Ruslan grapes: description of the variety with characteristics and reviews, especially planting and growing
Ruslan grapes came to Russia from Zaporizhzhya private plantations of amateur breeder Vitaly Zagorulko. He strove to create complexly resistant varieties with stable annual fruiting, high palatability, and excellent transportability. The 90s of the last century brought him fruit in every sense: both the enviable harvest of the hybrids he created, and the author's fame of such varieties as Laura, Talisman, Arcadia, Zaporozhye Gift, Delight, Ruslan.
Genetic superiority in everything
There are about twenty copyright varieties of Zagorulko, but each is cultivated and polished. Sophisticated breeding work lasted more than 20 years. The enthusiastic wine-grower conjured and rejected until he found the only hybrid form that met all his requirements: both in terms of self-pollination, and in form, and according to commodity-taste criteria. He considered and considers the following as priority indicators for his new products:
- early ripening and early ripening;
- large-fruited and large-sized;
- seedlessness and self-pollination;
- disease resistance.
Ruslan is one of the many varieties of breeder Vitaly Zagorulko
It was in this cohort with super- and super- qualities that one of its remarkable hybrid varieties, Ruslan, got into it. He, along with other cultures, such as Moor, Libya, Bazhen, Lily of the Valley, Veles, Vodograi, Sofia, repeatedly won or occupied honorary and prize-winning places at international exhibitions organized by farms and agricultural academies of Ukraine from 2008 to 2011.
Early ripening of Ruslan grapes allows it to be grown in the southern strip and the chernozem zone of Russia
Three cultures became Ruslan's parents: Gift Zaporozhye, Kuban and Delight. Of course, these southern aborigines could not create a northern variety. But, nevertheless, the frost resistance of the new hybrid hit many experienced farmers. After all, Ruslan showed endurance up to -250С. This meant that the novelty should have been extended to the northern part of Ukraine and even to the cooler latitudes of Russia. This winter hardiness and genetically incorporated superearly maturity allowed Ruslan to appear even in gardens near Moscow.
Description and characteristics of varieties Ruslan - table
And this is not all the amazing qualities of grapes of this variety. It is also worth mentioning the excellent immunity to mildew, the possibility of growing in small private and large farmer plots, the growth of vines in the open ground and in the greenhouse.
As for the bunch and the fruit itself, superiority once again prevailed. The table below clearly displays this.
|Table grade Ruslan||Suitable for fresh consumption, for the manufacture of juices and wines, jellies, marmalade, and raisins.|
|Acceptable Acidity||6.5 g / l|
|Sugar content||17.5 - 18.5 g|
|Bunch||The bunch is conic. Average weight 700–800 g. Record weight 1300 g. Hand brushing is not observed.|
|Size and shape of the fetus||The weight of one unit is 14–20 g. The shape is circular oval.|
|Color and taste||Berries are dark blue, close to black. It tastes sweet, intolerant, with a touch of plum.|
|Peel Characterization||Thin peel with a matte coating is delicate and invisible when biting berries.|
|Bones||1-2 pieces per fruit.|
|The maturity of the brush and berries||105-110 days.|
|Productivity||High. Brushes are not prone to shedding. They can hang on the vine for a long time without damage to the fruit.|
Photo Gallery: Ruslan grapes from breeder Zagorulko
- Ruslan variety is suitable for fresh consumption, for the manufacture of juices and wines, jelly, marmalade, and raisins
- The average weight of Ruslan's bunch is 700-800 g, while there is practically no brush peeling
- The fruits are not prone to shedding and can hang on the vine for a long time without harming themselves.
Gardeners reviews on Ruslan grapes
I personally really like Ruslan, although he is not so widespread and it cannot be said that he has been tested for many years in many areas. But I would recommend it to everyone, including for growing in cold lands. The hybrid form captivates with stability, it tastes clear from the Kuban, and maybe even surpasses it, although there is no nutmeg, but some interesting fruity notes are felt. It also matures in the region on August 1–5. In 2013, the bush was damaged during the winter, like so many others. Recovering, showed several clusters.Evgeny Polyanin
My Ruslan is still young. Last year, planted with a handle for permanent residence. It developed poorly. In the fall, it was cut back to form a fan. This year, 5 powerful shoots are developing, one has a small bunch. Only now there are a lot of stepchildren, and, interestingly, even small inflorescences form on my first-stepchildren.Vlad grape
Gardeners with experience note the easy cracking of Ruslan grapes in rainy years
Ruslan still has a drawback ... Personally, I was very fond of wasps. Especially after cracking. Although the taste, the size of berries and bunches, the ripening period and all other parameters suit me. I don’t know who it’s like, but my bush doesn’t have such strong growth as, for example, the Talisman. But above average.KI
Agrotechnical methods of growing during the growing season
Ruslan, like his hero of the same name from Pushkin’s poem, is a strong instance, able to stand up for himself. But this does not mean that he will not appreciate the good conditions and care during the off-season and during the growing season.
Planting the cuttings
Despite its soil pickiness, the culture prefers a fertilized soil composition with the addition of humus and peat. Be sure to equip the drainage from gravel in the lower layer of the planting pit, otherwise waterlogging will create additional problems in the form of fungus and mold development on leaves and fruits or in the form of watery bursting berries.
Cuttings before planting in the ground must be rooted in a nutrient aqueous solution
Wells for rooted Ruslan cuttings are prepared in advance, about 15 days before the planting procedure. This is required in order for the soil to settle and partially compact. Holes should be deep and spacious, since the variety grows not only aboveground, but also underground. After laying the seedlings in the fertilized pits, they are lightly dug, watered with settled warm water and then dug again. This double digging technique will better retain moisture at the root and prevent the formation of a crust on the surface of the earth.
Under the grapes make spacious holes up to 80 cm deep and wide
The recommended distance between seedlings is at least 1.5 meters, and between rows in industrial cultivation - at least 3 meters. By the middle of the season, the vine will grow so that there is no empty space, but there will be sufficient corridors for airing the crop and for passage between them during the harvest. The distance will also serve as an insulating measure in case of infection of the neighboring vine with any unpleasant ailment.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The distance between seedlings should be at least 1.5 meters, so that after growth they do not obscure each other
Planting Ruslan cuttings is most effective in the spring, although the cuttings themselves are harvested in the fall. Breeding by layering is better in summer and autumn.
Caring for grapes is no more difficult than garden turnips. He needs regular watering, cultivation, removal of weeds and top dressing, without which the ovary will be weak, and the yield is below the limit declared for the variety.
Three mineral fertilizers per season may well be enough if:
- the vine is young and does not suffer from diseases;
- planting vines at one time was carried out in fertilized soil;
- the vine tolerated winter well and without loss.
The first watering with the addition of nitrogen and potassium is carried out in the spring after sanitary pruning.
Mineral dressing is the most important component of comprehensive grape care
The second and third feeding is carried out during the period of budding and ripening of fruits. This can be both root and foliar spraying of foliage with potassium phosphate mixtures or industrial complex fertilizers. It is important to remember that in order to avoid poisoning by the remnants of agricultural mixtures on the fruit, spraying should be applied at least two weeks before picking berries.
Dangerous for grapes diseases and pests
The variety is declared as highly resistant to fungal diseases by mildew and powdery mildew, manifested in the form of oily brown-yellow spots on the foliage, fungal pubescence on leaves and fruits, the smell of rotting fish. Diseases are very dangerous for grapes - if things go wrong, you can lose from 50 to 90% of the crop. In this case, the infection quickly passes from one vine to another. The plant begins to quickly turn yellow, the berries dry and fall.
Pubescence on leaves and fruits is one of the signs of mildew
Fungal Disease Prevention
Prevention against mildew is the most important part of caring for grapes of any variety, no matter how high resistance to the disease is declared. The main rules of this preventive work are the following points:
- Prevent waterlogging of the soil. Drainage, loosening, ventilation will help to avoid it. These are friends of grapes.
- Mulch the soil at the roots of the vine with straw, shavings, peat, sawdust. This will save the plant from a lack of moisture and from cool air.
- Avoid overcooling of planting material. Cuttings are planted in open ground only after the threat of return frosts is completely passed, and the soil warms up to + 6 + 80 ° C. At night in a cool climate, the young seedling should certainly be covered with a film.
- Remove stepsons in a timely manner, and new shoots must be tied to supports so that the clusters do not fall to the ground during ripening.
- To carry out preventive treatment twice a season with well-proven preparations of copper, sulfur, iron, such as: Bordeaux liquid, colloidal sulfur, Oksikhom, copper and iron sulfate.
- When the first signs of the disease appear, immediately treat the plantings with fungicidal preparations. Processing should be carried out clearly according to the schedule recommended by the manufacturers. Qualitative brands for grapes are Quadris, Cabrio Top, Champion, Ridomil Gold, Abiga Peak.
It must be remembered that there are a lot of fungicidal preparations. In order not to give the habit of grapes to any one of their species, it is advisable to alternate from season to season, or from top dressing to top dressing.
The most gentle methods of protection against fungal ailments include spraying with infusions of strongly aromatic or burning herbs: nettle, chamomile, pepper, garlic, onion and others. A good prophylactic is also wood ash, periodically sprinkled under the bushes.
Photo Gallery: Methods for Combating Grape Diseases
- Loosening and mulching will create the right water balance for the root system.
- Topping with infusion of spicy and burning herbs will protect grapes from diseases
- Fungicide Ridomil Gold is recommended for the prevention and control of fungal diseases of grapes
- Spraying grapes with Bordeaux-containing copper will prevent mildew
The fight against phylloxera
Before laying the cuttings in the hole, it must be examined for the presence of parasites on it. One of the most dangerous for grapes is phylloxera, or grape aphid. A small yellow-green pest eats leaves and shoots and roots. In winter cold, its larvae successfully settle on the roots, piercing them with a proboscis and thus violating their integrity. When the earth warms up, parasites crawl to the surface, where they begin their destructive cycle.
Phylloxera larvae attach not only on leaves, but also on roots
The damage of the cuttings taken from such an affected plant can be seen with the naked eye. It will have unnatural thickenings or tubercles. The infected material must be sent immediately to the fire, and at the same time the diseased vine with which the stalk was harvested. The earth from the destroyed zone will also have to be treated with pesticides, and for ten years to avoid planting grapes on it.
But what if phylloxera is discovered on a plantation in high season? There is only one way out - to conduct repeated processing of grapes with dichloroethane. But due to the fact that the chemical is a very toxic poison, 20 ml of which is enough to cause fatal poisoning, the treatment of grape fields with dichloroethane should be carried out only by a certified team of agricultural or chemical specialists.
In small private vineyards, you can independently apply such well-known pesticides as Actellik, Kinmiks, Fozalon, Fufanon.
Photo gallery: phylloxera - one of the most dangerous pests of grapes
- It looks like a vine leaf affected by phylloxera
- A dangerous phylloxera pest is capable of destroying the entire grape crop in a matter of days
- If grape aphids are found, immediate quarantine measures are required.
Autumn pruning varieties Ruslan
Pruning is a kind of ritual, obligatory for every autumn, regardless of the age of the vine bush. Over the summer, the vine grows and thickens so that it is absolutely impossible to let it go in the winter in this form. The uncircumcised vine will overwinter poorly, and the next year if it does not die, it will give such a slow development that the fruits can not wait. And the benefits of trimming are huge.
- Firstly, it will make the bush compact and convenient for wintering;
- Secondly, it will renew the vine, creating potential for growth next year;
- Thirdly, it will help to prepare high-quality cuttings for propagation next spring.
Autumn pruning is carried out in order to form a bush and increase productivity
Before the main pruning, the bush is inspected, revealing dried shoots and removing the remaining foliage. The formation of vines is already from the first year of life. All shoots overgrown during the season are removed on it, except for two stem, on which three buds are left. 3-4 eyes on the shoots are reserved next year.
In the third year, two sleeves are formed, which next season will go on both sides of the central trunk. For this, overgrown lashes are shortened to 50 cm with the number of eyes no more than 4. All lower shoots are removed. In the fourth year, the sleeves are maintained in this status, but all annual processes on their lower part are cut off. All work is done by a garden pruner and delimbers.
A fully formed bush is obtained by the fourth year of life of the vine
Shelter of the vine for the winter is made according to the rules of the climatic zone in which the grapes are grown. If shelter is not required, then the branches are gently pinned to the support.
Ruslan grapes are a real highlight in the garden in a literal and figurative sense. Unpretentious, with excellent durability, resistance to diseases and early ripening, it can become a "highlight of the program" on the site, without causing any serious trouble to the owners. It happens that sugar turnips are harder to grow and preserve than Ruslan grapes, especially if that turnip is genetically huge.