Selection of grape varieties for growing in the Krasnodar Territory
Krasnodar Territory is considered ideal climatic conditions for growing grapes. But even despite this, it is necessary to choose the right variety in order to achieve an excellent harvest.
The history of growing grapes in the Krasnodar Territory
The first mention of vineyards in the territory where modern Kuban is now located is equivalent to the VI century BC. The Greeks willingly shared the secrets of winemaking and cultivation of grapes with the Slavs. Over time, the wines of the Krasnodar Territory were also discussed in the capital.
Grapes in the Kuban are grown for a very long time
In the XV century, they decided to support this industry at the state level for further development. Many varieties were imported to the Kuban from France. But the neighborhood with Georgia had a greater impact on the development of winemaking.
During the war with Turkey, the vineyards disappeared in the occupied territories. And only after the exhausting wars around the XIX century, viticulture began to revive. Its development took control of D.V. Pilenko (lieutenant general of the Russian army). With the help of the Czech agronomist F.I. They laid the Heyduk vineyards, which are still operating in the Krasnodar Territory. By 1970, the Soviet Union was in 3rd place among the largest wine producers.
Video: Kuban farmers opt for grapes
The best grapes for growing in southern Russia
The Krasnodar Territory has a rather mild climate. But some grape varieties can still freeze due to snowy winters. Therefore, they practice sheltering grapes with various materials.
In the Krasnodar Territory, various grape varieties are grown, including those used in the production of wine.
As a neighbor who lived for some time in the Kuban shared, many gardeners choose early and non-covering varieties. But at the same time, many use agrofibre as a shelter. After all, winter there is very unpredictable, although it only lasts 1–1.5 months. The temperature can vary from 15 ° C to -10 ° C. Although there were cases that frost reached a mark of -25 ° C.
Particular attention is paid to treating plants from pests. They develop rapidly in a warm and humid environment. Because of them, large areas of vineyards can die.
Many grape varieties are planted on the plots, by experiment, highlighting the most suitable. My neighbor’s favorite varieties are three:
- Nastya (or Arkady). Early and frost resistant variety. But still it is better to cover it in case of severe frost. Fruits very well;
- Rochefort. Early variety with large tassels of grapes;
- Novocherkassk sweet. It brings a good harvest and is resistant to most diseases.
Grape varieties of the Krasnodar selection
The best crop can be obtained from varieties adapted to the climate and soil composition. For the Krasnodar Territory, the best choice is the selection varieties of the Anapa Zonal Experimental Viticulture and Winemaking Station (AZOSViV). They are distinguished by high productivity and quality of berries.
Not only technical varieties for wine production, but also canteens, differing in maturity, are brought to the AZOS. At the same time, they are suitable for the soil and climatic zone of the Krasnodar Territory and are immune to most fungal diseases.
As a result of the painstaking and long work of the breeders of AZOS, copyright certificates in 2011 were obtained by varieties:Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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- Fantasy. “Parents” - varieties Yangi Er and Criulensky. The vine has large, rounded leaves of light green color. Lower part without pubescence. Bisexual flowers. The bunch is strong, medium-dense. It weighs approximately 450-500 g. The berries are large, in the form of an elongated oval. When ripe, they have a bright pink color. Juicy pulp is under a dense skin, has 1-2 seeds. The taste is harmonious, with a refreshing acidity. Sugar content reaches 180 g / dm3 with an average acidity of 6.5 g / dm3. The variety belongs to the early. Resistant to frost up to -20 ° C and infection with gray rot. Productivity reaches 130–160 kg / ha. Farmers appreciate it for its stable bearing and transportability.
- Winner. The variety was bred when crossing Muscat of Hamburg and Nimrang. The leaves in summer are dark green, large, round, medium-dissected. Bisexual flowers. The bunch is conic with a wide base. Weight on average about 500 g. The largest weight of one bunch of 3 kg was recorded. The berries are round, large, dark red. The fleshy flesh is under thick skin. The winner belongs to varieties with early ripening. Fruiting occurs on the 3-4th year. The average yield is 125 c / ha. The variety is poorly resistant to frost and poorly regenerated after damage. To the defeat of pests and diseases is medium resistant. Berries are not transportable, therefore, they are mainly used for preservation, fresh and for drying. The taste of the fruit is estimated at 8.8 points.
- Taman. Obtained by crossing varieties Kardinal and Criulensky. The leaves are large, drop-shaped. Rare pubescence of the reverse side. A sprayer is not required. The bunch is loose, broad conical shape, average weight - 570 g. The berries are dark red, juicy, oval in shape. The taste score is 9 points. The variety belongs to the premature maturity. Resistance to diseases and local pests is good. Productivity is about 150 kg / ha.
- White early. The variety was bred by crossing the Pearls of Saba and the Samarkand hybrid. Bisexual flowers. The clusters are large, wide conical in shape. Weight varies from 400 to 850 g. The berries are white-yellow, large, oval. The weight of one berry reaches 5–6 g. The skin is thin and elastic, but strong enough. By maturity, they are referred to as early table varieties. Productivity is 130 kg / ha. The variety is appreciated for its taste (8.9 points during the tasting) and the appearance of the berries. Among the shortcomings, low frost resistance can be distinguished.
- Ruby AZOS. A pollinator is not required for the variety. It has bisexual flowers. Conical clusters of medium size. Weight varies from 190 to 240 g. The berries are round in shape, dark blue with dense pulp. Ruby AZOS belongs to mid-season grades. Resistance to disease and frost is average. The variety is appreciated for its taste, the tasting score of which is 9.8 points.
Photo gallery: grapes bred in the Krasnodar Territory
- Berries of the Pobedietl variety are not distinguishable by transportability, therefore, they are often used for preservation, fresh and for drying
- Assessment of the taste of Taman grapes - 9 points
- Berries of the Fantasy variety large, oval
- The White Early grape variety was named for the light color of berries.
- Grapes Rubin AZOS - mid-season grade
Non-covering varieties are a conditional concept that directly depends on the place of cultivation. If there is little snow in winter, then in any case it is better to protect the vine from frost. You can not do a thorough shelter, but simply sprinkle with dry leaves or cover with agrofiber.
Of the non-covering varieties for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory, the following can be distinguished:
- Amur breakthrough. A medium-ripening variety with resistance to frost up to -40 ° C, diseases, rot and insect damage. Wine and juices are prepared from dark raspberry berries.
- Crystal. Carries frosts up to -29 ° С. Resistant to mildew and gray rot. The fruits are white or dark green. Used to make wine.
- Platovsky. It has a second name - Early Dawn. The variety is super early, able to tolerate frosts down to -29 ° С. White berries are collected in medium-sized clusters. To increase productivity, it is recommended to remove stepsons and weak branches.
- Amethyst. Early variety, immune to disease and can withstand frosts down to -32 ° C. Dark purple berries begin to ripen in late August and September.
- Kay Gray. The variety is early ripe, which can withstand a temperature drop of -42 ° C. The shoots are powerful and tall, but the berries are small, with a specific flavor of Isabella. The variety is resistant to mildew, black and gray rot. It is mainly used for making dry wines.
- The riddle of Sharov. Medium-yielding variety withstanding frosts down to -34 ° С. Dark blue berries have a strawberry flavor. In the conditions of the Krasnodar Territory, it is recommended to pay attention to protection against oidium.
- Maurice Earley Frost resistance of a grade to -36 ° C. The berries are dark purple, closer to black. Harvested in September. For faster ripening of berries around the vine, all leaves are removed.
- Valiant. An early variety that can withstand frosts down to -46 ° C. The berries are small, dark blue. The clusters are medium-sized, rather dense. Berries are consumed fresh, used to make juice and wine.
Photo gallery: grape varieties grown without shelter
- Early Grape Amethyst Grape Immune to Disease
- Amur grape breakthrough successfully resists diseases, rot and insects
- Valiant grapes can withstand very severe frost
- The berries of the Sharov Riddle have a strawberry flavor
- Crystal grape fruit used for wine production.
- Vinograda Platovsky has another name - Early Dawn
The conditions of the Krasnodar Territory allow to plant grapes of different ripening periods. Thanks to this, you can eat fresh berries for 3 months.
Residents of the Kuban recommend having several vines of different maturity. Well, if they will differ even in color and size of berries, as well as taste. Thus, you can divide the berries for their intended purpose. Some of them will be ideal for fresh consumption, others will produce tasty juice, and some can be kept fresh for up to 3 months. That's exactly what the locals do.
The early varieties that are best suited for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory include:
- Pearls Saba. Berries ripen at the end of July. After planting, it begins to bear fruit in 2-3 years. Resistant to fungal diseases. The taste of berries on a 10-point scale is estimated at 8.1.
- Madeleine Anzhevin. Ripen berries begin in early August. The quantity and quality of the crop depends on the pollinator. The best is the variety of Chasla. The weight of clusters is from 120 to 230 g. Taste is estimated at 7.6 points. It is recommended to plant in the northern regions of the Krasnodar Territory.
- Chasla white. It begins to ripen in mid-August. Fruits in the 2nd year after planting. Bunches reach a weight of about 150 g. Taste is estimated at 7.6 points. Berries are used not only for local consumption, but also for export. They have good keeping quality and portability.
- Nutmeg Chasselas. It is very common among amateur winegrowers in the Krasnodar Territory. Ripening begins in the second half of August. Resistant to fungal diseases. Begins to bear fruit after planting in 2-3 years. Berries have an average transportability and are mostly used for local consumption. Taste is estimated at 8.3 points.
- Chaush. It begins to ripen in the third decade of August. It has unisexual flowers, so a pollinator neighborhood is necessary. The best option is Chasla. The average weight of the bunch is 410 g (some reach 600 g). It is used mainly for local consumption and production due to poor transportability.
- Muscat Hungarian. Ripening begins in late August. Full fruiting occurs 4–5 years after planting. The clusters are small. Their weight varies from 60 to 220 g. Taste is estimated at 8.6 points. It is used mainly for local consumption and the production of juices that have a mild flavor and honey notes in aroma. It is not recommended to plant in regions with high rainfall. Berries may crack due to excess water.
Photo gallery: early grape varieties for the Krasnodar Territory
- Madeleine Anzhevin grapes are recommended to be planted in the northern regions of the Krasnodar Territory
- Muscat Hungarian grapes used for the production of juices
- Grapes Pearls Saba resistant to fungal diseases
- The best pollinator for Chaush grapes will be Chasla
- White Chasla grape begins to bear fruit already in the 2nd year after planting
- Muscat Chasselas grapes are very common among winegrowers in the Krasnodar Territory
Late varieties are cultivated for the most part in the southern regions of the region. For good fruiting, mild and short winters are desirable. The whole vine may die from frost. If ripening takes place at a temperature below 20 ° C, then the berries will be small and tasteless.
Common late varieties grown in the Krasnodar Territory include:
- Don white. It has a ripening period of 150–155 days. The berries are green-yellow, large, oval in shape. The flesh is crispy, tastes good. The flowers are of a female type, so it is necessary to have a pollinator. The best for this variety are Senso and Muscat white or Hamburg.
- Karaburnu. Large berries are ovoid, yellow with a green tint. They have a pleasant sweet and sour taste and crisp flesh. Large clusters are characterized by good transportability. Productivity is good from year to year, there is no peeling of berries and shedding of flowers. It requires shelter for the winter.
- Moldova. The berries are large (weighing about 55 g), dark purple in color. Under the dense skin is a crispy and fleshy pulp. Bunches have an average weight of 400 g. The variety is well tolerated and is characterized by high keeping quality up to 180 days. Resistant to mildew and gray rot.
- Nimrang. It is considered one of the best in the world list of table varieties. Flowers are same-sex. As pollinators, Kishmish black, Saperavi, Hungarian Muscat are well suited. The berries are oval, large, white-yellow in color with a pinkish tinge. The shelf life and portability of the fruit are high. They are used mainly in fresh form, for the preparation of juices and wines, for drying.
- Odessa black. The berries are medium in size, round, black in color with purine bloom. The pulp is juicy, with a cherry-thorny finish. The clusters are small, weighing about 200 g. The variety is characterized by increased frost resistance and is able to tolerate frosts down to -22 ° C.
- Typhy pink. It belongs to one of the most valuable table varieties. The berries are dark pink, oval in shape. The pulp is dense and crispy. It has a harmonious ratio of sugar and acid. The clusters are large, weighing from 500 to 800 g.
Photo Gallery: Late Ripening Grape Varieties
- Karaburnu grapes for winter require good shelter
- Moldova grapes well tolerates transportation and is characterized by high keeping quality
- Nimrang - one of the best table grape varieties
- Odessa black grapes are characterized by increased frost resistance
- Clusters of Typhi pink grapes are large, weighing from 500 to 800 g
My Kuban grows well on sandy soil, but Nadezhda AZOS did not want to grow, I had to part with it. And I will plant some more bushes in the Kuban, I also liked it very much. Kuban has many advantages. It is struck by mildew, but not too much, it is quite possible to control the situation by regular spraying.Tatyana Andreevna
In our country, Fantasy was so struck by gray rot that there was no escape - the skin is tender and the flesh is juicy. By the time of ripening, instead of clusters, there were only rotten ones. To frost, the variety is unstable and requires mandatory shelter of bushes for the winter. In general, we have long abandoned this variety - not for our zone at all.Krasokhina
In Russia, over 50% of industrial grapes are produced in the Krasnodar Territory. The main viticulture areas - Temryuk, Anapa, Crimean, as well as the cities of Novorossiysk and Gelendzhik, grow grapes in a small amount in the Novokubansky district (cover viticulture zone). Viticulture farms grow such varieties as Cabernet Sauvignon, Moldova, Bianca, Chardonnay, the Pinot group, Augustine, Merlot, Riesling, Saperavi, Aligote, Sauvignon, preserved from the Soviet period of Isabella planting. A large number of lovers of winegrowers in the region, but the Kuban Union of winegrowers does not exist, unfortunately. Perhaps still to come.Andrey Derkach
Growing grapes in the Krasnodar Territory is much easier compared to other regions of Russia. Despite the warm climate, there are some features here. So, the right choice of variety can significantly increase the yield. It is necessary to take into account the proximity of some varieties.