Strawberries all year round - today is no longer a dream, but a reality!
Strawberry cultivation in central Russia brings one crop per season, while its quality is greatly influenced by external natural factors. Rainy cold summer brings all expectations to naught. Berries grow unsweetened, watery and small. In recent years, the cultivation of this thermophilic crop in greenhouses and hotbeds has attracted more and more attention as amateur gardeners and professionals in the farming business. You can grow strawberries in greenhouses in the summer or all year round. In the second case, berries are usually grown for sale. The agricultural technology of the culture in the greenhouse differs from the open ground in some aspects, which are determined by the growing region, time of year and confined spaces.
Technology for growing strawberries in a greenhouse
For the cultivation of strawberries in a greenhouse, including in winter, two groups of factors are important:
- the first group - external conditions unchanged for any variety. They must be observed both with classical farming in open ground, and with greenhouse cultivation, both in summer and in winter. That is, these are the natural conditions without which the berry simply will not bear fruit. In an effort to get a crop in a greenhouse, we artificially create conditions that are close to natural;
- the second group is the characteristics that should be considered when choosing a particular variety.
For an ideal result, both groups are important.
Strawberry Fruiting Factors
In order for the berry to please all year round, it is worth knowing under what conditions fruiting occurs both in open and closed ground.
Table: Strawberry Fruits
|Air and soil temperature||The optimal condition will be a temperature of +8 to +24 ° C. In the process of growing, it is necessary to achieve a gradual increase in temperature from minimum to maximum. This is made possible in heated greenhouses.|
|Humidity||The culture is very sensitive to humidity: it is necessary to maintain a level of 85% when planting material and reduce it to 70% by the time of flowering. Excessive humidity can lead to illness and crop failure.|
|Daylight hours||Without sunlight, not a single plant can develop. It takes eight hours of light during flowering and sixteen hours during ripening. Classical varieties are sensitive to full daylight hours; modern varieties are less susceptible.|
|Pollination||Strawberries need pollinators - natural or artificial. Without pollination, it is impossible to achieve fruit set. Modern repair varieties are self-pollinated|
The main characteristics when choosing a variety of strawberries for greenhouse breeding
An important point in the cultivation of strawberries in closed ground is the choice of variety. Wrong choice of variety for winter cultivation is fraught with disappointment and loss of crop. The criteria should be the region of growth and the technical capabilities of the greenhouse. They are not considered in this article.
When cultivating strawberries in an enclosed space of a greenhouse, it is also worth paying attention to the following factors:
- early ripening
- uniformity of fruit ripening,
- susceptibility to daylight hours.
For the formation of strawberries, pollinators are needed. In the warmer months of the year, under the open sky, pollination occurs naturally with the participation of insects. However, they rarely fly into the greenhouse, so placing a hive with bees in it may be one of the solutions.
In the cold months, when insects hibernate, resort to artificial pollination. To do this, with a brush, pollen from the opened flower is transferred to other plants. The whole process is simple, but in the case of growing large volumes of berries, it is very laborious and lengthy.
Artificial pollination of strawberries is done with a brush or a cotton swab.
The second option for solving the pollination issue is the choice of self-pollinated varieties. In this case, mechanical intervention of a person in this process is not required, and there is no need for the participation of insects. Almost all modern varieties of repair strawberries are self-pollinated. The most famous are:
- Queen Elizabeth II,
- Fort Laremi,
- The miracle of Likhonosov,
When choosing a variety, consider the features of your region. One of the best-known self-pollinated varieties among gardeners is Queen Elizabeth II, a relatively young remodeling strawberry variety. He is famous for his unpretentiousness and at the same time high productivity. It is appreciated for the ability to set a large number of fruits, for strong dense berries that perfectly tolerate transportation, as well as freezing and subsequent thawing.
Among the shortcomings, the need for weekly dressing of large bushes and annual replacement of planting material is noted. Often used for growing in a greenhouse.
Strawberries Queen Elizabeth II have an excellent sweet and sour taste
Of course, new repair varieties solve many problems, such as pollination in the cold season. But it is worth remembering that they require more care, frequent top dressing with organic substances and mineral fertilizers, replacement of soil and bushes. This is an inevitable compensation for continuous fruiting.
In the middle lane with its unstable climate, it is worth paying attention to crops with a short growing season. This applies to both open ground crops and greenhouse crops. Growing early ripening strawberries in a greenhouse will require less time, which means reducing labor costs, electricity and heating in the winter.
One of the early varieties that have proven themselves among both amateurs and professionals, is Marshmallow. This high-yielding variety gives up to one kilogram of berries from the bush, ripens very early, is resistant to drought and pests. The fruits are well tolerated and stored for a long time.
Strawberry Marshmallow Variety - Early and High Yield
For more southern regions, you can offer to choose crops with different ripening periods - middle and late. In this case, the principle of continuity of harvest will be observed. This is especially important for commercial strawberry cultivation.
Uniform ripening of fruits
This feature of varieties is important in industrial cultivation. She will allow to collect berries massively. There will be no need for regular and frequent viewing of bushes in search of newly ripened fruits. Harvest will be harvested at a time or at certain intervals.
Neutrality with respect to daylight
Classic traditional varieties require long daylight hours to bear fruit. There are varieties whose fruiting is not affected by daylight hours. If in nature for tying strawberries, 8 hours of light per day are needed, and for ripening it takes about 16 hours, then neutral varieties ripen without strict observance of these conditions. Modern repairing varieties for the most part have this characteristic. However, during the winter cultivation of strawberries, in any case, you should resort to additional lighting with phytolamps.
The most famous and in demand are such repairing varieties of neutral daylight strawberries as:
- Mount Everest
- Queen Elizabeth II,
- Queen Elizabeth,
- Moscow delicacy,
- Ozark Beauty
- Red rich
Photo Gallery: Common Repairing Varieties of Neutral Daylight Strawberries
- Strawberry variety Queen Elizabeth II - one of the most popular among beginner gardeners
- Strawberry Selva is slightly susceptible to disease
- Strawberry Fruit Pineapple - Unusual Color and Pineapple Flavor
- Strawberry variety Brighton comes into fruition very quickly
- Berries of the Queen Elizabeth variety - fragrant and dense
- Strawberry Variety Temptation - self-pollinated
- Strawberry variety Moscow delicacy ripens 2 weeks earlier than other varieties
- Strawberry Variety Profusion French breeding fruit from May to frost
- Red Rich Strawberry yields - up to 300 g per bush
- Strawberry variety Tribute bred in the USA
- Strawberry variety Tristar - winter-hardy, with large berries of masa 25-30 g
- Strawberry variety Mount Everest - ampelous
- Strawberry variety Ozark Beauty is famous for its unusually large berries.
Watering and feeding
Strawberries, like other berry crops, love moisture. However, excessive moisture is detrimental to plants during flowering and during the ripening of berries. Remember, water must not be allowed to fall on leaves and flowers. The best solution is uniform drip irrigation.
The best way to irrigate strawberries is to drip
When planting plants, watering is carried out every day. In the future (during flowering and fruiting), they switch to the regime after 5-7 days.
During the entire growing season, it is necessary to fertilize with complex fertilizers containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. You can use liquid solutions (80 g of ammonium nitrate diluted in 10 l of water with superphosphate and 10 g of potassium salt).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Methods for growing strawberries in a greenhouse
Growing strawberries year-round in greenhouses is possible in several ways:
- on the beds;
- in boxes, bags, containers;
- hydroponic method.
Planting material is prepared in advance. In July-August, strawberry shoots - mustaches - root in the open ground. Before frost, in October or November, the grown bushes are transferred to the greenhouse.
For year-round use, the greenhouse needs heating
Greenhouses for growing strawberries throughout the year require heating, lighting and ventilation. Strict adherence to all agrotechnical requirements will bring satisfaction to the harvest.
In the beds
The classic way of growing berries directly in the ground involves planting bushes in a row 1 m wide according to the scheme of 15 × 15 cm or 20 × 20 cm. Planting soil is used loamy, rich in nutrients. To prepare, take soddy soil of a neutral acid reaction or slightly acidic, add rotted compost, sawdust, lowland peat, sand. The optimum ratio is 7: 2: 1, where seven parts of turf land, two parts of peat, one part of large river sand. To facilitate care, the ridges are mulched with agrofibre.
Remember that horse peat gives the soil more acidity, and for strawberries this is not the best option. Deoxidation of the soil is possible by adding 2-3 tablespoons of dolomite flour or a glass of ash to a bucket of peat.
It is convenient to place the beds with strawberries in the greenhouse with 1 m wide strips and cover them with geotextiles against weeds
It can be carried out both in boxes and in containers or even bags.
This method has its advantages:
- saving space, electricity for coolants and lighting. How it works? On one unit of the area of the greenhouse, you can place several levels of planting. At the same time, the costs of heating and lighting remain constant for a given volume of the greenhouse;
- convenience - berries are in limbo, which makes it easier to care for them. They do not need to hob, they are easier to ventilate.
But a number of disadvantages should be taken into account:
- land in boxes or containers must be changed once a season;
- close attention should be paid to moisture - wooden boxes dry out faster, and moisture in plastic containers may stagnate;
- wooden crates from constant contact with wet soil quickly fail.
When preparing the soil for containers made of different materials (wood, plastic), their ability to pass and retain moisture should be taken into account. Remember, the soil in containers dries faster than in the garden.
Read more about the method in our article: Vertical beds: how to get a large strawberry crop in small areas.
Photo Gallery: Vertical Strawberry Growing in Different Ways
- Ready-made bags for growing strawberries are sold in garden stores
- Plastic strawberry containers hold water better
- The life of wooden boxes for growing strawberries is limited
Hydroponic Strawberry Growing
The hydroponic method is plant nutrition a beneficial solution. In this case, the roots are not in the soil, but directly in the solution of nutrients in suspension at several levels. This allows you to significantly reduce the amount of space occupied by planting and increase the rational use of greenhouse facilities. And also a definite plus is the lack of contact with the ground. It is known that it is the soil that is the source of diseases for plants.
The hydroponic method avoids the disadvantages of classic strawberry breeding
To grow strawberries using the hydroponic method, plants are planted in containers or pots, which are placed in a nutrient solution. To organize nutrition with useful substances, use an aqueous, moist-air, porous solid or other medium. An important requirement for these environments is to ensure normal root respiration.
There are 2 ways to grow strawberries hydroponically:
- Each bush is placed in a separate pot with a substrate. Nutrition - individual and summed up to each pot. This method can be used when there is a need for independent nutrition for different plants.
When using the 1st method of growing strawberries in hydroponics, each bush is placed in a separate pot with a substrate
- Plants are planted in pots with a special substrate, which, in turn, are placed in large common containers with selected nutrient solution. Strawberry roots pass through the substrate and holes in the pots and reach the solution.
With the 2nd method of growing strawberries by hydroponics, individual pots are placed in a common container
Hydroponic strawberries are used more often in industrial greenhouses.
Video: hydroponic strawberries
If you plan to grow berries for sale - you need varieties with dense transportable berries. Another important parameter of the “commercial” variety is the evenness of the berries in size. It’s easier to sell the same medium-large berries than giant half-and-half berries.Viktorio
It is better to plant strawberries in the fall and spring, but at another time of the year it is also possible, you will still create artificial conditions. And from leaving - this is a transplant from time to time, weeding, watering, a little fertilizer and every year updating young seedlings. My opinion is that it is better to grow in boxes, the pots have little room for root and layering.Semenjpl
Sometimes in winter I buy imported, but the prices for it, of course, and most often it is longing for taste and smell, so I really got into an idea!Dolgopolova Alena
Growing strawberries has attracted people since ancient times. Currently, agricultural technology allows you to do this year-round. And both amateur gardeners and agricultural professionals can succeed in this matter.