Spring planting raspberries with different breeding methods
It would seem that raspberries are a good old shrub that was still grown by our grandmothers, and all the secrets and subtleties of caring for this berry have long been known. But for some reason, some gardeners bend branches under a load of berries, while others - one, two, and miscalculated. And it's not just about the varieties, poor soil and disgusting weather. Raspberries love attention, and for the berries to be sweet and large, the plant needs to be courted. The first and most crucial step is a proper fit.
Can raspberries be planted in spring
Raspberry planting dates largely depend on the climatic zone and prevailing weather conditions. Raspberries can be planted in spring and autumn, but in the southern regions the best period is autumn, and in the middle lane and more northern regions - spring. This is due to the fact that in the south after a short spring, hot summers are rapidly set in, and seedlings planted in March - April, not having time to take root, should be exposed to extremely high temperatures. Shrub survival will occur under these conditions, but will not be easy.
In areas with colder climates, spring planting is preferred. A raspberry seedling planted in April will have time to take root before the onset of heat, and with the arrival of summer heat it will start to grow. Autumn planting in the middle lane is also possible, but with the onset of early frosts and the absence of snow, young plants may die.
Spring planting raspberries
The best time for spring planting of raspberries is the second half of April. Depending on the weather and climatic zone, the timing may shift in one direction or another, but it is advisable to hold this event before the kidneys open.
The lunar calendar for 2018 is considered the best days for spring planting of raspberries on April 7–8, April 20–22 and May 4–6, May 18–19.
Planting raspberries should begin with the selection of the site. A sunny, ventilated place would be ideal, but the seedlings planted along the fence will take root well and will delight the crop. The shadow from the fence, especially at noon, will protect the berry from scorching rays. The main thing is that raspberries do not appear without the sun for a long time during the day.
Soil raspberry prefers neutral or slightly acidic. If the plot is acidic, then before planting seedlings it is necessary to deoxidate - add chalk or dolomite flour for digging.
Raspberries should not be planted where potatoes, tomatoes or strawberries grew before it. These plants have common diseases with raspberries, so planting after these crops can be done only after three years.
Preparing the pit and planting raspberries
The dimensions of the landing pits (trenches) are largely dependent on the soil - the poorer the soil, the greater the depth and width of the landing space. Typically, the recesses dig 50 cm wide and 40-50 cm deep.
Landing pits or trenches for spring planting should preferably be prepared in the fall. They do it like this:
- Pits are dug in the intended place, and coarse organic residues are placed at the bottom:
- Pour a layer of green mowed weeds without seeds.
- Nutritious soil is laid on top with the addition of:
- dolomite flour;
- rotted manure.
It often happens that there is no way to immediately plant a purchased raspberry seedling and you need to save it for one to two days. In this case, you should wrap the roots with a damp cloth and put the plant in a plastic bag. It is good if you can put your purchase in a cool place, for example, in an unheated garage or a barn. In no case should you leave the seedling in the sun or put in a bucket of water for more than an hour - a young plant, most likely, will not stand this. If you need to save the purchased raspberry bush for a long time, it is best to dig it in the shade.
Planting raspberries in pits:
- In a pit prepared and covered with fertile soil, make a deepening, pour 40 g of nitroammophoski and mix well with the ground.
- Lower the seedling into the pit and position it so that the root neck is flush with the soil.
- Sprinkle the roots with soil and compact the surface.
Raspberry seedlings set in the center of the pit and sprinkled with earth
- Water the seedling well.
- Mulch the surface of the soil with peat, rotted sawdust or compost.
- Trim the shoots to a height of about 30 cm, leaving sleeping buds.
Planted seedlings are cut, leaving 5-6 buds
That's all the subtleties. For a good development and a rich harvest, raspberries will need space, so the distance between the pits should be 80-100 cm, and between the rows 1.5 meters.
Many gardeners prefer a trench raspberry planting. It is carried out basically the same as landing in the pits. The distance between the trenches should be at least 1 m, and the distance between the seedlings is 40-50 cm.
Mulching the surface in the trench will retain moisture and improve the soil microclimate
Experts advise to plant raspberries on clay soils on clay soils, that is, after planting, the plants should be 10-15 cm above ground level. This method will protect the seedlings from stagnation of water in the ground, which often happens in clay areas after rain or spring snow melt.
Planting raspberries in the trenches depends on the type of soil: if the soil is moist - they are planted on the ridges, if dry - use the in-depth method
I planted my raspberries five years ago in the spring in trenches along the fence. We still got the site - the administration cut the virgin steppe. The soil is poor loam, so planting in trenches with a depression turned out to be quite suitable. I filled the trenches with complex mineral fertilizer, added ash, but I had to do without organic matter - there was no manure or compost. During the summer, it mulched with mowed weeds and watered with green fertilizer. In the second year, the first crop was harvested, not rich, but for us it was good. Things went better further - soil fertility from mulch and regular watering increased, and moistening the trenches is much easier than pits. My bushes grow in two rows, on trellises, which is very convenient. Raspberry has grown and since the third year, it surprises and delights with an excellent harvest, though not very large, but sweet and fragrant berries.
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Features planting "standard" raspberries
Raspberries for formation in the form of a "raspberry tree" are most often planted in pits 50 cm wide and 50 cm deep. Since a stem is formed from the shoot, the distance between the bushes should be greater than for ordinary raspberries - 1 m between plants in a row and 2 m between the rows. The rest of the landing is no different from the usual.
Stacked raspberries are usually planted in pits.
Ways to plant raspberries in spring
Spring is the best time to propagate raspberries by cuttings. Cuttings can be root - segments of roots with sprouts and green - cut from the shoot . Both those and others are well rooted, while all varietal qualities of the uterine bush are transmitted to the young plant.
Propagation by root cuttings
Root cuttings are harvested in the spring, when transplanting raspberries to a new place. Segments of roots with lateral branches are separated from the main root and planted in a prepared place. A seedling bed with fertile soil, arranged in a shady place, is best suited for these purposes. If a raspberry transplant is not planned, you can carefully dig out the root horizontally extending from the bush, cut it and divide it into cuttings.
About a month later, young plants will appear on the root cuttings
Step-by-step process of working with root cuttings:
- Dig grooves 5-7 cm deep on the bed.
- Place cuttings in grooves at a distance of 5-10 cm from each other.
Prepared root cuttings are laid in the groove
- Cut the cuttings with soil, condense and water.
- Mulch the surface of the soil with any material - peat, sawdust, compost or agrofibre.
- Cover the garden bed with plastic wrap, arranging a small greenhouse.
Under film cover, increased humidity and heat are retained, and these are necessary conditions for rooting
In the greenhouse, the air temperature should be maintained at 22–25 ° C and high humidity. To prevent the cuttings from bulging, the greenhouse must be aired every day. In cloudy weather, it is enough to open the greenhouse once a day for 10-15 minutes. On hot sunny days, it is better to leave air open by lifting the film on one side, otherwise seedlings may burn out.
As soon as young shoots appear, the film must be replaced with agrofibre. It is undesirable to open the bed at all - until the seedlings grow up, they require greenhouse conditions - increased humidity and lack of wind. Strengthened and grown plants are transferred to a permanent place with a lump of earth, choosing a quiet cloudy day for transplantation.
Planting green raspberry cuttings for growing seedlings
Green cuttings are cut from young strong shoots of raspberries, which usually appear in late May - early June. You can root the cuttings at home in a container, but it is better to arrange a small greenhouse in a shady corner of the garden. It is important to maintain high humidity during rooting and to ensure that the air temperature is 22–25 ° C.
Step-by-step process of propagation by green cuttings:
- Cut the shoot into parts with two internodes - the upper section is straight, the lower is oblique.
- Cut the lower leaves, shorten the upper so that the stalk does not lose moisture.
When preparing raspberry cuttings for rooting, remove all lower leaves
- Using a clean knife, scratch the surface of the handle to a height of 2-3 cm from the bottom cut.
- To dust the lower cut and the scratched part with Kornevin.
- In a container filled with a mixture of fertile land and sand 1: 1, make a hole with a stick (if rooting is carried out in the garden - do the same in the designated area).
- Insert the handle into the hole at an angle of 45 ° and press the ground.
- Moisten the soil slightly and cover the container with a film in the form of a greenhouse.
Green cuttings are rooted in a mixture of sand and earth or in clean, wet sand.
It usually takes about a month to root, and all this time the greenhouse must be ventilated daily for 10-15 minutes. When the sprout starts growing, the seedling can be planted in a permanent place in the garden. It is advisable to cover the young plant with an agrofibre cap - this will protect the seedling from the sun and wind, and taking root in a new place will be painless.
Propagation by root offspring
Root offspring grow from the adnexal buds located underground. Such a seedling has a root system and a stem formed, so it can be separated from the mother plant and immediately transplanted to a new place.
Siblings grow from adnexal buds located on the raspberry root
It is better to take small offsprings up to 20 cm high. Planting scheme 10x30 cm. The top of the seedling needs to be removed and a third of all leaves should be cut off.
The work is done in cloudy or rainy weather, and also shade seedlings in the first two weeks.
Video: planting raspberries with root offspring
Features of spring planting in the regions
Spring planting of raspberries in the regions is carried out according to the schemes already described. The difference may be due to the timing - in Ukraine, Belarus and other relatively warm areas, spring planting begins in early April, and in the Leningrad region, in the Urals, in Siberia, raspberries are planted a little later - from the second half of April to the end of May.
I would like to pay attention to the choice of variety. It is advisable to buy planting material in local nurseries - then there will be no unpleasant surprises. A seedling grown in Ukraine or in the Kuban will not be easy in the Altai Territory, because winters are colder there and there is less sun. And local producers will offer regionalized varieties that perfectly take root and bear fruit in this area. Each serious nursery has its own site with a catalog of plants. Before buying seedlings, do not be lazy, read the description of the proposed varieties - this will help make the right choice.
Specialists in local nurseries will help determine the varieties and give recommendations for the care of raspberries.
Spring planting raspberries are pleasant gardener chores. If you approach this matter seriously and thoroughly - choose the varieties suitable for the area, the planting method that matches the type of soil, and a decent place in the garden, then success will not be long in coming, because further care for the plant is completely uncomplicated.