The subtleties of planting blackberries: the rules of care and soil preparation for blackberries
Blackberries are perceived by many as a wild-growing culture: unlike currants or the same raspberries, it is rarely seen in garden plots. Yes, it has delicious berries, but it is not very convenient to pick them because of the abundance of prickly thorns - this fact, as well as the low winter hardiness of the plant, do not contribute to the mass spread of blackberries. However, realizing the value and usefulness of this berry, given that a sufficient number of large-fruited sweet non-studded blackberries, which, with careful preparation for the winter, can survive the frosts, gardeners are increasingly thinking about growing this crop in their lands.
When to plant a blackberry
Blackberry can be planted both in spring and autumn. However, spring planting is recognized by gardeners as preferred: over the summer, the shoot will have more time to take root and gain strength for the future wintering. However, by planting a seedling in the fall, you can also be sure that next year the blackberry will delight you with green leaves and the first flowers. Of course, provided that you have complied with all the subtleties of autumn planting.
Blackberry - a rare visitor in summer cottages
Features of spring planting
The spring planting of blackberries is carried out before the beginning of kidney growth - this is the period from mid-April to early May. The soil by that time will be sufficiently warmed up, which will contribute to better survival of seedlings. The landing site should be prepared in advance, preferably in the fall. To do this, you need to dig a suitable area to the depth of the shovel bayonet and add organic and mineral fertilizers: take a half bucket of humus, potash fertilizers (50 g) and superphosphate (100 g) per square meter of the area, add sand or peat to the clay soil (0.5 -1 bucket).
The subtleties of planting in the fall
In autumn, blackberries need to be planted a month before the onset of frost. Therefore, the optimal dates for this procedure will be (depending on the region) the end of August – the end of September. For autumn planting, you should choose plants in pots - you need to plant them together with an earthen lump, so they will take root better. At the same time, it is important to remember that blackberries do not tolerate low winter temperatures, which means that there is a risk of freezing of fragile seedlings. To prevent it, it is recommended to trim the aerial part of the bush to 30 cm. And even the most frost-resistant variety should be covered and insulated for the winter.
A blackberry seedling bought in a pot must be planted with an earthen lump
Best time to transplant
The choice of season for a bush transplant depends on the variety of blackberry. For example, non-studded varieties of this berry are recommended to transplant after all in the spring. The same season, as we said earlier, is much more preferable for planting and transplanting this culture. However, to carry out such work in September-October is also not forbidden, especially if in your region the autumn is long and warm. The main thing is to carry out an autumn transplant at least two weeks before the onset of frost and do not forget to thoroughly cover the blackberry for the winter.
As for the transplant in the summer, some gardeners practice it. If you have a need to transplant a blackberry in the summer, follow some simple rules: carry out the procedure only in the early morning or late evening, when there is no active sun, and after the end of the transplant, water the bush well and create an artificial shadow for it.
Of the summer months, experienced gardeners recommend June and August (the beginning of the first and the end of the second, respectively) for transplanting shrubs and trees. In July, such manipulations with plants should not be carried out.
Where better to plant a blackberry
When writing blackberries on your site, be sure to consider the features of this crop, its requirements for light, humidity, temperature, as well as good neighborliness with other plants.
Choosing a place to land
Blackberry grows well and bears fruit in open sunny areas. Penumbra and shadow are less comfortable for the plant, because with a lack of sunlight, some defects are observed in the berry:
- berries ripen later, become small and sour in taste;
- there is a strong extension of young shoots and their shading branches with fruits;
- frost resistance of a plant decreases.
The blackberry grown in the shaded area will be small and sour in taste
The plant does not feel well on waterlogged soils. Therefore, flooded areas, as well as places with a depth of groundwater of less than 1 meter, are not suitable for culture. You should not plant the plant in places that are not protected from sudden gusts of wind: they can injure foliage and blackberry fruits, interfere with pollination. The southern and western slopes are favorable for planting plants.
Soil fertility is not critical for culture: a blackberry grows and bears fruit on virtually any land. However, the highest yield can be obtained if the berry is settled on an average acidity level of loamy or sandy loam soil.
The choice of "neighbors" for the bush
Blackberries are recommended to be planted separately from other plants. Firstly, it facilitates the care, garter and preparation of bushes for the winter. Secondly, when the blackberry grows, it begins to oppress the neighbors, taking away moisture and light from them. But if you cannot do without “planting” this plant for any others (the site does not allow it), keep in mind that this culture gets along well with garden flowers, pears, apple trees and grapes.
There is a very good option - to plant curly fruiting plants next to the blackberry. For example, beans. She will not strangle a blackberry like ivy, but she will climb and bear fruit on it. Many people think that blackberries will absorb more light, and so the beans will not grow. However, this is not so, because beans love the moderate sun. But not all beans planted in the ground will bear fruit, approximately 50/50.Timur80
Away from raspberries - from the same family, for the same reason sores (pests) from raspberries can attract. Although not critical. With grapes, a very close proximity can be limited to the relatively frequent use of chemicals on grapes, especially during the fruiting period of blackberries.Yuri-67
Ways to Propagate Blackberries
Like other berry bushes, blackberries can be propagated by seeds, cuttings and seedlings. All these methods are suitable for growing and erect, and creeping (creeping) varieties of blackberries.
This method of plant propagation was invented by nature itself. In the case of a blackberry, it is good in that the main characteristics of the parent bush in the seedling are preserved. In addition, this method is the most economical.
Blackberry seeds can not only be prepared on their own, but also purchased in the store
The natural germination of blackberry seeds is not very high, it is increased by scarification or stratification of the seeds.
Scarification is a partial violation of the integrity of the hard shell of seeds, used to facilitate their swelling and germination and to increase the percentage of germination. Stratification is another way to prepare seeds for germination: interbedding them with a moist substrate and storing them under certain temperature conditions.
At home, stratification of the seeds is most acceptable. Carry it out as follows:
- Seeds are soaked in water for 2-3 days. It is better to use rain or melt water.
- Then the seeds are planted in trays with peat, sand or light soil and kept for 2 months at a temperature of about + 2 ° C. The substrate is maintained in a rather moist state, regularly watered (initially 4 volumes of the substrate should be mixed with 1 volume of water and 1 volume of seeds).
- After the expiration of the aging period, the containers are transferred to a room with room temperature (about +20 ° C).
- Landing in the open ground is carried out when 3-4 leaves appear at the seedlings. Planted in rows with a distance between seedlings of about 10 cm.
- For winter, seedlings are covered with leaves, branches.
- In the spring they are dug out together with a lump of earth and transplanted to a permanent place.
The first harvest from seedlings can be expected for 3 or 4 years.
Video: blackberry seedlingsRecent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
Planting with root cuttings
Planting blackberries can be carried out by root cuttings. It is allowed to conduct both autumn and spring harvesting:
- A healthy bush is planned (it must be at least 3 years old).
- A thick rhizome (about 1 cm in diameter) is separated from the parent plant.
- Cut it into cuttings of 10-15 cm each.
- Cuttings harvested in the fall are stored in moistened sand in a cool room until spring.
Root cuttings can be harvested in autumn and spring.
Cuttings are planted in early spring:
- Cuttings are laid in furrows 10 cm wide and 5-8 cm deep.
- Sprinkle with earth and watered.
Further planting requires weeding, loosening and watering as necessary. After the appearance of offspring on the rooted cuttings, they are transplanted into furrows with a depth and width of about 25 cm.
- At the bottom of the furrow, a nutrient mixture is laid - half a bucket of humus mixed with earth, potash fertilizers (50 g) and superphosphate (100 g).
- On top make a layer of fertile land.
- Place the cuttings at a distance of half a meter from each other. The growth bud is buried in the ground by about 2 cm.
- Cuttings are covered with fertile soil, and then with a nutrient mixture.
Harvesting and planting green cuttings
Planting of green cuttings harvested from the upper third of the shoot (without top) is carried out according to the same scheme as the planting of root cuttings. Only the initial planting should be carried out not in furrows, but in dimples with a width and depth of about 15 cm. You can also plant cuttings in cups with soil, which is a mixture of sand, peat and perlite in equal proportions. These glasses can be left in the greenhouse - humidity and temperature there will be suitable.
Green blackberry cuttings can be planted in holes or glasses with specially prepared soil
The appearance of roots on green cuttings should be expected in a month. After that, the future bush can be resettled "for permanent residence."
Experienced gardeners warn newcomers from the propagation of unbroken blackberries by cuttings: with this method, thorns can grow in a plant.
This is the easiest way to plant a plant. Such a landing can be made both in spring and in autumn, observing the following sequence of actions:
- The seedling is taken out of the pot along with an earthen lump.
- A pit of 40x40x40 cm in size is prepared (the distance between the pits is about 2-3 m, the distance from the fence is about 1 m).
- A mixture of 5–6 kg of compost, 50 g of potassium sulfate and 100 g of superphosphate is covered with the bottom of the pit.
- Sprinkle the mixture on top with fertile soil.
- The sapling is lowered to the bottom of the pit, straighten the roots of the plant (or simply put an earthen lump of seedling in the center of the pit).
- Make sure that the growth bud of the seedling is buried no more than 2-3 cm.
- Backfill is made with unfertilized soil, so that the roots do not get burns when in contact with fertilizers.
- Sprinkle with enriched mixture.
- Compact the soil.
- Water carefully.
- During spring planting, the hole is mulched with sawdust or straw.
- Cut the seedling to a height of 20-30 cm.
I plant blackberries (like other plants) in nutrient trenches (trenches are more technological than pits). Their size is 0.6–0.7 meters deep, 0.3 meters wide. I season 2/3 with a rash, sprinkle hydrogel on top (optional if you don’t have one) and then chernozem. In the last and make landing. Blackberry is required trellis type grape. The distance between the bushes (depending on their height) is 2–2.5 meters. This winter, all the blackberry novosads froze and the "old men" froze. That is, shelter is necessary - and in the first year it should be carried out with special care. Orientation row: north-south. It is convenient for the tapestry to be installed immediately during excavation work.bond599
Video: planting blackberry seedlings
Less common breeding methods
In addition to propagating seeds, cuttings and seedlings, blackberries can be planted in other ways:
- planting root offspring: used only for the propagation of erect blackberries, which gives many offspring. They are taken in May-June (the height of the stem should be at least 10 cm, the thickness of the stem at the base is 7–8 mm, the length of the roots is up to 20 cm) and planted together with an earthen lump according to the plan of planting seedlings (pruning is not performed);
- division of the bush: the main method of propagation of blackberries, which does not give offspring. With this method, the blackberry bush is divided so that in each of its parts there are several strong healthy shoots with a developed root system. The resulting parts are planted on the principle of planting seedlings (pruning is not carried out);
- propagation by tissue culture method: used to create elite varieties of berry by placing several cells on the soil from the top of a blackberry bush, which begin to divide and give life to a new plant. This method is used only in specialized institutes.
Blackberry Planting Methods
Blackberries can be planted in two ways - tape and bush. The choice of method depends on the ability of the plant to form a large number of shoots: varieties with enhanced shoot formation are planted by the tape method, with a low level - bush. In both cases, you can use several seedlings at once (sometimes several dozen).
The tape method of planting blackberries is used when breeding varieties with enhanced shoot formation (it is believed that it contributes to the early appearance of berries). When using it, whole bands are quickly formed, filled with blackberry shoots. The method consists in placing the seedlings in furrows or planting pits with an interval between plants from 0.5 to 1 m, and the distance between the tapes (long rows of bushes) can withstand from 2 to 2.5 m, and if a trellis is used, the distance between seedlings can be cut almost in half.
With the tape method of planting blackberries for plants, it is necessary to make a trellis
Tapestry is a special construction that is erected to support garden plants. Often trellis is a few supports with stretched rows of wire or rope. But there are also designs in the form of vertical grids.
If there is support, a blackberry can reach a height of 2 meters or more. Therefore, using the tape method of planting, you can organize a hedge from a berry. It will protect your site from prying eyes and uninvited guests.
The blackberry hedge is not only beautiful, but also practical
The bush method is used when planting varieties with a low level of shoot formation. The sequence of actions when applying it looks like this:
- A square with sides of 2–2.5 meters is marked on the site, a pit of 40x40x40 cm is prepared at each of its corners.
- 2-3 blackberry seedlings are placed in each of the pits.
- A stake is hammered into the pit, to which shoots are later tied. This not only facilitates the picking of berries, but also makes planting more compact.
Blackberry bush garter will make it more compact
Sometimes for replanning a site or breeding a blackberry there is a need for transplanting an adult bush. Is it advisable to do this? Yes, such a transplant is not only possible, but also useful for rejuvenating and updating the plant. An adult bush can easily tolerate both spring and autumn transplants, subject to certain rules:
- in the spring, an adult plant should be transplanted before the kidneys awaken;
- after the start of active sap flow, and this usually happens in May, a transplant can not only injure the plant, but also destroy it;
- an autumn transplant should be carried out about a month before the frost, so that the plant adapts and grows stronger;
- shelter of a blackberry transplanted in autumn is a prerequisite for bush survival;
- after a blackberry transplant, do not rush to fertilize the plant, give it time to take root.
It is better to transfer the plant to a new place with an earthen lump - in this case, the adaptation process will be easier
Features planting blackberries in the regions
When writing a blackberry on the site, be sure to consider the climatic features of your region. In Central Russia, Siberia and the Urals, where winters are long and cold, it is advisable to choose varieties adapted to low temperatures. Gardeners recommend varieties Gazda, Darrow, Ufa local, Chester Tornless and others for these regions.
Please note: erect blackberries are more winter-hardy. Creeping varieties give a larger crop, but require mandatory shelter for the winter.
Planting blackberries in regions with a cold winter should be carried out in the spring. Then by winter the young plant will get stronger and will be able to withstand frost. You should also carefully consider the choice of a site for planting: a blackberry requires maximum protection from strong winds.
The method of planting a blackberry in Central Russia, Siberia and the Urals is better to choose a bush. Although with the tape method you can successfully hide the berry from the cold wind or late return frosts, covering it with, for example, non-woven material. And so that the shoots that will bend to the ground do not break, they should be "accustomed" to this procedure in advance: for example, weights or small weights can be attached to the stems - they will tend the branches to the ground.
Blackberry does not tolerate severe frosts, to protect against them, bushes need to be covered for the winter
В Ленинградской области особенно рекомендована весенняя посадка ежевики, поскольку в этом регионе при низкой температуре зимой может отсутствовать снежный покров. Это приведёт к вымерзанию растения, которое будет посажено осенью. А за лето саженец успеет набраться сил для непростой зимовки.
Жителям Подмосковья, помимо перечисленных выше зимостойких сортов, можно обращать внимание и на бесшипные сорта (Торнфри, Смутсен). Каких-либо особых рекомендаций по уходу за ягодником в этом регионе соблюдать не надо.
А вот в Южной Украине может производиться и весенняя, и осенняя посадка ежевики, так как зима здесь менее сурова. Но сажать растение лучше в полутень, чтобы в жаркий полдень от солнца его загораживало какое-либо фруктовое дерево. Для этой же цели можно использовать затеняющую сетку. В противном случае ягоды будут мельчать и даже получать солнечные ожоги, так как имеют тёмную окраску. Что касается сортов, то по всей Украине можно сажать любые виды ежевики — этот регион для её выращивания подходит прекрасно. Однако и здесь на зиму кусты лучше укрыть от морозов.
Ежевика заслуживает постоянной прописки на участках садоводов Центральной России, Сибири и Украины. Забота об этом растении не отнимает много сил и времени, зато с лихвой окупается хорошим урожаем вкусной и полезной ягоды. Главное — не забывать, что в каждом деле есть свои тонкости.