Spring - apricot season for treating diseases and pests

Growing juicy apricots in your own garden is the dream of many gardeners. This can be prevented by tree diseases and pests. It is necessary to start protecting your crop already in early spring.

Spring apricot treatment for diseases

In spring, fruit trees emerge from a state of winter dormancy, and with the trees, overwintered mycelium awaken, spores of fungal diseases of fruit crops. Apricot is susceptible to cytosporosis, root bacterial cancer, milky shine and a number of other ailments. Spores of these fungi, as a rule, live in the soil, eating decomposed plant debris. Through damaged roots or the bark of the lower part of the stem, they can enter the conducting system of wood and spread throughout the tree. Due to clogging of the pathways of sap flow with fungal spores and poisoning of plant tissues with toxic secretions, the vital activity of the root system is disrupted. But the greatest danger for apricot is moniliosis (monilial burn and gray rot of the fruit) and kleasterosporiosis (holey leaf spot).

Treatment and preventive treatment of wood from moniliosis

A monilial burn is characteristic of the spring, when the apricot begins to bloom . Contribute to the onset and spread of the disease increased humidity and lower air temperature. Apricot trees in regions with a characteristic lingering, cold spring, with fogs and dampness are at high risk of being affected by moniliosis. For peduncles, the critical air temperature is to lower it to -1.5 ° C. The ovaries are affected by moniliosis and die when the temperature drops to -0.6 ° C.

Signs of a monilial burn:

  • flower petals become dark, and then brown. Peduncles dry out and crumble;
  • leaves and young growths (mainly annuals) also turn brown and dry;
  • in adult trees, the bark of the trunk and branches is covered with cracks, from which a large amount of gum is released.

In the process of the development of the disease, the fungus secretes toxins that kill apricot cells and feeds on the already dead parts of the affected tree. Apricot with signs of moniliosis looks burnt, with dry branches and leaves.

Video: Monilial Apricot Burn

Monilial (gray) rot of fruits occurs in the summer, when the set fruits begin to grow and ripen. Spores of the fungus appear on the fruits first in the form of individual spots of light gray or brown color. Soon they merge into continuous brown layers of mycelium. Within 5–7 days, apricots rot, dry out and fall prematurely. Often, mummified fruits remain hanging on branches until late autumn. These affected apricots are carriers of a fungal infection next spring.

Photo gallery: signs of the various stages of moniliosis

The first signal of a monilial burn after flowering is the drying of young leaves and shoots

When developing, the fungus affects the trunk and skeletal branches of the tree, causing profuse gum-bore

On the surface of apricots, mycelium forms in the form of layers and rotting dents

The last stage of the disease is decay and mummification of apricot fruits

Manifesting in the form of a monilial burn, the disease not only affects the fruits, but also causes significant damage to the vegetative parts of the apricot tree.

My experience in growing apricots for 17 years led me to the conclusion: if for some reason you do not take timely measures to destroy the fungal infection on the site, then in some years you can lose up to 40-50% of the crop. At the same time, an important component in the fight against fungi is not only the treatment of trees with fungicides, but also the implementation of preventive work. The rules of agricultural technology, which imply constant care for apricots, should not be neglected. These are timely watering and top dressing of trees, weed control, autumn digging of the soil, loosening and mulching of trunks. Considering that the fungal spores winter in plant debris (affected shoots and mummified fruits) winter, in the autumn, all fallen leaves, trimmed branches should be carefully raked and burned, and dried fruit remaining on the branches must be removed. All this will allow trees to increase immunity, their ability to resist fungal infections.

Table: stages (cycles) of processing apricot from a disease of moniliosis

Processing periodChemicalsFungicidesApplication featuresProcessing method
Before

kidney swelling

(early spring)

Urea (urea) - 700 g

+ copper sulfate - 50 g

on 10 l of water

Delays vegetation

and flowering for 7-10 days

Spraying crown

and stub

wood

3-5% iron sulfate -

300-500 g per 10 liters of water

1% solution of DNOC - according to the instructionsDNOC is applied 1 time

at 3 years

3% Bordeaux mixture -

300 g per 10 l of water

Nitrafen - according to the instructions
Swelling and blooming

kidney (phase

"Green cone")

1% Bordeaux mixture -

100 g per 10 l of water

Polychome or Polycarbacin -

40 g per 10 l of water

Spraying

crowns

and trunk

circle

Copper Chloride (HOM) -

30–40 g per 10 liters of water

Tank mix

Speed ​​+ Topaz -

according to instructions

It is applied at temperature

air from 12 ° C to 25 ° C

Bud extension

(phase of the "pink bud")

Abiga Peak - 40 g per

10 l of water

Spraying

crowns

and trunk

circle

Tank mix

Chorus + Aktara -

according to instructions

Aktara is toxic to

pollinating insects

Tank mix

Speed ​​+ Topaz + Chorus -

according to instructions

It is applied at temperature

air from 12 ° C to 25 ° C

0, 1% solution of Fundazol -

10 g per 10 l of water

Processing can be carried out

in the rainy period

Flowering end

(after flowering)

1% Bordeaux mixture -

100 g per 10 l of water

Abiga Peak - 40 g

+ Fufanon - 10 ml

on 10 l of water

Spraying crown

and stub

wood

Tank mix

Scor + Horus + Aktara -

according to instructions

Aktara is toxic to

pollinating insects

Ovary formation,

fruit growth and ripening

1% Bordeaux mixture -

100 g per 10 l of water

Abiga Peak - 40 g

+ Fufanon - 10 ml

on 10 l of water

2-3 weeks before collection

crop processing stop

Spraying crown

and stub

wood

Tank mix

Scor + Horus + Aktara -

according to instructions

A tank mixture is a composition of drugs for various purposes (insecticides, fungicides, etc.), mixed in one tank for spraying. It is used to treat fruit trees from diseases and pests. The tank mixture is characterized by a complex effect on fungi, viruses or insects. The use of such compositions can reduce the consumption of each of the component preparations by 50% and get a more effective result from processing due to a combination of the properties of the substances used in the tank mixture. In addition to protecting against diseases and pests, the tank mixture helps prevent diseases by stimulating apricot trees to increase resistance to adverse factors.

Video: the fight against moniliosis

Viruses and fungi that cause plant diseases tend to mutate and develop resistance (resistance) to a certain type of drug. The products listed in the table are not recommended for spraying all at the same time. They must be used alternating during the growing season of apricot.

Treatment of apricot from klyasterosporioz (hole blotch)

Kleasterosporiosis is a fungal disease. Like moniliosis, it can kill apricots if urgent measures are not taken to prevent healthy trees or to treat diseased trees. The disease begins in late spring and early summer with a darkening of the affected fruit and vegetative buds, which stop growing and do not bloom. Then the fungus passes to the leaves and young shoots, gradually covering the whole tree:

  • cracks form on the stem, branches and shoots, turning into wounds and ulcers, from which gum is released;
  • brown spots 2–5 mm in size appear on the leaves, which quickly fall out, forming holes;
  • with severe damage, the leaves fall prematurely;
  • small reddish spots appear on the surface of the fruit, then they increase in size and take the form of convex pads of a dark brown color;
  • spots gradually merge and turn into a continuous crust of scab;
  • of the wounds that cover the fruit, gum also stands out.

Photo gallery: apricot affection with kleasterosporiosis

Leaves affected by kleasterosporiosis have many holes on their surface from rotten tissue

Gum abundantly released from the wound contributes to further infection of the tree

A fresh cut of the damaged branch should be quickly treated with copper sulphate and covered with garden var

If spores of the monilia fungus get into the wounds on the bark and apricot fruits, the tree is very likely to get monilial (gray) rot. Most often, trees weakened by adverse external factors, damaged by harmful insects, or unsuitable for growing varieties in this region are affected by kleastosporiosis.

The development of the disease contribute to:

  • wrong choice of seedling planting site (lowland, damp, close standing of groundwater);
  • waterlogged heavy soil in the cultivation area;
  • climatic conditions unsuitable for this apricot variety (cold spring and summer, heavy rainfall).

Video: kleasterosporiosis (hole blotch) and its treatment

There are several ways to treat apricot from this fungal disease: spraying with fungicides or treatment with copper-containing drugs. It is recommended to use systemic fungicides Skor, Topaz and Chorus: either in the form of a tank mixture in various combinations, or each drug separately. Treatment with fungicides is more preferable and effective, since they are absorbed by plant tissues within 2-3 hours after spraying and are not washed off by water in case of precipitation. For spraying with copper-containing chemicals, a 3-4% Bordeaux mixture (300-400 g per 10 liters of water) or 1% copper sulfate (100 g per 10 liters of water) is used. In both cases, a 4-fold treatment of the affected trees and soil in the trunk circles is performed:

  1. The first treatment is in the “green cone” phase.
  2. The second treatment is in the “pink bud” phase.
  3. The third treatment - 2 weeks after the second (after flowering apricot).
  4. The fourth treatment is carried out as necessary (for example, if it rains).

It is necessary to stop the processing of trees with chemicals no later than 2-3 weeks before harvesting. As a preventive measure against clasterosporiosis, it is necessary to cut off the damaged branches, carefully collect and burn all plant debris (dried leaves, fruits) of diseased trees. Slices should be treated with a mixture of 1% solution of copper sulfate (or 3% solution of iron sulfate) with lime. The cracks with the gum that came out should be cleaned to healthy wood, sanitized with 1% copper sulfate (100 g per 10 liters of water), dried and covered with garden varnish or Rannet for some time.

Scab and ways to deal with it

Scab is not so common and dangerous disease for apricots as moniliosis and klyasterosporiosis, but it gives gardeners a lot of trouble and trouble. A sign of the disease is the appearance on the leaves and fruits of a velvety brownish-olive or gray-black coating. The leaves gradually dry up and fall off, the same thing happens with annual growths affected by the disease. Then the fungus switches to flowers and ovaries. Fruits begin to grow unevenly, ulcers and warts form on their surface, they crack and lose their presentation. Manifestations of scab strongly affect apricot productivity, fruit quality, and also contribute to a decrease in winter hardiness of trees and resistance to fruit rot due to weakening of their vitality.

Affected scab fruits lose their presentation and slow down in development

The initial period of the disease is considered to be the end of April or beginning of May, when the apricot blooms. At the end of May, secondary signs of the disease appear. Fungus spores are favored by the high air temperature (20–25 ° C) during flowering and fruit setting, as well as one hundred percent air humidity when the formation of mycelium in the affected areas occurs within 1–1.5 days. If you take the necessary measures to process apricot from scab, then this disease can be avoided. Spraying is carried out in three stages:

  1. Before the apricot blossoms (in the “pink bud” phase).
  2. After flowering (in the period of petals falling).
  3. A month after flowering (during the growth of the ovaries and ripening of the fruit).

For treatment from scab, it is recommended to use the same systemic fungicides (Chorus, Skor, Aktara) and copper-containing preparations as for spraying trees from moniliosis, and at the same time. Therefore, processing apricot from moniliosis at the same time protects the plant from scab.

Video: scab apricot processing

In order to prevent apricot scab disease, you should follow simple rules for caring for trees:

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  • timely destroy fallen leaves and affected shoots after sanitary pruning;
  • regularly loosen the trunk circles during the growing season and dig the soil in the fall;
  • spray trees with modern effective fungicidal preparations;
  • grow trees on the most suitable light and loose soils, in open, sunny and well-ventilated areas.

Apricot flowering delay and protection against spring return frost

Apricots are one of the earliest flowering fruit trees. The main flowering period is in May. It often happens that during this period there is a strong cooling with a decrease in air temperature below 0 ° C. Even a small freeze up to -2 ° C causes damage to the peduncles and their premature shedding.

The solution to this problem is to delay the onset of apricot blossom. For this, it is necessary to shorten the annual growth of fouling shoots by one third or half from mid-May to mid-June (depending on the initial growth length). As a result, new shoots with flowering buds of the next year will begin to grow from the sinuses of the vegetative leaf buds. In the spring of next year, these buds will bloom 10-14 days later than the main flowers. If during the period of the first flowering wave a sudden freeze occurs and the main color is damaged, then after 2 weeks the buds of the second flowering wave will bloom. Thus, the crop will only be partially lost.

Photo gallery: spraying and pruning apricot tree as a way to delay flowering

Early spring treatment with DNOC allows you to destroy wintering pests and fungal spores and delay the start of flowering of the tree

Pruning annual growth of apricot allows the growth of new fruit shoots

Lushly blooming apricot, escaping the May frost, gives hope for a generous harvest

During spring treatments of apricot trees, it is recommended to spray them with a 0.3–0.6% solution (30–60 g per 10 liters of water) of DNOC insectofungicide to delay flowering. Processing the tree crown with this preparation in early spring allows to slow down the development and blooming of flower buds for 8-17 days. Spraying should be done at the beginning of the period of bud blooming (before the onset of the “green cone” phase). To increase the winter hardiness of flower buds during late spring frosts, it is necessary to spray apricot crowns with a mixture of urea (700 g) and copper sulfate (50 g) diluted in 10 l of water in the autumn after the growing season (after leaf fall). This treatment also allows you to delay spring vegetation and flowering for up to 7-10 days and to avoid freezing of flowering trees.

Processing a Damaged Tree Trunk

The bark of an apricot stem can be damaged as a result of a sharp change in air temperature during a sudden winter thaw (frost war) or when a tree is affected by fungal diseases (gum disease). Through the damaged bark, an infection easily gets into the wood tissue, which will only exacerbate the diseased state of the plant. In any case, the place of damage must be processed without fail and create conditions for the wound to heal.

The process of healing gum apricot gum:

  1. In spring, gum on apricot should be cleaned with a sharp disinfected knife to a healthy tissue.
  2. Treat with a solution of copper sulfate (1 tbsp. L. Per 1 liter of water). Leave the wound open for drying.
  3. Two days later, spray the lesion with a strong urea solution (700 g per 10 liters of water).
  4. To cover the sore spot with a mixture of liquid mullein with clay (1: 1) or with Rannet, or with garden var.

If the treatment is carried out in the spring (which is preferable), then by the end of summer or early autumn, the wound on the apricot will heal. If the damage is treated in the fall, then the next day you should whitewash the trunk for the winter.

Video: how to deal with gum spotting on apricot

Spring processing of apricot from pests

Of garden pests, apricot leaves and fruits can damage:

  • leaf aphids
  • codling moth
  • butterfly hawthorn,
  • leaflet.

But to healthy, well-developed trees, these insects cannot cause significant harm. Thorough tree care, which consists of regular preventive treatment of apricots with fungicides and insecticides, destruction of weeds, timely cleaning of fallen leaves and whitewashing of tree stems to protect them from sunburn and wintering insects, provides immunity or high resistance of plants to diseases and pests.

Table: Apricot tree pests and their control

PestsSignsWays to fightPreventative measures
MothButterflies lay eggs on the ovaries and leaf plates, after 2-3 weeks caterpillars appear that penetrate the ovaries and feed on their contents, as a result of which they fall. Плодожорка способна снизить урожайность дерева наполовину.Через 20 дней после

опадания цветков обработка

препаратами:

  • Митак (30–40 мл),
  • Биорин (10 мл),
  • Кинмикс (2, 5 мл),
  • Инта-Вир (1 таблетка),
  • Суми-альфа (5 г на 10 л воды).
  • перекапывание в осенний период грунта вокруг ствола;
  • уничтожение растительных остатков.
Листовая

тля

Мелкие насекомые лаймового, нежно-зелёного или чёрно-бурого оттенка селятся на верхушках побегов, высасывая соки из молодой листвы. Листья сворачиваются в трубочку, буреют, опадают.Обработка инсектицидами:
  • Fitoverm,
  • Aktara
  • Инта-Вир,
  • Искра-Био (строго в соответствии

    с инструкцией).

  • умеренное использование азотсодержащих удобрений;
  • использование народных средств:
    • настоев сухой апельсиновой корки,
    • листьев табака,
    • листьев любых сильнопахнущих растений,
    • стручков острого перца.

      Чтобы средство продержалось на дереве дольше, можно добавить мыльную стружку.

Бабочка-

боярышница

Гусеницы объедают почки, бутоны, цветки и листья. Обработка препаратами:
  • Битоксибациллин

    (40–80 г на 10 л воды),

  • Лепидоцид

    (20–30 г на 10 л воды).

    Опрыскивание весной после

    распускания почек, в конце лета

    при появлении новых гусениц.

Уничтожение гнёзд и гусениц.
LeafletГусеницы объедают почки, бутоны, цветки и молодые листья.

Приготовьте так называемую баковую смесь, например из ХОМа (0, 4%) и Фуфанона (0, 1%). Этой смесью можно опрыскивать все ягодные и плодовые растения. Такая обработка — профилактическая мера для многих культур, а для некоторых и искореняющая. Одна весенняя обработка растения заменяет 3–4 опрыскивания в летнее время. Весной отрождаются личинки вредителей из зимовавших яиц и выходят на поверхность из земли многие взрослые особи. Весеннее опрыскивание против комплекса вредителей не только снижает их численность, но и предотвращает появление следующих поколений таких вредителей, как долгоносики, листоеды, пилильщики, тли, клещи.

Т. Александрова, плодовод-любитель

Журнал «Приусадебное хозяйство», №3, март 2010 г.

Виды препаратов и способы обработки ими абрикосовых деревьев

В настоящее время в распоряжении садоводов имеется большое количество современных препаратов для обработки садовых культур от насекомых-вредителей и различных грибковых и бактериальных болезней. Это химические вещества, классически применяемые в садоводстве (различные купоросы и бордоская смесь), а также фунгицидные и инсектицидные препараты различного принципа действия — от контактных до биологических.

Таблица: основные виды препаратов для профилактики и борьбы с болезнями и вредителями абрикоса

Name

препарата

Способ обработки и

количество препарата

Type of pest

или болезни

Примечание
Фунгицидные препараты
Blue vitriolОпрыскивание 1%-3% раствором (100–300 г

for 10 liters of water).

  • грибковые болезни,
  • поражения коры,
  • мхи,
  • парша.
1%–2% раствор — весной, 3% раствор — осенью.
inkstoneОпрыскивание 5% раствором (500 г на 10 л воды).
  • парша,
  • мхи,
  • лишайники,
  • обработка дупел, ран, морозобоин.
Дупла и раны обмывать щёткой после удаления гнилых остатков коры.
Bordeaux mixtureОпрыскивание 1%-3% раствором (100 г медного купороса + 200 г негашёной извести).
  • грибковые болезни,
  • листовая тля.
1%–2% раствор — весной, 3% раствор — осенью.
Карбамид (мочевина)Опрыскивание 5% раствором (500 г на 10 л воды).
  • грибковые болезни,
  • листовая тля.
Весенняя обработка — до распускания почек, осенняя обработка — после листопада.
Хлорокись меди (ХОМ)Опрыскивание 0, 4% раствором (40 г на 10 л воды).
  • грибковые болезни,
  • парша,
  • поражения коры.
4 обработки за сезон вегетации. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
Хорус, СкорПрименять строго в соответствии с инструкцией (в зависимости от возраста дерева). Грибковые болезни (монилиоз, клястероспориоз).2–4 обработки за сезон вегетации. Не применять

за 3 недели до сбора урожая.

Нитрафен, КупрозанПрименять строго в соответствии с инструкцией (в зависимости от возраста дерева).Однократная обработка — ранней весной или поздней осенью.
Инсектицидные препараты
KarbofosОпрыскивание раствором 70–90 г на 10 л воды.Листовая тля.2 обработки — до и после цветения. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
РовикуртОпрыскивание раствором 10 г на 10 л воды.Листовая тля.2 обработки — до и после цветения. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
ЭнтобактеринОпрыскивание раствором 50–100 г на 10 л воды.
  • гусеницы боярышницы,
  • листовёртки.
2 обработки с интервалом в 7 дней в период вегетации. Безопасен для пчёл.
АктофитОпрыскивание раствором 4–5 мл на 1 л воды.Листовая тля.2 обработки — до и после цветения. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
FufanonОпрыскивание раствором 5 мл на 5 л воды.
  • листовая тля,
  • боярышница.
2 обработки — до и после цветения. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
Искра М от гусеницОпрыскивание раствором 5 мл на 5 л воды.
  • гусеницы боярышницы,
  • листовёртки,
  • листовая тля.
Обработки в течение периода вегетации, до созревания урожая. Безопасен для пчёл.
Искра-БиоОпрыскивание раствором 3 мл на 1 л воды.
  • гусеницы боярышницы,
  • листовёртки,
  • листовая тля.
Обработки в течение периода вегетации, до созревания урожая. Безопасен для пчёл.
Инта-ВирОпрыскивание раствором 1 таблетка на 10 л воды.
  • листовая тля,
  • боярышница.
2–3 обработки — до и после цветения. Во время цветения не применять. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.
АктараОпрыскивание раствором 1 упаковка (1, 4 г) на 10 л воды.
  • листовая тля,
  • боярышница.
2 обработки с интервалом в 2 месяца в период вегетации. Безопасен для опыляющих насекомых.
АрривоОпрыскивание раствором 1, 5 мл на 10 л воды.
  • листовая тля,
  • садовые муравьи.
2 обработки — до и после цветения, с интервалом 20 дней. Токсичен для опыляющих насекомых.

Видео: чем опрыскивать сад весной

Reviews

В период цветения абрикоса опрыскивают деревья 0, 1-процентным раствором фундазола (10 г на ведро воды). Если в прошедшие годы в вашем саду дерево сильно было поражено монилиозом, лучше провести двукратное опрыскивание — в начале и середине цветения. Его делают и при влажной, и при дождливой весне. Нужно только помнить, что после опрыскивания сухая погода без дождя должна простоять хотя бы 2–3 ч, чтобы препарат успел впитаться в ткани растения и пестики цветков.

Varava, Херсонская область, Украина

Расскажу, кому интересно — как обработал свой сад в прошлом крайне неблагоприятном сезоне: 1) 7 марта — 3% бордоская смесь (98 л раствора на 43 дерева) 2) За 10 суток до цветения (27 марта) – Хорус (140 л раствора на 43 дерева) 3) За 2 суток до цветения (5 апреля) – Хорус+Скор+Актара (140 л раствора на 43 дерева) 4) Конец цветения, 80% цвета осыпалось (17 апреля) – Топаз+Скор+Актеллик (140 л раствора на 43 дерева) 5) Через неделю (24 апреля) – Строби+Топсин М+ Енжио (140 л раствора на 43 дерева) 6) Через 13 дней (7 мая) – Скор + Свитч (140 л раствора на 43 дерева). Обрабатывал с помощью бензинового мотоопрыскивателя. Как я определял время до цветения? Да просто в предыдущем году фотографировал почку, начиная с 15 марта каждую неделю, так как опыт у меня небольшой — именно эти фотографии мне помогли с точностью до суток определить момент цветения в будущем году. Правильно — неправильно поступал, я спорить не хочу и не буду, но когда у всех в округе в прошлом году едва хватало на «покушать», я собрал со своих 43 деревьев суммарно 692 кг (примерно 30% урожая сохранил).

Мелитополь, г. Мелитополь, Украина

Чтобы эффективно контролировать монилиоз, нужно сделать 3 обработки в фазу: – розового бутона; – распускания цветков (стадия «попкорна»); – массового цветения. Из того, что у вас есть, можно взять: – в первую фазу — Беномил или Топсин-М (+ Фольпан для профилактики клястероспориоза); – во вторую — Хорус и Скор; – в третью — Луна Экспириенс; И четвертая обработка, которая делается больше от клястероспориоза в фазу опадения околоцветников («рубашек») с растущей завязи (shuck fall) – Строби + Полирам.

Виктор, г. Винница, Украина

Узнав тонкости и нюансы весенней обработки абрикосового сада, поняв важность этого процесса, можно без особого труда выращивать как абрикосы, так и другие косточковые культуры: вишни, сливы, персики. Главное — не забывать вовремя опрыскивать деревья и выполнять работы в саду, необходимые по сезону. Тогда ваши питомцы с радостью одарят вас хорошим урожаем.

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