Sea buckthorn in the garden: the secrets of growing and breeding

Among berry shrubs, sea buckthorn occupies a special place due to the rich vitamin composition of the fruits and their unusual taste. Ripened berries have a pleasant "pineapple" aroma, which is why sea buckthorn is sometimes called Siberian pineapple. Culture is valued not only as an important raw material for the vitamin industry, but also as an ornamental plant.

Growing history

Sea buckthorn is one of the oldest plants on the planet. In ancient times, it was already known in Mongolia, China, Rome, Scandinavia. Residents of these territories used berries as a medicine.

The healing properties of the plant were known to the ancient Slavs, they then healed wounds with sea buckthorn oil. Interest in this berry culture revived in the 17th century thanks to the development of Siberia. There, local residents have long been treating cough with a decoction of sea buckthorn berries, and with the help of oil they got rid of pains from burns.

Sea buckthorn has long been used as a remedy for healing wounds and strengthening immunity.

In the XIX century in Russia, culture was mainly used for decorative purposes. For example, in those days, buckthorn bushes adorned the Tauride Garden in St. Petersburg. The Russian fabulist A. Krylov was also engaged in bush cultivation - he even wrote a book in which he gave advice on caring for seedlings.

At the turn of the XIX – XX centuries, sea buckthorn began to appear in many botanical gardens of Russia. Gradually, among gardeners, interest in it as a fruit culture increased, and amateur gardeners in Siberia and the Urals began to grow it. In the XX century, sea buckthorn begins to be cultivated in nurseries near Moscow and St. Petersburg.

I.V. Michurin, engaged in seed reproduction of sea buckthorn, noted the special value of Siberian seeds, from which the most hardy seedlings grew.

Since the beginning of the 40s, when the composition of the fruits was studied, interest in vitamin-rich sea buckthorn has again revived. The creation of new varieties with improved characteristics began to engage in many scientific institutes. Already in 1960, a group of scientists led by M. A. Lisavenko at the Altai experimental gardening station developed the first seedlings of a new generation of sea buckthorn - these are widely known varieties:

  • Gift of Katun;
  • Altai News;
  • Golden cob.

    Sea buckthorn Golden cob belongs to the varieties of early ripening and is characterized by high winter hardiness

Many new Altai varieties are almost non-bearing, have large fruits with a high content of vitamins, sugar and oil.

Types of Sea Buckthorn

Sea buckthorn is a genus of plants of the Sucker family. It grows in the form of shrubs or trees, mostly prickly. Scientists distinguish 3 types of sea buckthorn:

  • loosestrife,
  • buckthorn,
  • Tibetan.

The loosestrife species of sea buckthorn grows in the Himalayas, China, in the mountainous regions of India, Nepal. Tall trees with branches hanging like willows in Russia are extremely rare. The fruits of this sea buckthorn are yellow, about 6 mm in diameter.

The sea-buckthorn loosestrife got its name because of the drooping branches

Buckthorn buckthorn grows in Europe, Asia, the North Caucasus, and Crimea. It is a shrub with a height of 1 to 3 m. It is widely cultivated as a fruit crop, and is also used as an element of garden design to create hedges. Distinctive features are small silver-green leaves and rounded yellow or orange fruits.

In Russia, most often you can find buckthorn buckthorn.

Tibetan sea buckthorn in Russia was first discovered in the 19th century from the works of N.M. Przhevalsky traveling through Central Asia. This species grows in the highlands of India, Nepal, on the southern slopes of the Himalayas and in the mountainous regions of China. The height of the bush with a winding trunk and numerous spiny branches does not exceed 80 cm. But the berries are very large compared to other species - 11 mm in length and 9 mm in diameter.

Tibetan sea buckthorn is small in size - the height of the bushes does not exceed 80 cm

Varieties of sea buckthorn: an overview

Over the past few decades, new promising varieties have been created that differ from their parental forms in an improved set of qualities. For comparison:

  • Wild buckthorn berry weighs no more than 0.3 g, cultural form - on average 0.5 g.
  • If the old varieties gave no more than 5 kg of berries from the bush, then for new and 20 kg is not the limit.

Table: Comparative characteristics of varieties

Distinctive qualitiesGrade nameAdditional Grade Benefits
Large-fruited

(berry weight from 0.7 to 1.5 g)

  • Openwork (1 g);
  • Augustine (1.1 g);
  • Elizabeth (0.9 g);
  • Leucor (1.2 g);
  • Caprice (0.7 g);
  • Essel (1.2 g).
  • Elizabeth - high resistance to diseases and pests;
  • Openwork - non-tendency, high content of vitamin E;
  • Whim - high carotene content.
Productivity
  • Moscow beauty (15 kg);
  • Chuiskaya (11 kg);
  • Favorite (9 kg);
  • Botanical (18–20 kg).
Favorite - High Vitamin E
High frost resistance
  • Jam;
  • Trofimovskaya;
  • Gift of Katun;
  • Botanical amateur.
-
Non-bearing

(almost without thorns)

  • Giant;
  • Altai;
  • Sunny;
  • Pearl;
  • Golden Cascade;
  • Gratifying;
  • Friend.
Girlfriend - High Carotene
High oil content
  • Orange
  • Nugget;
  • Zyryanka.
-

Sea buckthorn is a culture with a unique biochemical composition; its ripe fruits contain a whole complex of vitamins. Separately, it is worth noting the varieties with the greatest number:

  • Vitamin C - Red Torch, Atsula, Ayaganga;
  • Vitamin E - Amber.

Gallery: the best varieties of sea buckthorn

Large-fruited sea-buckthorn of the Elizabeth variety is characterized by persistent immunity to pathogens

Sea buckthorn jam can tolerate even 40-degree frosts

The sea-buckthorn Giant has almost no thorns on the shoots, which greatly facilitates the collection of berries

A New Variety of Sea Buckthorn Red Torch Contains Increased Carotenoids and Vitamin C

Cultivated varieties have large fruits and long stalks, which greatly facilitates harvesting.

Video: sea buckthorn Chui

How to plant sea buckthorn in the garden

Sea buckthorn bushes can bear fruit for 20 years. The correct choice of soil composition and place under the berry largely determines the longevity and productivity of the crop.

Seat selection

If you decide to plant sea buckthorn in the garden, try to observe the following conditions:

  1. Sea buckthorn prefers to grow in well-lit areas. Under the closed canopy of trees, the bushes die off early, weakly bear fruit.

    Sea buckthorn needs space and plenty of sun

  2. Plantings should be protected from strong winds, especially in winter. Therefore, from the north side, windbreaks should be created from tall bushes, for example, snowdrops, by placing them in the distance (the roots of sea buckthorn strongly grow to the sides). Or set aside for planting corners in the southern part of the garden, closed from the cold winds by a fence, hedge, garden buildings. In such a place, more favorable microclimatic conditions are created, snow does not blow off in winter, and by spring enough moisture accumulates in the soil. With reliable protection from dry winds, productivity increases by 2 times.
  3. The culture is undemanding to the composition of the soil, but grows better on loose sandy loam soil with neutral acidity. With strong soil acidification, it is necessary to carry out liming (500 g of lime / m2). Areas with heavy clay soil, especially in wetlands with stagnant water, are completely unsuitable for sea buckthorn. On dense loams, sand (1 bucket / m2) is mixed in to create a loose soil structure.

Landing time

The best planting time is early spring, when the plants are in the green cone phase. During the season, young seedlings will have time to take root well and get stronger for the winter. The survival rate of sea buckthorn during autumn planting is much lower, most of the seedlings die in the winter cold.

Sea buckthorn is preferable to plant in early spring, before the start of vegetation

Pollinator placement

Sea buckthorn is a dioecious plant. Fruits are formed only on female trees, male are only pollinators. In the garden you must have plants of both sexes. For 6 fruiting bushes, 1 pollinator plant is enough. You can place sea buckthorn with a curtain, planting a male bush in the center and surrounding it with a female bush. Or arrange the bushes in rows, planting 1 male plant and 6 female plants in a line.

The male pollinator differs from female type sea buckthorn in very large buds.

In male plants, the buds are two to three times larger than in female plants; they have five to seven opaque scales; in women, the kidneys are small, elongated, covered with only two scales.

Sea buckthorn planting

The sea buckthorn plot is being prepared in the fall. Dig the ground, remove weeds. Dig holes with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth of 40 cm. Add to the fertile soil layer:

  • 10 kg of humus;
  • 150 g of superphosphate;
  • 40 g of potassium salt.

The step-by-step process of planting sea buckthorn:

  1. A drainage layer 10 cm thick (crushed stone, broken brick) is laid at the bottom of the pit.

    A layer of drainage must be laid at the bottom of the landing pit

  2. A mound of fertile land is poured from above.
  3. Set the peg.
  4. Spread the roots of the seedling and lower it into the pit. It is necessary to put the plant strictly vertically, otherwise in the future the crown may become crooked, numerous tops will appear.
  5. Fall asleep a plant, deepening the root neck by 7 cm.

    When planting sea buckthorn, you need to make sure that the root neck is 7 cm below the soil

  6. Tie a sapling to a holding support.
  7. Around the bush form a watering hole and bring 3 buckets of water into it.
  8. Mulch the soil with a layer of compost (about 8 cm).

    For mulching, it is best to use rotted manure or compost

Cultivation agricultural

It is not difficult to grow sea buckthorn, the main thing is to create comfortable conditions for it.

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Top dressing

In the first year after planting, the young growth does not need additional nutrition, but starting from the next spring, feeding is carried out several times a season:

  1. In spring, shrubs should be fed with nitrogen fertilizer for intensive growth of vegetative mass. The urea solution (20 g / 10 l) is applied under the bush.
  2. After flowering and after 10 days, foliar top dressing with Effekton (15 g / 10 l) is performed.
  3. Fruiting plants are sprayed with a urea solution (15 g / 10 l) during the blooming period.
  4. During flowering, a solution of potassium humate (15 g / 10 l) is applied along the leaf.
  5. After harvesting to restore strength, the plant is fed with superphosphate (150 g / m2) and potassium (50 g).
  6. Organic fertilizer is added every 3 years in the fall, planting it in the soil (10 kg / m2).

    Humus is added every 3 years - this is enough to saturate sea buckthorn with essential nutrients

Sea buckthorn especially needs phosphorus, which ensures the vital activity of nodule bacteria that live on the roots.

Watering and loosening

Sea buckthorn is not afraid of drought, but in extreme heat it needs watering. Moisture is especially needed for young seedlings - they are watered at first every day, spending 4 buckets of water on a bush. The soil should be moistened to a depth of 60 cm. For fruiting bushes, 4 watering per season is sufficient (6 buckets per plant):

  • before and after flowering;
  • during the formation of fruits;
  • before the onset of cold weather (in late September - early October).

Pre-winter watering is very important: if not enough water was accumulated in the autumn period, the plant's cold tolerance is greatly reduced.

After watering or rain, the soil must be loosened. Since the roots of the shrub are superficial, loosening the soil under the bush is carried out shallow (7 cm), between rows - 10 cm. If the roots are exposed, they should be mulched with a mixture of peat and sand.

The adult plant of sea buckthorn is not afraid of drought, but the harvest will be more abundant if the soil is well moistened during the formation of the fruit

Video: how to care for sea buckthorn

Prevention and treatment of lesions

New varieties of sea buckthorn have good immunity, however, under adverse conditions on plants, signs of infection by pests or diseases may appear.

Table: signs of sea buckthorn bush diseases, prevention and control measures

DiseaseHow do they manifestPreventionMeasures
Verticillus wilting
  • In the second half of summer, diseased plants begin to turn yellow and fall.
  • The fruits fade.
  • Swelling and redness appear on the bark, the wood turns black.
  1. Disinfect the seedlings before planting, dropping them for 1 minute in a 2% solution of Karbofos.
  2. Before budding and after leaf fall, spray the bushes with 2% Nitrafen solution.
Cut the affected branches, as the disease is incurable.
SeptoriaInfection occurs in warm, humid weather. The bushes at the stage of fruit ripening are most affected, the disease manifests itself as follows:
  • Light spots with dark bordering develop on the leaves.
  • The foliage dries, the shoots turn brown.
  1. Avoid landing in shaded areas.
  2. Observe the watering regime.
  1. To treat with swelling of the kidneys with a solution of Oksihoma (20 g / 10 l).
  2. After dropping buds and picking berries, treat the plants with 1% Bordeaux fluid.
Endomycosis
  • Ripened fruits become stained, reduced in size.
  • The pulp mucilizes and flows out of the shell.
  1. Thin out planting.
  2. Observe the watering regime.
Before budding, sprinkle with 2% Nitrafen solution.

Photo gallery: sea buckthorn diseases

When infected with septoria, the foliage on the sea buckthorn dries up, the shoots turn brown

Verticillus wilting may occur on sea buckthorn bushes in the second half of summer

With endomycosis, the pulp of the fruit softens and flows out of the shell

Table: which insects harm sea buckthorn

PestsInfection characteristicsPreventive measuresHow to help
Sea buckthorn flyVery dangerous pest that destroys up to 90% of the crop. A fly pierces the skin of a green fruit and lays an egg. The larva feeds on the pulp of berries.
  1. Loosen the soil to destroy wintering pests.
  2. Plant flowering plants to attract riders that destroy up to 50% of the cocoons of the fly.
  1. Before the leaves bloom, sprinkle with a 0.2% solution of Chlorophos, Rogor or Methyl nitrophos.
  2. After flowering, treat with 0.3% Metaphos solution.
Green sea buckthorn aphidAphid colonies suck juice from young foliage. Damaged leaves curl, turn yellow and fall.Destroy fallen leaves on which aphids settle.
  1. Burn diseased shoots.
  2. Spray before swelling of the kidneys with a 0.05% Kinmix solution.
  3. Before flowering, treat with 3% Agrovertin solution.
Sea buckthorn mothThe pest lays eggs on the sea buckthorn bark. In the spring, caterpillars penetrate the kidneys. With a massive lesion, the plants dry out.To clean the fallen leaves, to loosen the soil where moth eggs winter.At the beginning of the dissolution of the kidneys, spray with a solution of Metaphos (3%), Entobacterin (1%).

Photo gallery: sea buckthorn pests

Sea buckthorn fly worm larvae can destroy almost the entire crop on the plantation

Green aphid larvae hatch in mid-May and suck juice from young leaves

Sea buckthorn moth lays eggs on the bark of the lower part of the sea buckthorn trunks, fallen leaves and soil

When affected by pests, the leaves curl and dry, the plant weakens greatly

Fruits affected by a sea buckthorn fly deteriorate and dry out

Sea buckthorn vaccination

It is easiest to plant buckthorn with cuttings. Do this as follows:

  1. On the plant, 5-10 young shoots are selected, from which cuttings are cut. The scion length should be 10 cm.
  2. In the phase of swelling of the buds, the vaccine is made into a large branch located on the sunny side.
  3. All sections should be made with a sharp knife and always covered with garden var.

    The buckthorn wood is loose, so all cuts should be made with a sharp knife

  4. The place of vaccination is tied with a film.

Kidney vaccination is best done on the root neck itself from the convex side. There, the bark is more elastic and fusion is faster.

Video: pollinator vaccination on a female sea buckthorn plant

Winter preparations

Sea buckthorn is a winter-hardy culture that can tolerate even severe frosts, so it does not need to be insulated. However, it has fragile wood, which, under the weight of large drifts of snow, easily breaks. In strong snowstorms, lumps of snow from the branches should be shaken off.

After snowfalls, lumps of snow should be shaken off the branches so that they do not break.

In spring frost, sea buckthorn is not damaged. Warm, wet weather in winter is more dangerous for it, when the soil does not freeze and as a result, the bark of the trunks at the root collar often disappears. Little snowy winters or sharp temperature drops from + 4 to -30 degrees also negatively affect the plant: branches are damaged and dry out, and productivity is reduced. To mitigate the negative effects of a sharp change in temperature, in mid-November, watering on frozen ground is carried out, and then a layer of mulch from peat or humus is laid.

Pruning

After planting, pinch the top of the seedling to get a branchy bush with a height of about 20 cm in the future. Sea buckthorn grows very quickly, a whole curtain soon forms from a small bush. With age, many branches dry out, making it difficult to harvest. Fruiting moves to the periphery of the crown. Adult buckthorn bushes are pruned as follows:

  1. To form a crown in early spring, unnecessary, improperly growing branches are removed, root offsets are cut off at the base.
  2. Bushes older than 7 years need anti-aging pruning. Old branches are removed, replacing them with 3 year old side shoots.
  3. In the fall, sanitary pruning is carried out, saving plants from dry, broken and damaged branches of the disease.

With proper care and timely pruning, sea buckthorn grows and bears fruit for many years.

Video: spring buckthorn pruning

Breeding

Sea buckthorn is propagated vegetatively and by seeds.

Propagation of sea buckthorn seeds

Посев семян проводят в конце ноября без предварительной стратификации во влажную почву на глубину 2 см с интервалом 5 см. Если посев проводят весной, то перед этим семена обязательно подвергают холодовой закалке.

Этапы выращивания сеянцев облепихи:

  1. Посадочный материал заворачивают в ткань или марлю и помещают во влажный песок на 12 дней при температуре +10° С.
  2. Наклюнувшиеся семена ставят в снег или погреб с температурой 1–2°C до момента высева.
  3. Загущённые всходы обязательно прореживают.

    Вырастить облепиху из семян несложно, но при этом утрачиваются сортовые признаки

  4. Через год сеянцы, выращиваемые на грядке, высаживают в саду.

    Когда сеянцы облепихи подрастут, их можно высадить на постоянное место

При выращивании облепихи из семян получается большой выход мужских экземпляров — свыше 50%. Определение пола растения возможно только в возрасте 4 лет, кроме того, при семенном размножении утрачиваются качества сорта.

Vegetative propagation

Чтобы сохранить сортовые признаки, облепиху размножают вегетативно. Для этой цели используют:

  • одревесневшие побеги;
  • зелёные черенки;
  • отводки;
  • корневую поросль.

Опытные садоводы предпочитают размножать облепиху черенкованием, в этом случае приживаемость составляет 98%. Одревесневшие черенки заготавливают поздней осенью или ранней весной, нарезая их из однолетних веток. Саженцы выращивают следующим образом:

  1. Побеги делят на части по 15 см.

    Одревесневшие побеги облепихи делят на черенки длиной 15 см

  2. Перед посадкой опускают черенки на несколько часов в 0, 02%-й раствор стимулятора роста, затем высаживают на грядку в рыхлую почву, поливают и прикрывают плёнкой.
  3. Проводят регулярный полив и проветривают тепличку.
  4. После укоренения плёнку снимают, весь сезон следят за влажностью почвы, удаляют сорняки.
  5. Следующей весной молодые растения можно сажать в открытый грунт.

Лучшее время для зелёного черенкования — конец июня. Процесс выращивания саженцев во многом похож на предыдущий способ, но есть и некоторые отличия:

  1. С куста облепихи острым ножом срезают верхушки молодых побегов, удаляют на них нижние листья. Ровные поверхности среза способствуют лучшему и быстрому укоренению.
  2. Зелёные черенки длиной 15 см высаживают в горшочки или в тепличку. Поливают и прикрывают плёнкой.

    Черенки облепихи выращивают в теплице до того времени, когда они хорошо укоренятся и пойдут в рост

  3. В течение месяца увлажняют грунт, проводят проветривание.
  4. Укоренившиеся зелёные черенки в начале следующего сезона высаживают в саду.

Облепиху из зелёных и одревесневших черенков лучше укоренять под плёнкой

Нетрудно размножить кустарник с помощью отводков. Верхушку побега прикапывают возле куста, поливают и пришпиливают. Через месяц росток длиной 45 см с образовавшимися корнями отделяют от куста и высаживают отдельно.

Несложно размножить облепиху верхушечными отводками, прикопав их возле материнского куста

Один из самых лёгких способов размножения облепихи — с помощью поросли. В течение сезона корневые отпрыски несколько раз окучивают влажным грунтом для стимулирования образования новых корешков. Через год весной землю разгребают и отрезают поросль от корня.

Саженцы облепихи, отделённые от материнского куста, имеют хорошо развитую корневую систему

Совместимость с другими растениями

Культура не переносит близкого соседства с другими растениями. Причиной тому является разветвлённая корневая система, которая расходится в стороны на несколько метров. Располагаются корни облепихи поверхностно, на глубине 30 см, и могут легко повреждаться при перекопке земли в саду. Даже незначительное их травмирование может сильно ослабить растение. Поэтому для облепихи обычно выделяют край участка, территорию вдоль забора или построек. Не следует сажать рядом кусты малины, косточковые культуры, землянику, астры, гладиолусы из-за общих грибковых заболеваний, вызывающих усыхание растений.

Облепиха не терпит близкого соседства других растений, сажать её следует на краю участка, возле газона

Облепиха не так часто встречается в наших садах. Многие считают, что она даёт много поросли, ягоды у неё кислые, а из-за колючек трудно собирать урожай. Однако всё это не относится к новым сортам — бесшипным, с улучшенными вкусовыми качествами. Культура имеет множество достоинств: неприхотливость в уходе, морозостойкость, способность противостоять болезням и вредителям. Из плодов облепихи можно делать витаминные заготовки, применять их в качестве лекарственного сырья. Также растение может использоваться в ландшафтном дизайне. Кусты, посаженные на расстоянии 60 см друг от друга, через 3 года превращаются в необычную плодоносящую изгородь.

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