubted advantages of sugar beets is hypoallergenicity. Anthocyanins, giving the table varieties a bright purple hue, often cause the corresponding reactions. And in terms of the content of healthy substances, both cultures are comparable. Sugar beets are rich in B, C, E, A, PP vitamins. Also in pulp in high concentration are present:
Sugar beets contain iodine. This trace element is indispensable for problems with the thyroid gland and metabolic disorders.
There are a lot of vitamins and minerals in sugar beets
Sugar beets contain a lot of fiber and pectin. With regular use, it helps to normalize the work of the gastrointestinal tract, increase the acidity of the gastric juice, and get rid of constipation.
Useful vegetable for the nervous system. Sugar beets included in the diet have a positive effect on performance, help focus attention for a long time, and relieve chronic fatigue. Depression disappears, attacks of causeless anxiety disappear, sleep normalizes.
Nutritionists recommend including beets in the diet for anemia, atherosclerosis, and high blood pressure. Vegetable stimulates the production of hemoglobin, increases the elasticity of the walls of blood vessels, cleans them of cholesterol plaques. It also helps to cleanse the body of toxins and toxic substances, including salts of heavy metals and decay products of radionuclides.
The gruel from the leaves of sugar beets is applied to edema, ulcers, burns, and other skin lesions. Such a “compress” contributes to their speedy healing. The same tool helps relieve toothache. Greenery is also in demand in cooking. Like the leaves of ordinary beets, it can be added to soups and salads.
Often, sugar is squeezed from sugar beets. The daily norm is approximately 100-120 ml, it is not recommended to exceed it. Otherwise, you can earn not only an upset stomach and nausea, but also persistent migraine. Juice should be left in the refrigerator for at least 2 hours before consumption. They drink it in its pure form or mixing with carrot, pumpkin, apple. You can also add kefir or plain water. Systematic use of juice helps with spring vitamin deficiency, helps to restore immunity after a serious illness or surgery. The complexion, the condition of hair and nails are also improved, small wrinkles are smoothed out.
Sugar beet juice is consumed without exceeding the recommended daily dose
There are contraindications. Due to its high sugar content, a vegetable cannot be included in the diet for any type of diabetes and being overweight. Also, sugar beets can not be eaten by those who are diagnosed with gastritis or peptic ulcer, especially if the disease is in the acute stage. Another vegetable is contraindicated in the presence of kidney stones or gall bladder, hypotension, joint problems (due to the high concentration of oxalic acid), a tendency to diarrhea.
Video: health benefits of beets and possible harm to the body
The most popular varieties among Russian gardeners
There are a lot of varieties of sugar beets. Mostly hybrids originally from Northern Europe are included in the Russian State Register, where this culture is very widespread. But Russian breeders have their own achievements. Most often in the garden plots there are the following:
- Crystal. The birthplace of the hybrid is Denmark. Small-sized root crops (524 g), sugar content - 18.1%. A significant drawback is the tendency to defeat jaundice and especially powdery mildew. The hybrid rarely suffers from cercosporosis, root eater, all varieties of mosaics;
- Armes. One of the latest achievements of Danish breeders. The hybrid entered the State Register of the Russian Federation in 2017. It is recommended for cultivation in the Volga region, the Black Sea region, in the Urals. The root crop is in the form of a wide cone, weighs an average of 566 g. The sugar content is 17.3%. The hybrid has good immunity to root rot, cercosporosis;
- Bellini The hybrid is from Denmark. Recommended for cultivation in central Russia, the Caucasus, and Western Siberia. The weight of the root crop varies from 580 g to 775 g, it depends on the climate in the region. The sugar content is 17.8%. Hybrid can be affected by cercosporosis, shows good resistance to root rot, root eater, powdery mildew;
- Vitara. Serbian hybrid. Recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus. The average weight of the root crop is 500 g. It practically does not suffer from cercosporosis, but can be infected with powdery mildew, root eater;
- Governor. This variety is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus and in the Black Sea. It has a very high sugar content (19.5%). The weight of the root crop varies from 580 g to 640 g. Does not suffer from cercosporosis, powdery mildew, root rot. The most dangerous disease is the root eater;
- Hercules Swedish hybrid of sugar beet. Recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea. The root crop is cone-shaped, the top is painted in a pale green color. The average weight is 490–500 g. The sugar content is 17.3%. The rosette of leaves is very powerful, accounting for 40-50% of the mass of the whole plant. It is extremely rare to become infected with a root eater and cercosporosis, it is not immune from powdery mildew;
- Marshmallows. The British hybrid, which the State Register recommends growing in the Urals and in the middle zone of Russia. Root crops are small (an average of 270 g). Sugar content - 16-17.6%. A distinctive feature is a very high immunity;
- Illinois. A very popular worldwide hybrid from the USA. Suitable for cultivation in the Urals, in the middle zone of Russia. Almost does not suffer from diseases, with the exception of powdery mildew. The weight of the root crop is 580–645 g. The sugar content is 19% or more;
- Crocodile. Achievement of Russian breeders. Recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea. The leaves in the outlet “stand” almost vertically, it is quite compact (20-30% of the mass of the whole plant). Part of the root crop, "sticking out" of the soil, is painted in a bright green color. The average weight of beets - 550 g. Sugar content - 16.7%;
- Livorno. Another Russian hybrid. Suitable for cultivation in the Black Sea and Volga regions. The mass of the root crop is 590–645 g. The sugar content is 18.3%. Does not suffer from root rot, but can be infected by powdery mildew, root eater;
- Mitika. British hybrid. It shows the best results when cultivated in the Volga and Black Sea regions. The root crop reaches a mass of 630–820 g. The sugar content is 17.3%. Resistant to root rot and powdery mildew, but may be affected by root eater and cercosporosis;
- Olesia (or Olesya). Hybrid bred in Germany. In Russia it is recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea region and in the North Caucasus. The weight of the root crop is 500–560 g. The sugar content is 17.4%. There is a risk of infection with root eater and powdery mildew. But the hybrid is resistant to cercosporosis;
- Pirate. A hybrid with a root crop of cylindrical shape. The rosette of leaves is very powerful, up to 70% of the mass of the plant. The sugar content in the root crop is 15.6–18.7% (depending on the region of cultivation), the average weight is 600–680 g. The main danger to plants is root rot;
- Rasanta. Popular Danish hybrid. In Russia it is recommended for cultivation in the Black Sea region. The average weight of the root crop is 560 g, the sugar content is 17.6%. May be affected by root beetle, powdery mildew;
- Selena. Russian hybrid included in the State Register in 2005. Recommended for cultivation in central Russia, in the Urals. Root crops weighing 500-530 g. Sugar content - 17.7%. A significant drawback - often affected by a root eater, powdery mildew;
- Ural. Despite the name, the birthplace of the hybrid is France. It is suitable for cultivation in the North Caucasus, in the Black Sea. Root crops weighing 515–570 g. Sugar content - 17.4–18.1%. The only danger threatening culture is the root eater. But it also appears only if the growing conditions are far from ideal;
- Federica. Russian hybrid cultivated in the Black Sea and the Urals. The weight of the root crop is 560–595 g. The sugar content is 17.5%. In the heat, it is prone to defeat by pathogenic fungi - cercosporosis, root eater, powdery mildew;
- Flores. Danish hybrid. The root crop is elongated, almost cylindrical. Even its aerial part retains white color. The leaves are almost vertical, dark green. The average weight of the root crop is 620 g. The sugar content is 13.9-15.2%. It is prone to damage by root rot;
- Harley A hybrid from Denmark, recommended for cultivation in central Russia, in the Urals, in the Black Sea region. The weight of the root crop varies from 430 g to 720 g. The sugar content remains virtually unchanged (at the level of 17.2-17.4%). Does not suffer from cercosporosis, root eater, can become infected with root rot.
Photo Gallery: Common Beetroot Varieties
- Sugar beet Crystal, like many other hybrids of this culture, comes from Denmark
- Armes sugar beet is one of the latest in selection
- Bellini's main threat to sugar beets is cercosporosis
- In Vitara sugar beets, unlike many other varieties, the root crops are rounded
- Voevoda beets are valued for the record sugar content in root crops
- Heracles has a very powerful rosette of leaves
- Sugar beet Marshmallows high resistance to pathogenic fungi
- Illinois sugar beet - one of the most popular hybrids in the world
- Sugar beet Crocodile - an achievement of Russian breeders
- Sugar beet Livorno may suffer from powdery mildew, root beetle
- Sugar beet Mitika best manifests itself in the Volga and Black Sea
- Sugar beet Olesia has an “innate” immunity to cercosporosis
- Sugar Beet Pirate has a very powerful rosette of leaves
- Sugar beet Rasanta suitable for cultivation in the Black Sea
- Sugar beet Selena is prone to infection with root eater, powdery mildew
- Sugar beet Ural, despite the name, bred in France
- If the weather is hot outside, Federica's sugar beets can suffer from pathogenic fungi
- Root crops of sugar beet Flores do not turn green in the sun
- The weight of Harley beet root crops varies greatly, but the sugar content remains virtually unchanged.
The cultivation of sugar beet seedlings is rarely practiced, because basically this crop is planted on an industrial scale. But amateur gardeners often prefer just this way. This allows you to protect the culture from exposure to low temperatures, which often provokes shooting.
Any kind of beetroot tolerates a transplant
The plant is tolerant of picking and subsequent transplantation, so the seeds can be sown in common containers - shallow wide plastic containers. The whole process of growing seedlings is stretched for 4-6 weeks. Seedlings are transferred to the garden when they form 4–5 true leaves. Between them, they maintain an interval of 20–25 cm. The row spacing is 30–35 cm. The soil should have warmed up to at least 10 ° C by this moment, and the night temperature should not fall below 15 ° C. Therefore, the specific landing time depends on the climate in the region. It can be both the end of April and the beginning of June.
Several seedlings appear from each sugar beet seed, so the grown seedlings need to be dived
To identify those seeds that will definitely not germinate, the planting material is soaked in saline (8–10 g / l). Then they need to be washed and disinfected. The easiest way is to soak the sugar beet seeds for 6-8 hours in a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate. But the processing time can be significantly reduced (up to 15–20 minutes) if fungicides (preferably of biological origin) are used, for example:
- Tiowit Jet
- Baikal EM.
Treated seeds are washed again.
To strengthen the immune system, seeds can be soaked in a biostimulant solution. Suitable as shop preparations (potassium humate, Epin, Heteroauxin, Emistim-M), and folk remedies (honey syrup, aloe juice).
Potassium permanganate - one of the most common disinfectants
Sugar beet seedlings are grown according to the following algorithm:
- The seeds are germinated - wrapped in moist tissue (or gauze, cotton wool) and kept in a dark place, ensuring a constant temperature of 25–27 ° С. Usually the procedure takes no more than 2-3 days.
- Prepared containers are filled with sterilized soil - a mixture of peat crumb with humus, fertile soil and coarse sand (4: 2: 2: 1). To prevent the development of fungal diseases, you can add sifted wood ash or crushed chalk (1 tbsp. To 5 l of the mixture).
- The soil is moderately watered and slightly compacted.
- Seeds are evenly sown in containers. From above, they are covered with a layer of fertile soil with a thickness of about 1.5 cm and once again moisten the substrate, spraying it from the spray gun.
- The container is closed with glass or film. Before seedlings appear, sugar beets are not needed, but heat is required (23–25 ° С). Landings are aired daily to prevent mold and rot.
- The container with the emerged shoots is rearranged into the light. It’s not long to wait, 4-6 days. The temperature of the content is reduced to 14–16 ° C. The critical minimum for seedlings is 12 ° C, but they also do not need heat (20 ° C and above), otherwise the seedlings will stretch.
- The substrate is constantly maintained in a moderately wet state, preventing it from drying out more than 0.5–1 cm in depth.
- 2 weeks after emergence, seedlings are watered with a nutrient solution. Any store fertilizer for seedlings is suitable.
- In the phase of the second real leaf, sugar beets are dived, planted in separate plastic cups or peat pots filled with the same soil mixture. This is a necessary procedure, because one seed often gives 2-3 or even 5-6 sprouts.
- 5-7 days before planting, seedlings begin to harden. The time spent on the street is gradually extended from 2-3 hours to whole days.
Sugar beet seeds are sown as evenly as possible, one at a time
Video: growing beet seedlings
For planting sugar beets in the open ground, a non-hot cloudy day is chosen. Wells are formed in the bed, maintaining the required interval between them. Seedlings about half an hour before the procedure are abundantly watered. Seedlings are transferred to a new place either together with a container (if it is a peat pot), or with a lump of earth on the roots. If it was not possible to save it, the root can be dipped into a mixture of powder clay with fresh manure.
Beets are transplanted into the ground, preserving a lump of land on the roots, if possible
After transplanting, sugar beets are watered, spending about 0.5 liters of water per plant. Watering is carried out daily in the coming week. To protect from direct sunlight, arcs are installed over the bed, on which any white covering material is pulled. It will be possible to remove the shelter when the plants take root and form a new leaf.
Covering material can be replaced with fir branches or paper caps.
Planting seeds in the ground
The culture is quite demanding on heat, light, soil moisture, therefore, preparatory measures should be taken seriously.
The first thing to consider is that the plant does not like acid soil. To correct the situation, dolomite flour, crushed chalk or a shell of chicken eggs crushed to a powdery state is introduced into the soil. Do this 2–2.5 weeks before the substrate is fertilized.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Dolomite flour is a natural oxidizing agent, subject to dosage, without contraindications and restrictions on use
The sugar beet prefers the soil loose, but at the same time fertile. Ideal for it - chernozem, forest gray earth, or at least loam. Light sandy soil, like heavy clay, is not suitable for plants.
Digging the beds makes the soil more loose, contributes to better aeration
Since the fall, the selected area should be well dug up, cleaned of vegetable debris and 4–5 l of humus or rotted compost, 25–30 g of potassium sulfate and 50–60 g of simple superphosphate per meter. Of natural fertilizers, sifted wood ash can be used (a liter can is enough). Fresh manure is categorically not suitable as a top dressing. Root crops are prone to the accumulation of nitrates, which significantly impairs the taste.
Humus - a natural remedy to increase soil fertility
In addition to potassium and phosphorus, sugar beets especially need boron. With its deficiency, leaf chlorosis develops, root crops become smaller, and solid “plugs” form in the tissues. Boric acid or Mag-Bor fertilizer is applied to the soil annually at the rate of 2-3 g / m².
Sugar beet needs boron for normal development
The root system of the plant is quite powerful. Due to this, sugar beets are drought resistant. But she really does not like stagnation of moisture at the roots. Therefore, if groundwater approaches the surface closer than 1.5–2 m, it is advisable to find another place for the culture.
In damp areas, beets can be planted in ridges at least 0.5 m high.
A certain distance between root crops is necessary both when planting seedlings, and when sowing seeds in open ground
Sugar beet is a long day culture. The more sunlight a plant receives, the faster it develops. The sun is necessary in order for root crops to gain sugar content. For the garden, an open area is chosen, especially since plants do not pay much attention to drafts and gusts of wind.
Obtaining a plentiful sugar beet crop is not possible if the crop does not have enough sunlight and heat.
Bad predecessors for sugar beets - legumes, cereals, flax. They greatly deplete the substrate, pulling trace elements from it. Even fertilizing before planting will not correct the situation. Do not plant it after carrots - they have some common diseases. A good option is the beds previously occupied with pumpkin, nightshade, herbs, onions, and garlic. The culture is transferred to a new place every 2-3 years, observing crop rotation.
Garlic is one of the suitable precursors for sugar beets.
Sugar beet seeds germinate at fairly low temperatures, but in this case the process stretches for almost a month. Therefore, it is advisable to wait a bit. Moreover, return frosts (-3–4 ° С) can destroy young seedlings. The optimum temperature for the normal development of the plant is 20 ° C or slightly higher.
When the temperature drops to 6–8 ° С, the accumulation of sugar in root crops ceases.
Sugar beet seeds before planting in open ground also need the preparation described above. They are embedded in the soil by 3-5 cm, leaving 8-10 cm between them. Subsequently, a pick will still be required. Only one seed is placed in each well. Sprinkle with a thin layer of humus mixed with peat chips or sand. Shoots should appear in about 1.5 weeks. Until this time, the bed is tightened with a film.
Beetroot seedlings after emergence of seedlings must be thinned out so that each root crop has sufficient area for nutrition
Air temperature should not be lower than 8–10 ° С, soils - 7–8 ° С. Otherwise, sugar beets can go into the arrow.
Crop Care Recommendations
Sugar beet does not require anything supernatural from a gardener. Care for it comes down to weeding and loosening the beds, fertilizing and proper watering. The latter must be given special attention.
Sugar beets are enough three fertilizing during the growing season:
- The first time fertilizers are applied when the plant forms 8–10 true leaves. Any store tool for root crops is suitable, but boron and manganese must be part of it.
Some gardeners, in order to enhance the growth of outlets, add urea, ammonium nitrate, and other nitrogen fertilizers to the solution, but this is advisable for farms, and not for personal household plots. For someone who does not have much experience in growing a crop, it is easy to exceed the dosage and provoke the accumulation of nitrates in root crops.
For the first top dressing of sugar beets, any store fertilizer is suitable
- The second time fertilizers are applied in mid-July. The root crop must reach the size of a walnut. Sugar beets are watered with infusion of nettle leaves, dandelion, any other garden weeds with the addition of salt (50-60 g per 10 l). From this, the pulp becomes softer and sweeter. The reason is that the homeland of wild beets is the Mediterranean, and it is used to the salt-rich sea air.
Nettle infusion is prepared for 3-4 days, before use, be sure to filter and dilute with water
- The last top dressing is carried out in August. Ripening root crops need potassium. Their sugar content depends on this. It is advisable to use wood ash in dry form or in the form of infusion, but any store potassium-phosphorus fertilizer without nitrogen is suitable.
Wood ash - a natural source of potassium and phosphorus
During the growing season, every 3-4 weeks, you can spray sugar beet leaves with the preparations Adob-Bor, Ekolist-Bor or boric acid simply diluted in water (1-2 g / l).
Sugar beets endure drought due to the developed root system quite easily, but this negatively affects the quality of the crop and its keeping quality. And excess moisture provokes rotting of the roots.
Young plants are especially in need of regular watering for a month after transplanting seedlings into the ground. The soil is moistened every 2-3 days, adjusting the intervals depending on the weather. From mid-July you can water less often, about once a week. The rate of water consumption is 20 l / m². About 3 weeks before the planned harvest, irrigation is stopped, the plants get by with natural rainfall.
The best time for watering is late evening. The method does not matter, but the water should be warm. Drops falling on the leaves do no harm to the plants. And in the morning it is advisable to loosen the soil. To retain moisture in the ground and prevent weeds from growing, you can mulch the ridge.
Sugar beet does not need hilling. Even if the root crop bulges slightly out of the ground, this is normal. Such a procedure will only harm the plant, slowing down the process of its formation.
In the process of growth, root crops begin to bulge out of the ground a little - for culture, this is normal, they do not need hilling
Video: sugar beet care tips
Beet-typical diseases and pests
The immunity of sugar beets is higher than that of a canteen, but under adverse conditions it can also suffer from pathogenic fungi and be attacked by insects.
The most dangerous diseases for culture:
- root eater. The germinating seeds are striking, often they do not even have time to shoot. On forming roots appear “weeping” translucent brownish spots. The base of the stem blackens and becomes thinner, the plant lays on the ground, dries up;
- cercosporosis. The leaves are covered with multiple small beige spots of rounded shape. Gradually they grow, the surface is drawn in with a fleecy grayish coating;
- peronosporosis. Irregular lime-colored spots appear on the leaves, limited by veins. Gradually they change color to dark green, then to brown. The wrong side is drawn in with a thick layer of mauve. Affected leaves thicken, deform, die off;
- powdery mildew. The leaves are covered with a powdery whitish or grayish coating, as if they were sprinkled with flour. Gradually it darkens and hardens, the affected areas of the tissue dry up and die off;
- root rot. The base of the leaf outlet turns brown and softens, becoming slimy to the touch. The same thing happens with the top of the root crop bulging out of the soil. Mold may appear on it. An unpleasant putrefactive smell comes from the affected tissues. Leaves turn black, die off;
- jaundice. Affected leaves gradually turn yellow, starting from the top. They become a little rough to the touch, compact, they are easy to break. The veins turn black, then fill with yellowish-gray mucus.
Photo Gallery: Symptoms of Disease
- The root eater can destroy the sugar beet crop before seedlings
- Most likely, the plant will not kill cercosporosis, but the quality of root crops and their keeping quality will sharply decrease.
- To combat peronosporosis use copper-containing drugs - fungicides
- Powdery mildew on the leaves seems to be a harmless coating that is easy to erase, but in fact it is a dangerous disease
- The main reason for the development of root beet rot is too frequent and plentiful watering
- Beet jaundice is caused by a virus, it is impossible to cure the disease with modern means
Of these diseases, only real and downy mildew can be treated. The rest appear on the aerial part of the plant only when the process has already gone far, and the affected specimens can no longer be saved. Particular attention when growing sugar beets should be given to preventive measures:
- of great importance is compliance with the planting scheme, competent care of the crop and preliminary preparation of seeds;
- for prophylaxis, several crystals of potassium permanganate are added to water during watering so that it acquires a pale pink color;
- in the process of loosening, the soil is dusted with colloidal sulfur, the plants themselves with powdered chalk or sifted wood ash;
- Beets are periodically sprayed with soap suds, diluted with water, baking soda or soda ash, mustard powder.
Fungicides are used to fight diseases. Least harm to human health and the environment is caused by modern drugs of biological origin, but there are gardeners who rely on old proven products (copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, copper chloroxide).
Beets have many pests. This applies to all its varieties. To protect plantings from insect attacks:
- the bed is surrounded around the perimeter with onions, garlic, and other sharply smelling herbs. They are also scared away by wormwood, yarrow, marigolds, nasturtiums, lavender;
- nearby sticky tapes for catching flies or homemade traps (pieces of plywood, thick cardboard, glass coated with glue, honey, petroleum jelly) are hung;
- plants are sprayed at least once a week with infusions of chili peppers, needles, orange peels. Entobacterin, Bitoxibacillin, Lepidocide have a similar effect;
- the soil in the garden is sprinkled with a mixture of wood ash with tobacco chips and ground pepper.
Chemicals for controlling insects are undesirable, so that harmful substances are not deposited in root crops. If you regularly inspect the landing for suspicious symptoms, the problem can be noticed at an early stage of development. In this case, as a rule, enough folk remedies. General insecticides are used only in the case of a massive invasion of pests, which is extremely rare.
Photo gallery: what crop pests look like
- Beet aphid settles on the plant in whole colonies, preferring young leaves
- A good effect in the fight against beet bugs is given by ordinary Dichlorvos or flea aerosols intended for pets
- Beetroot weevil is a pretty bug, but that doesn’t mean that you don’t have to fight it
- Peak flea activity peaks at the end of May and June
- Beetfly larvae cause the main harm to plantings, but adults must also be fought.
- Larvae of the mining moth make tunnels in the petioles and leaf tissues, without going to the surface
- The name smooth deer was given due to the ability to eat plant debris
Harvesting and storage
Depending on the variety, sugar beets ripen in the middle or near the end of September. It is stored well, in optimal conditions, root crops, taken before the first frost, last until spring.
Sugar beets must be collected before the first frost, if it is planned for long-term storage
Immediately before harvesting, the garden bed must be watered abundantly. Root crops are harvested manually, then left for several hours in the open air so that the soil adhering to them dries. But you should not overexposure them on the street - they quickly lose moisture and become flabby. After this, the beets are cleaned of soil and carefully inspected. For storage, only root crops are selected without the slightest suspicious traces on the skin. They are not washed, but the tops are cut.
Harvested sugar beets are left on the bed for several hours so that the soil adhering to the root crops dries
Root crops are laid in the cellar, basement, another dark place where a constant temperature of 2-3 ° C is maintained, high humidity (at least 90%) and there is good ventilation. In heat, sugar beets sprout quickly, root crops become flabby, and at low temperatures they rot.
They are stored in cardboard boxes, wooden crates, open plastic bags or simply in bulk on racks or pallets with a height of at least 15 cm. It is advisable to place the root crops with the tops up. The layers are poured with sand, sawdust, shavings, peat chips.
To prevent the development of fungal diseases, root crops can be powdered with crushed chalk.
Beets are stored in any available container or without it at all, the main thing is to provide root crops with high humidity and access to fresh air
Sugar beet is considered a technical crop and is grown mainly for further processing. But some gardeners plant it in personal plots, motivating it with the fact that they like the taste better. In addition, sugar beets are very healthy. Unlike ordinary burgundy, it rarely causes an allergy. Obtaining a plentiful harvest will not be difficult even for a gardener with not too rich experience. Agricultural technology differs little from what is required by table varieties.