Schisandra chinensis: plant description and care tips

So far, Chinese lemongrass is rare in areas of Russian gardeners. Many are simply afraid to plant an unknown exotic culture, considering it capricious and demanding to care for. But the Chinese magnolia vine is an unpretentious plant, nothing supernatural from the gardener is required. For observing the simple rules of care, the culture will thank an abundant harvest of very healthy berries.

What does Chinese lemongrass look like?

Schisandra chinensis Chinese Schisandra is a small genus of plants from the Schisandra family. In nature, it is distributed mainly in China, Japan, in the north of the Korean Peninsula. Also found in Russia - in the Far East, Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands. His first scientific description was given in 1837 by the botanist N.S. Turchaninov.

Schisandra chinensis in nature forms dense thickets

The habitat of the plant is river valleys, forest edges, old glades, clearings, and fires. Accordingly, it is sufficiently cold-resistant and shade-tolerant, which makes it suitable for cultivation in most of the territory of Russia.

The characteristic aroma of lemon peel is inherent in the leaves and shoots, and this is what the plant owes its name to. Although it has nothing to do with citrus fruits.

In nature, lemongrass is an overall plant. The length of a vine with a curly stem, if not limited to anything, reaches 12–15 m. At the same time, the stem is quite thin, only 2.5–3 cm in diameter. Bending shoots are covered with brown bark. On young branches, it is smooth, elastic, shiny, darkens over time, changing color to black-brown, and peeling.

In the fall, lemongrass Chinese looks elegant and very spectacular

The leaves are dense, leathery, ovoid or in the form of a wide oval. The edges are carved with almost imperceptible denticles. Petioles are quite short, painted in various shades of pink and red. The front part of the front plate is glossy, bright green, the wrong side with a bluish-gray tint, along the veins there is a strip of short soft “pile”.

In autumn, the plant looks very attractive - the leaves are painted in different shades of yellow, from pale golden to saffron.

A flowering plant also looks good. Schisandra flowers resemble those made from magnolia wax. Snow-white petals, before falling, acquire a gentle pastel pink hue. Buds are collected in inflorescences of 3-5 pieces, located in the axils of the leaves. The pedicels are long enough, slightly nicky under their weight. Flowering occurs in the first half of July.

Chinese Schisandra flowers, spreading a pleasant aroma, attract pollinating insects to the garden

The fruits of lemongrass are small spherical bright scarlet berries, collected 15–25 pieces in a brush 8–12 cm long, resembling clusters of grapes or red currants. They also have a characteristic citrus flavor. Each contains 1-2 large seeds. The taste due to the high content of organic acids, tarry and tannins, essential oils is extremely specific. The peel is sweet-salty, astringent, the juice is very sour, astringent, the seeds are bitter.

In China, the fruit is called the “berry of five flavors”.

Eating fresh berries of Schisandra chinensis (especially its wild varieties) is almost impossible

The average yield of Schisandra chinensis is 3-5 kg ​​of berries from an adult plant. But once in 3–7 years there are “bursts” when the liana brings 1.5–2 times more fruit than the gardener had expected. Harvest ripens in August or early September.

Schisandra is a dioecious plant. This means that pollination and subsequent fruiting is possible only with the simultaneous presence on the plot of specimens with "male" and "female" flowers.

The yield of Chinese magnolia vine is not amazing, but its fruits are, rather, not a treat, but a medicine


In folk medicine, seeds and dried fruits of lemongrass are used. They are distinguished by a high content of vitamin C, as well as trace elements vital for the body (iron, zinc, copper, selenium, iodine, manganese). Schisandra has the ability to relieve fatigue caused by intense physical and mental stress, sharpen vision and hearing, and also relieve depression. It is also extremely useful for strengthening immunity and stimulating tissue regeneration; it helps with vitamin deficiency, problems with the heart and blood vessels, and the respiratory system.

Far Eastern hunters a handful of dried berries throughout the day to forget about the feeling of fatigue and hunger.

Dried Chinese Schisandra Berries - A Strong Tonic

There is a fairly long list of contraindications. Schisandra chinensis is forbidden to use for pregnant women and children under 12 years of age, as well as for those who suffer from vegetative-vascular dystonia, any allergy, chronic insomnia, high intracranial pressure, and infectious diseases. In this case, it is recommended to take preparations from it before noon, so as not to provoke insomnia. The simultaneous use of any sleeping pills, tranquilizers, antipsychotics, psychostimulating drugs is strictly prohibited. In general, lemongrass is undesirable to "prescribe" yourself, it is better to consult a doctor first.

Common varieties

In nature, according to various sources, there are from 15 to 23 varieties of Schisandra chinensis. The culture also does not enjoy special attention from breeders, so the choice of varieties is limited. Most often, the following varieties are found on garden plots:

  1. Garden one. A self-fertile hybrid that does not need pollinators. It is characterized by high cold resistance, good yield, and shoot growth rate. The berries are very juicy, sour. The average brush length is 9–10 cm, each with 22–25 berries. The average yield is 4-6 kg from an adult plant.
  2. Mountain. A medium-ripening variety, bred in the Far East, is considered one of the most promising there. Harvest ripen in the last decade of August. It is characterized by high winter hardiness and good immunity. The average brush length is 8–9 cm, weight is 12–13 g. It consists of 15–17 dark scarlet bitter berries with a noticeable sourness. The pulp is dense, but juicy. Productivity is low, 1.5–2 kg per plant.
  3. Volgar The variety is resistant to winter cold and summer drought, it rarely suffers from diseases and pests. On one plant, as a rule, both "male" and "female" flowers bloom, but sometimes a season is given when only "male" flowers are formed. Harvest ripens in the first decade of September. The mass of the brush is 6–7.5 g; it consists of 13–15 berries. The fruits are very acidic, with a pronounced resinous aroma.
  4. Firstborn. One of the latest achievements of Russian breeders, bred in Moscow. The variety is valued for frost resistance and disease resistance. The berries are small, elongated, purple-scarlet, the flesh is bright red. The length of the brush is about 12 cm, weight - 10-12 g. The bush is medium-sized, the plant is monoecious. A significant drawback is low frost resistance, weak immunity. The length of the vine is not more than 5 m.
  5. Myth. A hybrid whose origin could not be established for certain. The brushes are not too long, up to 7 cm, but the berries are not particularly acidic, they can even be eaten fresh. In each fertility there are 15-18 of them.
  6. Oltis. The homeland of the variety is the Far East. It is valued for a good yield (3-4 kg per plant) and resistance to diseases typical of the culture. The berries are dark scarlet, small. The average brush length is 9–11 cm, weight is 25–27 g, each with 25–30 fruits. The taste is bitter-sour.
  7. Purple. One of the oldest varieties, bred in 1985 in the Far East. Harvest ripening is the last decade of August. The first fruits are removed after 3-4 years after planting a seedling in the ground. Productivity - 3-4 kg from an adult plant. The variety is exceptionally hardy, but often suffers from diseases. The berries are small, the brushes are compact. The skin is red, the taste is noticeably sour.

Photo gallery: varieties of Schisandra chinensis

Garden-one is the most popular Chinese lemongrass variety among Russian gardeners

Chinese lemongrass Mountain is considered by experts as one of the most promising varieties

Schisandra chinensis Volgar appreciated for its unpretentiousness and insensitivity to adverse weather conditions

A variety of Chinese magnolia vine Pervenets is one of the latest achievements of Russian breeders

The origin of the hybrid Schisandra chinensis Myth has not been reliably established

Schisandra chinensis Altis - a variety with good productivity and large berries

Purple Schisandra cultivar stands out for its unusually dark fruit color.

Planting and Transplantation Procedure

Schisandra chinensis is planted in garden plots not only for fruiting, but also for decoration. Liana is widely used in landscape design. Especially spectacular are gazebos twined with leaves, railings, arches, “green walls”.

Schisandra chinensis is not only useful, but also a very decorative plant

Planting time depends on the region of cultivation. In areas with a warm climate (Ukraine, southern Russia) it can be planned for September and even for the first half of October. Enough time is left before the frost, the plant will have time to adapt to new living conditions. In regions with a temperate climate (Ural, Siberia), the only option is spring. In central Russia, Schisandra chinensis is planted at the end of April or in the first decade of May (the soil should have warmed up to at least 10 ° C by this time, but it needs to be in time before the growth buds "wake up"). Over the summer, the plant will form a developed root system and have time to properly prepare for winter.

Experienced gardeners recommend simultaneously planting at least three schisandra seedlings (ideally of different varieties), leaving between them an interval of about 1 m, and between rows - 2–2.5 m. If the liana is placed next to the wall, you need to deviate from it approximately as much so that drops of water do not fall from the roof onto the plant (this is harmful to the roots). Be sure to provide a place to place the trellis. Otherwise, the plant simply refuses to bear fruit. The simplest option is 2-3-meter posts arranged in a row with a wire stretched over them in several rows at different heights. As the creeper grows, its shoots are tied to it, forming a fan-like structure. When grown in a warm climate, the shoots of Schisandra chinensis are not removed from the trellis even for the winter.

Seedlings are selected based on the state of the root system. It must be developed. A minimum of three roots with a length of about 20 cm is mandatory. The average height of a 2-3-year-old plant is 12-15 cm.

Chinese Schisandra seedlings are low, this is normal for culture

Chinese lemongrass prefers soil fertile, but loose and light, well-permeable to air and water. A heavy substrate in which moisture stagnates for a long time - silty, clay, peat, will not be suitable.

The plant will tolerate both partial shade and shadow, but the maximum possible crops are harvested when grown in an open sunny place. It is desirable that it be protected from gusts of cold wind by some natural or artificial barrier located at some distance from the vine.

In temperate regions, lemongrass is most often located on the west side of buildings and structures, in the subtropics - on the east. In the first case, this placement provides the sun with enough liana, in the second - it protects from strong daytime heat.

The greatest possible yield is brought by Chinese magnolia vine, planted in an open sunny place

Still, the culture does not like very wet soil at the roots. If groundwater comes closer to the surface than 1.5–2 m, you need to look for another place for lemongrass.

Landing pit is always prepared in advance. If the procedure is planned in the fall - a few weeks before it, and with spring planting - in the previous season. The average depth is 40–50 cm, the diameter is 65–70 cm. A drainage layer of 8–10 cm thick is obligatory at the bottom. Crushed stone, expanded clay, clay shards, and ceramic chips can be used. The fertile turf extracted from the pit is mixed with humus or compost (20–30 l), sifted wood ash (0.5 l), simple superphosphate (120–150 g) and potassium sulfate (70–90 g) and poured back, forming on bottom mound. Then the pit is covered with something waterproof, so that the rains do not erode the soil, and leave until planting.

Read more about planting in our article: Plant Chinese magnolia vine with seeds and other methods.

A drainage layer is required at the bottom of the landing pit prepared for Schisandra chinensis

Landing procedure:

  1. The roots of the seedling are inspected, cut off all rotted and dried, the rest is shortened to a length of 20–25 cm. Then they are soaked for a day in water heated to a temperature of 27–30ºС. To disinfect and prevent the development of fungal diseases, you can add several crystals of potassium permanganate to it, to activate the development of the root system and minimize the stress associated with the transplant - any biostimulant (potassium humate, Epin, Zircon, succinic acid, aloe juice).
  2. The roots are thickly coated with gruel from powder clay and fresh cow manure, then dried in the sun for 2-3 hours. The correct mass in consistency resembles a thick cream.
  3. The plant is placed on an earthen mound at the bottom of the landing pit. The roots are straightened so that they "look" down, not up or to the sides. Then the pit begins to fall asleep in small portions of soil, periodically palms the substrate with your palms. In the process, you need to constantly monitor the position of the root neck - it should be 2-3 cm above the ground.
  4. The soil in the near-stem circle is abundantly watered, spending about 20 liters of water. When it is absorbed, this area is mulched with peat crumb or humus. The seedling will take root quite quickly, but for the first 2-3 weeks it is advisable to protect it from direct sunlight by constructing a canopy from any white covering material.
  5. Shoots are shortened, leaving 3-4 growth buds. All leaves, if any, are torn off.

The place for lemongrass is chosen deliberately, the plant does not tolerate the transplant

It is advisable to choose a place for Chinese magnolia vine immediately and forever. Young seedlings tolerate the procedure quite easily, quickly adapt to new living conditions, but this can not be said about adult plants.

Video: how to plant lemongrass

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Plant care and nuances of cultivation in different regions

Caring for lemongrass is not particularly difficult in China, all the necessary procedures will not take much time from the gardener.


Schisandra is a moisture-loving plant. In nature, it most often grows along the banks of rivers. Therefore, it is watered often and plentifully. The norm for an adult liana is 60–70 liters of water every 2-3 days. Of course, if the weather is cool and damp, the intervals between procedures are increased - the plant does not like water that stagnates at the roots. The preferred method is sprinkling.

In extreme heat, it is also advisable to spray the leaves daily in the evenings. This procedure is very useful for young plants planted in the garden this year.

If technically possible, Chinese schisandra is watered by sprinkling, simulating natural rainfall

The day after watering, the soil in the near-stem circle needs to be loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm, if necessary, weed. To save time on weeding help mulch. It retains moisture in the soil.

Top dressing

If the landing pit was prepared correctly, there will be enough nutrients in the soil of Chinese magnolia vine for the next two years. They begin to feed the plant from the third season of being in the open ground.

From fertilizers, culture prefers natural organics. Chinese magnolia vine grows quite quickly, so during the summer every 15-20 days it is watered with infusion of cow manure, bird droppings, nettle leaves or dandelion. In principle, any weeds can be used. The raw materials are insisted for 3-4 days, before use they are diluted with water in a ratio of 1:10 (litter - 1:15). You can also use complex fertilizers with nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus - Nitrofosku, Azofosku, Diammofosku. Every 2-3 years at the beginning of the active vegetation season, 25-30 l of humus or rotted compost are distributed in the near-stem circle.

Nettle infusion - a natural source of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus

After harvesting, the plant needs potassium and phosphorus. 40-50 g of simple superphosphate and potassium sulfate are diluted in 10 l of water or distributed over the near-stem circle in dry form during loosening. The natural alternative is about 0.5–0.7 L of wood ash.

Prop for creeper

Schisandra is grown on a trellis, since without this it is impossible to get a crop. The average height of the supports is 2–2.5 m, the distance between them is about 3 m. It is advisable to limit Liana in growth, this simplifies the care of her. Between the posts they pull the wire horizontally in several rows - the first at a distance of 50 cm from the ground, then every 70–80 cm

Schisandra chinensis on a trellis looks very neat and bears fruit abundantly

Shelter for the winter

Schisandra chinensis is successfully grown not only in regions with a warm subtropical climate (Ukraine, southern Russia). Frost resistance up to -35ºС allows cultivating it in the North-West region, in the Urals, in Siberia. In central Russia, the plant does not need shelter for the winter, the vine is not even removed from the trellis. Но там, где суровые и продолжительные морозы не редкость, лучше всё же подстраховаться. При этом стоит помнить, что основную опасность для культуры представляют не зимние холода, а возвратные весенние заморозки. Поэтому не нужно торопиться снимать укрытие.

Побеги аккуратно отцепляют от опоры, раскладывают на земле, покрытой слоем мульчи толщиной около 10 см, сверху засыпают соломой, еловым или сосновым лапником, палой листвой и затягивают мешковиной, любым иным пропускающим воздух укрывным материалом. Предварительно обязательно проводят влагозаряжающий полив, расходуя на взрослое растение около 80 л воды.


Первый урожай собирают через 4–6 лет после высадки лимонника китайского в грунт. Плоды снимают целыми кистями. Проверить, поспели ли они, просто. Нужно натянуть побег и слегка стукнуть по нему. Зрелые ягоды осыплются. Срок хранения у них совсем небольшой. Свежие плоды нужно переработать в течение ближайших 2–3 дней, чтобы они не покрылись плесенью и не начали гнить. Чаще всего их сушат, иногда замораживают, перетирают с сахаром.

Обрезка лимонника

Первый раз обрезку лимонника проводят при посадке, затем — на третий сезон пребывания в открытом грунте. Как правило, к этому времени растение успевает сформировать развитую корневую систему и «переключается» на побеги. На лиане оставляют 5–7 наиболее крепких и развитых стеблей, остальные удаляют до точки роста. В дальнейшем обрезку проводят регулярно, весной и осенью. Пренебрегать процедурой нельзя — в густых зарослях формируется намного меньше цветков, практически невозможно их опыление, соответственно, снижается и урожайность.

Обрезку проводят только остро заточенным и продезинфицированным инструментом

Проводят процедуру в самом начале марта: избавляются от всех вымерзших, высохших или сломавшихся под тяжестью снега ветвей. Если не успеть до начала активного сокодвижения, можно уничтожить растение.

Осенью после опадения листвы обрезают побеги переплетающиеся, неудачно расположенные, слабые, деформированные, поражённые болезнями и вредителями, «облысевшие». Также срезают ту часть лианы, которая плодоносила в течение последних 3 лет. Это нужно для правильного развития новых побегов и омоложения растения.

Цель обрезки лимонника китайского — сформировать куст, равномерно освщаемый солнцем

Если лиана образует чересчур много новых побегов, проводится обрезка летом. Каждый из них укорачивают, оставляя по 10–12 ростовых почек. Также не стоит забывать о борьбе с прикорневой порослью. Не вырезают только самые сильные отводки, чтобы потом заменить ими старые ветви.

После того как растение достигнет возраста 15–18 лет, проводят радикальную омолаживающую обрезку. Оставляют только 4–5 здоровых крепких плодоносивших в этом году побегов, остальные срезают до точки роста.

Breeding methods

Садоводы-любители чаще всего размножают лимонник китайский вегетативными способами. Также можно попытаться вырастить лиану из семян, но в этом случае не гарантируется сохранение сортовых признаков родителя. К тому же процесс этот довольно трудоёмок.

Vegetative propagation

Для вегетивного размножения используют прикорневую поросль, черенки и отводки.

  1. Как правило, лимонник китайский в изобилии даёт прикорневую поросль. Этот способ размножения предусмотрен самой природой. Нужно только осторожно раскопать грунт, отделить «отпрыска» от взрослого растения и сразу же высадить его на выбранное место. В регионах с тёплым климатом процедуру проводят и ранней весной, и после плодоношения. Там, где он мягкостью не отличается, единственное подходящее время — начало марта.

    Размножение прикорневой порослью — самый простой способ получить новый китайский лимонник

  2. Можно использовать и корневые черенки. Корень разрезают на кусочки длиной 7–10 см. На каждом должны быть 2–3 точки роста. Посадочный материал в течение 2–3 дней держат, завернув в салфетку, смоченную раствором любого биостимулятора, затем высаживают в открытый грунт или парник горизонтально, выдерживая между черенками расстояние около 10–12 см. В почву их не заглубляют, сверху присыпают слоем перегноя или перепревшего компоста толщиной 2–3 см. Уход за черенками — это в основном регулярный полив. Те из них, что дадут побеги, следующей весной переносят на постоянное место.
  3. Для размножения отводками используют только неодревесневшие зелёные побеги в возрасте 2–3 лет. Процедуру проводят осенью. Ветку пригибают к земле, фиксируют на расстоянии 20–30 см от верхушки, засыпают это место перегноем или плодородной почвой, обильно поливают. Весной должен появиться новый отводок. К осени он достаточно окрепнет, его можно будет отделить от материнского растения и пересадить на постоянное место. Можно пригнуть к земле и засыпать почвой весь побег. Тогда он даст не один, а 5–7 новых саженцев. Но они будут далеко не такими мощными и развитыми.

    Размножение отводками — способ, применяемый не только для лимонника китайского, но и для большинства ягодных кустарников

Seed germination

Семена китайского лимонника сохраняют всхожесть очень недолго, буквально 2–3 месяца. Поэтому лучше всего высевать их сразу же после сбора. Дома сеянцы не выращивают, посадочный материал заделывают в грядку под зиму. Заглубляют их максимум на 1, 5 см, сверху обязательно присыпают снегом, как только его выпадет достаточно.

Семена лимонника китайского перед высадкой нужно тщательно очистить от мякоти и просушить, чтобы избежать развития гнили

Опытные садоводы советуют смешать семена лимонника с укропом. Последний всходит раньше. Такая хитрость позволяет не потерять место посадки, а в дальнейшем растения образуют своеобразный естественный «навес», обеспечивая сеянцам необходимую для них полутень.

Можно сохранить семена и до весны, но при этом обязательна стратификация — имитация холодного времени года. Семена в течение зимы хранят в холодильнике в небольшой ёмкости, заполненной смесью торфяной крошки и песка, постоянно поддерживаемой в слегка влажном состоянии и предварительно простерилизованной.

Есть и ещё один интересный способ подготовки к посадке. До середины зимы семена не извлекают из плодов. Затем их тщательно очищают от мякоти, кладут в полотняный мешочек или заворачивают в марлю и на 3–4 дня помещают под прохладную проточную воду (подойдёт бачок унитаза). Затем семена в мешочке закапывают в ёмкость с увлажнённым песком и месяц держат при комнатной температуре. После этого их примерно на столько же закапывают в снег.

После проведённой стратификации кожица семян начинает трескаться. В таком виде их высаживают в индивидуальные торфяные горшочки, заполненные смесью перегноя и крупного песка. Первые всходы должны появиться через 12–15 дней, но, если семена не находились во влажной среде постоянно, процесс может растянуться и на 2–2, 5 месяца. Скоростью роста сеянцы не отличаются, за год вытягиваясь всего на 5–7 см.

Стратификация положительно сказывается на всхожести семян

Дальнейший уход заключается в обеспечении защиты от попадания прямых солнечных лучей, поддержании почвы в умеренно влажном состоянии и периодическом поливе бледно-розовым раствором перманганата калия для профилактики грибковых заболеваний.

Всходов лимонника китайского можно ждать достаточно долго, скоростью роста они не отличаются

В первой декаде июня сеянцы переносят на грядку, оставляя между ними не менее 10 см. В течение лета их защищают от жаркого солнца, на зиму сооружают укрытие от мороза. Через 2–3 года окрепшие растения можно будет пересадить на постоянное место.

Типичные болезни, вредители и борьба с ними

Schisandra chinensis is naturally immune. Due to the high content of tannins in the tissues, almost all pests bypass it. The fruits of the birds are also not to their taste. Breeders have learned to protect plants from mold and rot. All modern varieties are rarely affected by these diseases. However, the list of fungi dangerous for culture is not limited to them. Schisandra chinensis can suffer from the following diseases:

  • Fusarium Most often, young plants become infected with the fungus. They stop in development, the shoots darken and thin out, the leaves turn yellow and fall off. The roots turn black, become slimy to the touch. For prophylaxis, the seeds are planted in the Trichodermin solution for 15–20 minutes before planting, and soil is shed on the garden bed. A diseased plant must be immediately removed from the garden and burned, eliminating the source of infection. The soil in this place is disinfected by pouring a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate;
  • powdery mildew. Leaves, buds and stems are covered with spots of whitish plaque, similar to sprinkled flour. Gradually, it condenses and turns brown. Affected parts of the plant dry and die. For prophylaxis, the vine and soil in the garden are dusted with crushed chalk, sifted wood ash, and colloidal sulfur once every 10-15 days. To combat the disease at an early stage, use a solution of soda ash (10-15 g per 10 liters of water), in severe cases, fungicides (HOM, Topaz, Skor, Kuprozan);
  • leaf spot (ascochitosis, ramulariosis). Brownish-beige spots with a black-brown border appear on the leaves of an irregular shape. Gradually, the tissues in these places from the inside are covered with small black dots, dry out, holes form. For prevention, the seeds are soaked for 2-3 hours in a bright pink solution of potassium permanganate, Alirina-B. Having found alarming symptoms, even minimally affected leaves are cut and burned, the plant is sprayed 2-3 times with an interval of 7-12 days with a 1% solution of Bordeaux fluid or copper sulphate. Also used are fungicides of biological origin.

Photo gallery: symptoms of Chinese magnolia vine diseases

A plant affected by fusarium appears to wither and perish for no apparent reason.

Powdery mildew seems to be a harmless coating that is easy to erase from a plant, but this is by no means

The development of ascochitosis contributes to damp and cool weather in the summer, as well as an excess of nitrogen in the soil.

To combat ramulariosis, fungicides of biological origin are used.

It is only necessary to use any chemicals to fight diseases as a last resort, because they have the property of accumulating in plant tissues. The best prevention is competent care, and this is what we need to focus on. Infected parts are burned as quickly as possible, rather than being stored somewhere in the far corner of the site.

Chinese magnolia vine is a plant that not only decorates the garden, but is also very useful. There is nothing complicated in regularly getting a crop of berries rich in vitamins, microelements and organic acids. The plant does not make any unusual requirements for agricultural technology, it successfully adapts and bears fruit in a variety of climatic and weather conditions.


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