String Beans: Best Varieties and Growing Tips
String beans for Russian gardeners are a relatively new crop. But she is quickly and confidently gaining popularity. In addition to the ease of cultivation, this is facilitated by its wonderful taste, the possibility of widespread use in cooking, health benefits and high productivity. Even a novice gardener is able to grow a culture on his own personal plot. But there are some nuances of its cultivation, which are worth knowing in advance.
Description of the plant, its benefits
String (aka asparagus) beans - one of the oldest plants "cultivated" by man. The homeland of most of its varieties is Central and South America, but it was well known in Ancient Egypt, China. Europeans became acquainted with culture only in the 16th century, when the continent was discovered on the other side of the Atlantic Ocean.
Bean has been familiar to humanity for more than a thousand years
For a long time, green beans were used exclusively as an ornamental plant, decorating gardens and greenhouses. Eat it only began in the XVIII century. Moreover, this was considered a privilege of the aristocracy. Around the same time, asparagus beans came to Russia, where it was known as "French beans."
String beans happens:
- Bush. A compact plant that does not need support. It tolerates better low temperatures. No support needed. Fruiting friendly.
Shrub bean is a fairly compact low plant
- Curly. Liana is an average length of 2.5–3 m. For growing, a support is required. Widely used in landscape design. Differs in greater productivity and the long period of fruiting. Takes up less space - grows mostly up.
Planting curly beans can save space on the garden, because it grows mainly up
The flowers of green beans are most often white or greenish, small. The decorative varieties in which they are painted in different shades of red, purple, lilac, and violet are bred by breeding. The shape, length, color of the pods and beans also vary greatly. They can be almost flat, and rounded, straight and curved. The most common colors are green, yellow, purple. Less common is white, pink, mottled beans.
Blooming beans (with the exception of some specially bred decorative varieties) - not the most spectacular sight
The main difference between asparagus beans and cereal or peeling is the ability to eat whole pods without removing beans. They do not have a “parchment” layer and hard fibers inside. But this only applies to young pods. When overripe, they are no longer suitable for food.
Asparagus haricot is eaten together with pods, it is in this form that it is sold in stores
String beans are a part of many dishes, it is an integral part of South American and Mediterranean cuisine. Sliced pods are added to soups, salads, stews, boiled, stewed, steamed beans and served as a side dish for dishes of meat, fish, poultry. From vegetables, it goes well with broccoli, cauliflower, eggplant, bell pepper, carrots, tomatoes. And also with eggs, cheeses, mushrooms.
Green beans are not only healthy, but also very tasty.
Asparagus beans are not a wonderful taste, but also a great benefit for the body. Like all legumes, it is rich in easily digestible fiber and protein. Vegetarians value it as a complete replacement for meat products. Rich in pods and trace elements. Most of them are potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, of vitamins - A, E, C, group B. Green beans can be included in the menu for those who follow a diet, wanting to lose weight. It has the property of normalizing carbohydrate metabolism and is low in calories (only 23 kcal per 100 g).
Asparagus bean pods, in addition to the usual green, can be painted in more unusual colors.
It has been scientifically proven that green beans help, if you need to increase the level of hemoglobin in the blood, get rid of cholesterol “plaques”, normalize the work of the stomach, intestines, gall bladder. If you include beans in the diet constantly, excess salt is removed from the body (it is very important for edema and joint problems), toxins, and the body’s defense against the negative effects of free radicals is improved. It is also important that the product always remains environmentally friendly. String beans during cultivation does not absorb harmful substances from the soil and the atmosphere.
There are contraindications. The use of pods is not recommended for exacerbation of any chronic diseases of the stomach and intestines. And because of the high content of oxalic acid - also with urolithiasis.
Curly beans are often used to create hedges and "green walls" landscape designers
String beans are very useful for women. With regular inclusion in the diet, it:
- beneficial effect on the nervous system, eliminating increased excitability, the emotional instability characteristic of PMS is more easily tolerated;
- normalizes the hormonal rhythm, which is vital during pregnancy and upcoming menopause;
- positive effect on metabolism;
- helps to preserve tooth enamel, improves the condition of hair and nails;
- It is an effective prevention of diseases of the genitourinary system;
- improves skin condition (inflammation disappears, activity of sebaceous glands normalizes).
The benefits of green beans have long been appreciated by women. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra, who was famous for her beauty and unfading youth, used it as an integral component of face masks. In ancient Rome, powder was made from it to soften, bleach and smooth the skin.
Video: How Asparagus Beans Are Good for the Body
Varieties that are popular with gardeners
In nature, there are about 50 varieties of culture. And much more than those created by breeders. When choosing, one must take into account not only the appearance of the plant and productivity, but also the possibility of cultivating it in a particular region.
For the middle strip of Russia and Moscow region
These regions are characterized by a relatively mild, temperate climate. String beans are a southern, but not overly thermophilic plant. You can plant almost any variety, with the exception of the latest.
Gardeners often prefer the following varieties:
- The oil king. Early ripening grade. Pods reach milk ripeness in 50 days. The bush is small in size, grows up to 40 cm in height. The flowers are white, medium-sized. The pods are round, yellowish, with a noticeable bend, up to 22-25 cm long. The beans are white-yellow, in the shape of a kidney. During the season, 2.1–2.3 kg / m² is removed. The variety is almost not affected by fungi and viruses, copes well with irregular irrigation.
Beans Oil King - one of the most popular varieties among Russian gardeners
- Sax without fiber 615. The maximum height of the plant is 35–40 cm. The pods reach technical ripeness in 45–50 days. The flowers are pinkish white. Pods are greenish-yellow, elliptical, relatively short (12 cm). The beans are yellow. The plant is moderately affected by pathogenic bacteria, viruses. The most dangerous fungal disease is anthracnose. Pods can be cut to the first frost. Expect approximately 2.5–2.8 kg / m².
Sax bean without fiber 615 has a long fruiting period
- Purple Queen. By ripening mid-ripening. The plant is very compact. The flowers are extremely decorative - large, pinkish-lilac. The pods are densely purple, rounded, almost without bending, up to 20 cm long. During cooking, they turn green under the influence of heat. Beans are kidney-shaped, brown, with well-visible veins. During the season, 1.6–3 kg of beans are removed from 1 m². The variety is not afraid of water shortages and cool weather.
During heat treatment, the beans Purple Queen changes their deep purple color to a more familiar green.
- Golden nectar. A variety from the climbing category, a vine can grow up to 4 m. On average, it takes 70 days for the pods to mature. The flowers are greenish-white. Pods are golden yellow, thin, curved, long (up to 25 cm). Beans are snow-white. The usual yield per season is 2.5–3 kg / m².
Beans Golden nectar stands out for good yield
- Winner. Curly Beans Late Ripening. The pods ripen within 85–90 days. The flowers are large, blood-red. The variety stands out for its abundant flowering. The pods are flattened, almost straight, up to 20 cm long. The beans are lilac, with small black dots. The taste is mediocre, most often this bean is cultivated for decorative purposes. Productivity - up to 1.5 kg / m².
Beans Winner is very plentiful and beautifully blooms, but he cannot boast of productivity and outstanding taste
- Bergold. Shrub variety, ripening - medium early. It takes 60 days to reach the pods of milk ripeness. The bush grows to 40 cm in height. Pods are sunny yellow, with a slight bend, up to 14 cm in length. Beans are oval, a shade of butter. The variety bears fruit abundantly, bringing 2.5 kg / m² or more.
Haricot Bergold - a compact plant of medium early ripening
- Melody. Late ripe curly beans. It will take 70–75 days to mature. Liana grows to 3 m in length. The flowers are white, not particularly large. Pods are large (25 cm or more), flattened, pale green. Kidney-shaped beans, large, snow-white. During the season, the variety brings 3.2 kg / m². Beans tolerate a shortage of heat and moisture.
Beans Melody is less than other varieties, sensitive to lower temperatures and moisture deficiency
For the Urals and Siberia
The climate of the Urals and Siberia is much more severe than in the European part of Russia, the soil warms up here late. These regions are not in vain called the "risky farming zone". For cultivation, you need to choose early or mid-season beans, characterized by cold resistance.
The following varieties are grown in these regions:
- Bona. Green early beans. It reaches technical ripeness in 48–75 days after emergence in the garden. The plant is bushy, miniature (18–26 cm). The flowers are snow-white, small. The pods are pale green, with a slight bend or straight, 13.5 cm long. The beans are white in the form of kidneys. The variety is resistant to diseases characteristic of beans. There are relatively few pods (1.2–1.5 kg / m²), this is due to the size of the plant.
Miniature bushes allow growing Bean beans even on the windowsill
- Blue Lake. Curly beans, the length of the vine does not exceed 1.5–2 m. Ripening takes 50–56 days. For curly beans, this is very early. The flowers are greenish-white, small. Emerald green pods with a bluish tint, 14–16 cm long. Snow-white beans, quite small even when fully ripened. Productivity - up to 2 kg / m². Creepers rarely become infected with diseases characteristic of the culture.
Beans Blue Lake has a very good immunity
- Mauritanian Variety from the category of curly, mid-season. It reaches technical maturity in 55–58 days. The plant reaches a length of 3 m. The flowers are white. The pods are relatively short (12 cm), very thin, almost straight. The beans are black with greenish veins. Yields are good, 2.3–2.5 kg / m². The plant tolerates a relatively low temperature drop, diseases for it as a whole are uncharacteristic.
Beans Mauritanka - relatively cold-resistant variety
- Fatima String beans in the form of creepers up to 3 m long. The ripening time of the pods is average (55-60 days). The flowers are medium sized, white. Pods are long (more than 20 cm), flattened, light green, without bending. Beans are white, with pronounced veins. The variety bears fruit abundantly - 3.2–3.5 kg / m².
Fatima beans - it's almost a record yield
- Paloma Sredneranny bush grade. It grows to 45-60 cm in height. The flowers are small white. The pods are thick green, with a slight bend, short (about 12 cm). The beans are white-green, oval. Yields are relatively low (1.48 kg / m²). But the variety is not afraid of the mosaic virus, bacteriosis and anthracnose.
Beans Paloma - one of the many achievements of the Dutch breeders
- Sweet courage. Early ripe bush beans, medium-sized plant. Flowers are snow-white. Pods with a slight bend, bright yellow, reach a length of 13-15 cm. Seeds are small, kidney-shaped, with greenish veins. The yield of this variety is 1.8–3.3 kg / m².
Bean yield Sweet courage depends on how lucky the weather is in the summer
- Malachite. Early ripe beans. The bush grows to 35–45 cm. The flowers are white. The pods are round, bright green, with a bend of varying severity, small (12-14 cm). Beans are white, oval, medium-sized (maximum average size). The variety brings 1.5 kg of pods from 1 m².
Beans Malachite - an early variety with compact bushes
For the southern regions
Asparagus beans do not like heat and drought too much. When cultivated in these regions, competent watering will be required. It is best to choose from foreign varieties bred for cultivation in the Mediterranean and the southern United States:
- Pencil Pod Black Wax. Italian variety. Matures in 60–65 days. The bush reaches a height of 40 cm. Pods are pale yellow, almost straight, black beans.
Beans Pencil Pod Black Wax - a spectacular combination of yellow pods and black beans
- Mascotte French grade. Pods are removed 50–55 days after emergence. Bushes are small, up to 30 cm high. Pods are short (15 cm), green, white beans.
Mascotte beans are compact bushes
- Kentucky Blue Pole. A variety from the USA, we are very fond of the professional farmers there. The length of the vine reaches 2.5 m. It takes 65 days to ripen the crop. Characterized by prolonged and abundant fruiting. Green pods with a bluish tint, 20 cm long, green and white beans. The taste is unusual, sweetish.
Kentucky Blue Pole bean stands out for its long and plentiful fruiting.
- Gold Mine. Bush American Beans. The plant is 45–50 cm high. Ripening takes 55 days. The pods are golden yellow, formed by brushes. Accordingly, the yield increases significantly. The taste is pronouncedly sweet. Such beans are enjoyed with pleasure even by children.
Gold Mine Beans are distinguished by brush type fruiting and unusual taste
Video: Overview of String Bean Varieties
Planting seeds in the ground
String beans are planted in the soil with seeds. Growing seedlings is not practiced. Initially, the southern culture is thermophilic - be sure to wait until the soil at a depth of 6-8 cm warms up to 12-15 ° C. In the southern regions of Russia, it can be planted already at the end of April, in the Moscow Region and regions with a similar climate - in the last decade of May. In the Urals and Siberia, landing dates are shifted to the first half of June. The optimum temperature for the culture is 20–25ºС.
String beans will not survive negative temperatures, even small ones. At the slightest threat of frost, the emerged seedlings are covered with lutrasil, spanbond, and other similar material.
A place for a bed is necessarily chosen sunny, protected from drafts. The latter is especially true for climbing varieties - their stems are most often thin, easily broken. Such plants are better placed in partial shade than left in a draft.
The place for green beans is selected so that it is lit by the sun, but at the same time it is protected from the wind
String beans categorically do not tolerate acidified substrate, preferring light and fertile soil, well permeable to water and air (loam, sandy loam). Both sandy and heavy wetlands are not suitable for it, as well as areas where groundwater comes closer to the surface than a meter.
Humus - a natural remedy to increase soil fertility
The bed is prepared in the fall. A couple of weeks before planting, the soil is loosened, potassium fertilizer is again applied (this macro element for asparagus beans is vital). Suitable, for example, wood ash (0.5-0.7 l / m²).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Wood ash - a natural source of potassium and phosphorus
After any Legumes and sunflowers, you can plant asparagus beans in the same bed no earlier than 3-4 years later. Other predecessors suit her. Good neighbors for the culture - beets, Pumpkin, all varieties of cabbage, potatoes. But onions and celery, on the contrary, inhibit its growth.
Cabbage is a good neighbor for asparagus beans, when grown nearby in fairly fertile soil, both crops can even do without fertilizers
Preliminary preparation of seeds is required. First they are sorted out.
High-quality planting material and its proper preparation is the key to a future crop
The next step is warming up. Dry seeds are kept for two days on a battery or 12-14 days on a windowsill well-lit by the sun. Then the asparagus beans are soaked for two to three days in warm (30–35 ° C) water for germination, changing it daily. It is desirable that the water was melt, spring, rain. It is useful to add a few drops of a biostimulant to improve germination and increase plant immunity (Epin, Kornevin, Zircon).
Bean seeds preferably soaked in soft water
Disinfection completes the process. The easiest way to disinfect for 4–5 hours is to immerse the beans in a pinkish solution of potassium permanganate. For the same purpose, any fungicides of biological origin are used (Alirin-B, Maxim, Baikal-EM, Bayleton). The soaking time in this case is reduced to 20-30 minutes.
Potassium permanganate solution - one of the most famous and affordable disinfectants
Some gardeners advise immediately before planting for a couple of minutes to dip the seeds of asparagus beans in a solution of boric acid (2-3 g per 10 liters of water). In their opinion, this has a positive effect on future productivity and protects plants from many diseases.
Video: preparation of bean seeds for planting in the garden
Seeds are buried in the soil no more than 7 cm. Bush asparagus beans are placed in rows, in a checkerboard pattern. The distance between plants is 25–30 cm, between rows - 35–40 cm. For climbing varieties, the interval is reduced to 15–20 cm, and they are planted in one row.
Sprouted bean seeds sprout faster
Wells are covered with a mixture of sand and humus. The garden is moderately watered. Before emergence, it is tightened with a covering material or plastic film. The germination of green beans is good, at the level of 90%. You do not have to wait long for the appearance of sprouts. Usually, at a suitable temperature (at least 20 ° C during the day), the process takes 6–8 days.
When planting beans, observe the interval between plants - their excessive crowding in the garden often provokes the development of diseases
When planting curly green beans, you need to decide in advance how the support will look. You can, for example, place it near a fence, the wall of a house or other structure, let it curl around the gazebo. Other options are a plastic mesh stretched between the posts with large meshes or a semblance of a pole hut, separate vertical stakes or pipe sections, and arcs made of strong wire. Do not count on thin sticks - plants, even without taking into account the weight of the crop, are quite large and massive. As soon as the beans reach the desired height, “help” the vines by wrapping them around the support. Most often they are not able to gain a foothold on it on their own.
Support for curly asparagus beans is absolutely necessary, and quite durable
Video: planting asparagus beans
Further care and harvesting
Green beans - a plant that is undemanding in care and able to "forgive" inexperienced gardener some flaws in agricultural technology. But it is critical for this culture to regularly weed the beds. Neighborhood with weeds, she does not tolerate categorically. Roots located quite close to the soil surface begin to experience nutrient deficiencies. Twist varieties pinch when the liana grows to 2–2.5 m in length. This provides an increase in yield. After pinching the top, the food is redirected from the green mass to the pods. In addition, they are simply more convenient to assemble.
Hilling of asparagus haricot helps to strengthen and develop its root system
Do not allow the soil to dry out. The flowers and ovaries of green beans immediately respond to this, starting to crumble en masse. Before the first ovaries appear, it is watered daily or every other day, as the upper layer of the substrate dries. Then the culture needs more abundant but rare watering. The intervals between them increase to 4–5 days, the norm - from 1–1.5 to 2-3 liters per plant. To retain moisture in the soil, it is mulched with humus, peat crumb, and freshly cut grass.
Watering is one of the main agricultural activities for asparagus beans
Shrub varieties fertilize twice during the growing season, curly - three times. Top dressing is applied at the time of mass formation of buds, after the first fruiting and after another 2–2.5 weeks. It is advisable to use natural organics - infusions of wood ash, green nettle or dandelion leaves. If green beans obviously lag behind in growth and development, add superphosphate (15–20 g per 10 l). In rainy weather, it can be mixed with a liter of wood ash and distributed in the bed in a dry form.
Nettle infusion - an absolutely natural complex fertilizer
Of the trace elements, asparagus haricot most reacts to a deficiency of manganese, boron and molybdenum. During the growing season 2-3 times it is useful to water the plants themselves and the soil with a nutrient solution (1–2 g of potassium permanganate, boric acid and molybdenum sulfate in 7–10 l of water).
Harvesting asparagus beans cannot be allowed to overripe. The pods are removed before they are swollen, in a state of milk ripeness (they bend, but do not break). Beans at this point reach the size of approximately wheat grain. On average, 10-12 days pass from the moment ovaries are formed. Otherwise, they become coarse, dry, eating them entirely is no longer possible, not only the taste but also the benefits suffer greatly.
In bush varieties, fruiting is more friendly, the crop can be harvested in 2-3 receptions. Curly bearers bear fruit for 6–8 weeks (some up to the first serious cooling), the pods are removed at least once every 4–5 days. Timely harvesting activates the process of forming new ovaries. The best time for this is early morning.
Asparagus beans must be collected on time, otherwise it will lose much in taste and benefit
Asparagus haricot does not suffer from pests. The greatest harm to it can be caused by slugs, which are not averse to enjoying young herbs and pods. Their mass invasions are extremely rare; folk remedies are quite enough to protect the landings.
Video: The Nuances of Crop Care
Growing green beans at home
In the absence of a garden plot, string beans can also be grown on the balcony. And not only bush, but also climbing varieties. They can become a very spectacular decoration. But it is better to still give preference to bush beans - it is earlier ripe, the crop ripens en masse. Good varieties of the balcony are Bona, Blue Lake, Neringa, Sweet Courage. Violetta beans, Golden neck, Raspberry ringing have the greatest decorativeness.
String beans belong to plants of short daylight: she loves light, but for no more than 12 hours a day. Plants do not need additional illumination in spring and summer.
The root system of asparagus beans is superficial, not particularly developed. She really does not need deep large containers. Enough of a regular flower pot with a volume of 2-3 liters for a bush and 30-35 liters for a liana. The main thing is that the substrate is sufficiently nutritious. It is best to mix ordinary garden soil or universal soil for indoor plants with humus in a 2: 1 ratio. The latter not only provides fertility, but also reduces the acidity of the soil. To prevent disease, add a little crushed chalk or activated charcoal.
Germinated seeds are planted in pots in the first half of May. Plants will bloom in about a month and a half, and crops begin to be harvested after another 2–2.5 weeks.
Bean seedlings are watered frequently, but sparingly, as the topsoil dries. After the appearance of the second pair of true leaves, watering is stopped, resuming by the time the buds appear. Fertilizers are applied no more than once every two weeks. This can be an infusion of wood ash or special tools for indoor plants (without nitrogen, but with a high concentration of potassium and phosphorus).
Beans are easy to grow, just watch so that they do not fall under return frosts. If you like asparagus beans, plant both bush and curly. You will pick bush in the middle of summer, and curly - in the second half of summer and in the fall. She is not afraid of light autumn frosts on the soil, and you will collect it in the fall, until she grabs her with a stronger frost. Curly beans are also very beautiful, grows three meters by three, you can build a trellis for it, run along the fence or on the sunny side of the gazebo. Both beautiful and tasty. It is a pleasure to collect and cook it - the beans are always clean, large, you do not need to bend.Lada1406
No seedlings of asparagus beans are needed - just soaked the seeds in the evening, planted swollen in the morning in the ground. And no one ate anything from me - I think this is already a question of pest control. If you have eaten beans, they will just as well eat all the other plantings. It grows just fine. In a day, the lash grows by about 10-15 cm.Toli4ka
Beans are very tasty, healthy and interesting! Beans are different - bushy and curly, asparagus and grain, with different lengths of the pod, white and yellow, red and purple, speckled and striped. Growing conditions, nevertheless, they practically do not differ in any way, except for the fact that climbers need supports. Beans are sown with the calculation of seedlings after possible return frosts. She is afraid of them. Asparagus is eaten and harvested with pods. For all the years that I grow beans, there are no special tricks with it. Only watering during seedlings, growth, flowering, setting and pouring pods. When ripening grain watering abruptly removed. She never hurt anything, no pests were noticed.Baba Galya
Beans are a thermophilic culture. Even light frosts are fatal to her. But beans are successfully grown by many summer residents in a temperate climate. To collect a plentiful legume crop, choose the right variety. There are a lot of them - there are even decorative species. Bean care will not be time consuming.Sineglazka
Beans should be planted when the earth warms up. It can be both the beginning of April and the middle of May. That's when the heat is normalized, then beans should be planted. And before planting it is better to germinate it.Kokojamba
Do not forget that for ideal development when growing asparagus beans, you must constantly loosen the soil and remove weeds, and also do not forget about regular watering. In general, this is a very unpretentious culture, and every beginner is able to successfully grow it.Dart777
There is one subtlety in growing asparagus beans: it is important not to miss the moment when the beans are ripe and the pods have not yet begun to dry. Ideally, it is necessary to collect it precisely in this period, which lasts literally a day or two. There is good news for those who are late: asparagus beans can be eaten in the same way as any other, although this is not as interesting as asparagus beans in pods.C_E_L_E_C_T_I_A_L
There is nothing special about caring for asparagus beans. Planted along the border of the plot with potatoes, watered once or twice a week. It is advisable to collect the pods while green, as soon as a little rounded. Yellow will already be harsh in use.Berenice21
Beans are very fond of potassium, it is in wood ash. You can sprinkle it with earth, and you can pour it into a hole when planting. Seeds need to be soaked for fast germination. Columns for climbing need very strong, ordinary sticks from the bushes will not work - adult plants are very heavy, especially good yielding varieties. The roots of the asparagus beans are shallow, not deeper than 20 cm, so you can not let the earth dry out, but it is even better to mulch it. There are varieties on sale that yield crops already 40–45 days after sprouting of seedlings.Realnews
Asparagus beans are bushy and curly. The winding crop is higher. Be sure to trellis and sunny place. Watering ordinary, it is picky and yields are stable. Seeds are better to look for zoned grown in your area.Novic
Asparagus beans are easy to grow. It is advisable to soak the seeds before planting or plant them in well-watered soil. You can soak the seeds for 20 minutes in a solution of manganese, then rinse with water. If it rises very thickly, it must be destroyed. Asparagus bean belongs to legumes and is a good fertilizer, because nitrate bacteria live on its roots, which saturate the soil with oxygen.Nicoletta
Green beans (asparagus) are grown in garden plots not only for the sake of harvest, but also just for decoration. You can put her on the balcony. Breeders have bred many varieties with flowers and pods of various shapes and colors. When making a choice, take into account the climatic conditions in a particular region, give preference to zoned varieties. Care for green beans will not take much time and effort from the gardener, the culture is unpretentious and “put up” with individual errors in agricultural technology.