Rizamat grapes - a sweet guest from Uzbekistan! Planting, pruning and shaping a bush
Despite the constant work of breeders to develop new grape varieties, some "old" varieties are so good that wine growers do not want to abandon them. These varieties include Rizamat grapes originating from Uzbekistan. It is distinguished by such wonderful taste characteristics that amateurs do everything to grow it even in the Russian climate that is inappropriate for this moody variety.
The history of growing grapes Rizamat
Rizamat grapes come from sunny Uzbekistan. Bred in the 70s of the last century by scientists of the Samarkand branch of the Research Institute of Horticulture and Viticulture. R.R. Schroeder. The authors of the variety are R.V. Ogienko, K.V. Smirnov and A.F. Gerasimov, who used the Uzbek grapes Kattakurgan and Parkentsky in the selection process. The new variety got its name in honor of the winegrower Rizamat Musamuhamedov. After passing the state variety test, it was recommended for cultivation throughout the territory of Uzbekistan, Georgia and Turkmenistan. Due to its outstanding taste, yield and excellent appearance, it has gained recognition in Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine, where it is most successfully grown in the southern regions, although it can also successfully develop in the middle lane when creating favorable conditions.
Rizamat grapes on video
Rizamat is used to produce new varieties. For example, on its basis varieties Rizamat stable, Rizamat peerless, Rizamat gracious (black) were bred. Despite some advantages (higher frost resistance, disease resistance), all hybrids are significantly inferior in taste to the original variety.
Rizamat is a table-raisin variety and is considered an early-ripening grape in its homeland (growing season 135–140 days at a total temperature of 2800–3000 оС). In the Russian climate, the ripening period is rather average - the second decade of September.
Bushes have medium growth. Shoots are long, light brown in color, with medium-sized, slightly dissected leaves. Rip well. The flowers are bisexual, so this variety can be grown without pollinating plants.
Rizamat buds begin to bloom in the first half of May (about a month later than in Uzbekistan), flowering begins in late June - early July. Berries begin to ripen in the second half of August, they can be consumed fresh in the second or third decade of September.
Large dark pink brushes have a very elegant look
Rizamat forms large, branching clusters, up to 17–18 cm long. The density of the hands is average, the mass is 500–550 g (it can reach 800–1000 g, occasionally up to 3 kg). The cylindrical shape of the berries is very large: length 28-30 mm, width 19-20 mm, average weight 6.2 g, but can reach 14 g. A thin pink skin is covered with a not too thick wax coating, the barrel of berries when fully ripened bright "blush". The pulp has a dense, crisp consistency. Each berry has 2-3 small seeds.
The berries are unusually large in size, but at the same time on the hands there may be a peeling of berries
The taste is very pleasant, receiving very high tasting ratings (9.1 points). There are no unusual flavors. The harmony of taste is explained by the fact that a high sugar content (20%) is balanced by a sufficient amount of acids (4.5–5 g / l).
No wonder Rizamat receives high marks from specialists - he has undeniable advantages:
- high palatability, excellent appearance;
- high productivity (20–30 kg from one bush; with good care, a bush of 15–20 years of age can produce up to 70 kg).
Lovers who cultivate Rizamat believe that these advantages completely atone for the flaws of the variety, which, unfortunately, are many:
- low frost resistance (up to -17 ... -18 ° C), requiring mandatory shelter of bushes for the winter;
- susceptibility to oidium disease;
- cracking berries in rainy weather during ripening:
- tendency to pee berries;
- poor combination with stocks;
- exacting care.
Landing and care
Planting rules for Rizamat grapes are practically no different from other varieties. It is advisable to plant this grape in the spring so that it grows stronger by the next winter. With autumn planting, there is a risk that a young seedling of this not too frost-resistant variety will die during the first frosts.
Unlike other varieties of Rizamat, it is almost impossible to propagate by vaccination. The main method of reproduction is planting with root crops.
Grapes cuttings perfectly give roots in the damp earth
It is easy to grow seedlings yourself. To do this, cuttings with 4–5 buds are placed with a lower cut into the water and wait for white roots to appear. Instead of water, you can take a plastic bottle with a cut-off top, filled with moist nutrient soil. Germination of cuttings begins in the first decade of February and the finished seedlings are obtained just in time for planting - the first decade of May.
Grapes reproduce well by layering. Our own experience in growing grapes shows that it is enough to choose a well-developed vine with a thickness of about 1–1.5 cm, dig in moist loose soil and press (for example, 2-3 bricks). You need to water the layering regularly - the formation of roots depends on this. The main thing - do not rush to separate the layering from the mother bush. The author made such a mistake, as a result, the separated plant turned out to be frail and required about two more years of intensive watering and thorough care.
Growing grapes Rizamat - video
To plant Rizamat, you need to choose the most sunny place on the site. The soil is desirable fertile, loose. It is strictly forbidden to plant grapes in areas with a close occurrence of groundwater. The distance between the bushes should be at least 3 m.
Before planting, you need to prepare a hole with a width and depth of 80 cm. The bottom is covered with broken brick or crushed stone (5-6 cm). Then, about half the pit is filled with soil mixed with compost and a small amount of phosphorus-potassium fertilizers (for example, you can limit yourself to 20-30 g of superphosphate). A soil layer is poured on top to protect the roots (7–8 cm). It is advisable to leave a filled pit for 10-15 days.
When planting grapes in a pit, you need to lay a drainage layer
The grape seedling is placed in the pit very carefully, as young roots can easily break. The pit is covered with fertile soil, compacted, a recess for irrigation is formed, and 2 buckets of water are poured into it.
Planting grapes in spring - video
Rules for growing grapes Rizamat
Rizamat is not unpretentious, on the contrary, he needs constant proper care. Inadequate watering, improper care and too much load lead to the fading of berries and peeling.
Trimming and shaping a bush
One of the main procedures necessary for growing a healthy bush is pruning. Proper pruning provides ventilation of the bush and reduces the risk of developing fungal diseases. Pruned vines in spring and autumn. A feature of Rizamat is the low fruitfulness of the lower ocelli; therefore, to obtain a good crop, it requires a long pruning (10-15 ocelli).
Do not overload: Rizamat does not like her. The total load on the bush should be 35–40 eyes.
The tops of the shoots should not be pinched, otherwise sleeping buds may wake up and the harvest of the next year will disappear. Stepsons pinch on 1-2 sheets.
Rizamat requires a large formation. the most suitable options are an arch, a high trellis with a visor or a warp (horizontal trellis system).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Supports for grapes - photo
- A trellis with a visor allows the formation of tall, well-ventilated bushes
- Arches are suitable for the formation of grapes growing near the house
- Voish is a system of horizontal trellises on which the grape "fan" is located
You need to make sure that the vines can be easily removed from the supports for shelter for the winter.
In autumn, the vines are pruned, removing the unripe part of the shoots and thickening twigs. Then the vines are untied from the supports, carefully laid on the ground, tied together and wrapped with insulation material. The heat-loving Rizamat may not have enough film alone, therefore it is better to cover it in several layers: straw, film and a layer of earth.
Wrapped in foil or oilcloth, grapes are sprinkled on the sides with earth
Watering and feeding
Rizamat loves moisture, it needs to be watered 4-5 times per season: at the beginning of bud blooming, at the beginning of flowering, during the growth of the ovary, after harvesting. These irrigation is carried out at the rate of 40-50 liters per adult bush, settled water. It is desirable to supply water to irrigation furrows with a depth of 20–25 cm, laid at a distance of 0.5–0.7 m from the stem. If possible, it is better to use a drip irrigation system, supplying water constantly in small portions.
If the weather is dry in the fall, in late October - early November, watering is carried out at the rate of 150-200 l per bush to charge the soil with moisture: this improves the conditions for wintering the root system.
It is desirable to combine top dressing with watering. The first feeding is carried out with nitrogen 6-7 days before flowering. Nitrogen compounds are found in sufficient quantities in organic fertilizers. For 1 adult bush of grapes, it is enough to breed 2–2.5 kg of manure or 50–55 g of chicken droppings in a bucket of water. You can use mineral fertilizers - 60-65 g of nitrophosphate and 5 g of boric acid per 10 l of water.
The second feeding is carried out 12-15 days before the formation of the fruit. The formation of fruits is provided by potassium, so 10 g of potassium magnesia is dissolved in a bucket of water for feeding. You can add 20 g of ammonium nitrate. The third feeding is carried out 8-10 days after the second, with the same fertilizer.
Feeding grapes - video
The fourth top dressing is carried out 2 weeks before harvesting with superphosphate and potassium sulfate (20 g each).
Grapes are also useful foliar dressing, including trace elements. Some winegrowers recommend a mixture of iodine, copper sulfate, infusion of wood ash and boric acid. Spraying with such a composition helps not only saturate the plant with nutrients, but also protects it from fungal diseases.
Pest and disease protection
Rizamat is very poorly resistant to fungal diseases - mildew and oidium. To prevent these diseases, it is first of all necessary to ensure good ventilation of the bush, removing thickening shoots and excess leaves. In addition, preventive treatments with fungicides (for example, Dnok) should be carried out 5-7 times per season.
Oidium grape processing - video
You can prepare a tool for processing with your own hands: ISO broth is prepared from lime and sulfur. Ground sulfur or sulfur concentrate, hydrated lime and water (2: 1: 17 ratio) are mixed and boiled for 60 minutes over low heat, adding water to the initial volume. Ready solution, corked in bottles, can be stored for a long time. ISO gives a good effect in the fight against fungal diseases and is safe for warm-blooded animals.
From wasps and birds, grapes are covered with nets or tied each brush with a gauze bag.
Harvesting, storage and use of crops
Harvest Rizamata in different regions ripen at different times (from late August to the last decade of September). First of all, the brushes located at the ends of the shoots mature, then closer to the base of the bush.
For table consumption, you need to cut the ripened grapes immediately, avoiding overexposure on the bushes. To make raisins, on the contrary, it is recommended to leave ripe grapes hanging for another 2-3 weeks. Raisam raisins are of very high quality, tasty and attractive in appearance.
Rizamat produces beautiful and tasty raisins
You can store fresh grapes in a cool room or refrigerator for about two weeks.
I have 8 bushes of Rizamat in the vineyard. A variety is a generous one who argues. And diseases can be defeated. But where can I get its terrible crack in the rains? There is no doubt that if he managed to remove positive emotions before the rains, he did not have time after the first serious rain of% 60–70 berries joyfully, they smile at the owner in full mouth (burst). Cracks immediately become moldy. My opinion is a variety for a dry climate, without a moisture difference during ripening. Now I am looking for a replacement for this variety, I will leave 1 bush for the collection.IgorF, Volgograd region
My Rizamat also burst after the first rain (rain). All summer there was no rain, and when the first rain fell, the whole Rizamat burst ((((Well, at least we managed to cut one bunch when I went to the godfather in the village. Rizamat made a great impression!Vadim from Rostov
From my, so far little experience, Rizamat blossomed already in the 2nd year after 10 buds. Previously, she cut haphazardly (shorter) and he did not bear fruit. Last year I read that a long trim is needed - and everything worked out. My bush has very long sleeves, my husband pulls it on the roof of the bathhouse to protect itself from the sun, fruit-bearing shoots begin after 1.5 meters of the sleeve and are also long (leaving 12-14 buds). He (Rizamat) liked this. I wintered without shelter (such a length is simply impossible to lay and cover normally), I just untied everything and dropped it to the ground under a concrete wall. No freezing, all the vines woke up. He ripened last year by September 20–25. Cracked 2 berries on 5 brushes. There was no softening of the pulp. Very tasty! Juicy and crispy! And what a beautiful !!!!Elena Bocharova, Kazakhstan
"Rizamat" grows on my gazebo, and as Valery Dmitriyevich from Belorechensk said, it consists of irrigation hoses with horns. On each horn - one fruitful shoot, the rest are broken off. Stepsons break off, leaving one sheet. I do not pinch shoots. Horns are at a distance of 35 - 40cm from each other. Our climate is sharply continental. In winter, to -35, and in summer, the temperature can reach +50 with a tail. Therefore, depending on the temperature, I start watering. "Rizamat" ripens unevenly. First on the periphery, and then in the middle of the bush. And small irrigation does not affect so much the ripening of berries on my site. This applies not only to “Rizamat”, but also to other varieties.Selchanin, Rostov Region
the shape of the berry can vary from oval to oval-elongated. More than once I had to see one and the other form on one bush. As for the maturity, there are also many factors that shift this indicator in one direction or another. In our area, the first clusters begin to cut from August 15–20. It is clear that the conditions at this time are not the best, but the market dictates its own conditions. On good, by the first of September - the most THAT !!! (if sparrows with wasps do not finish it)S. Sergey. A., Zaporizhzhya region.
Rizamat grapes will require some effort from their owner to get good yields. But with proper agricultural technology, the quantity and quality of the crop far exceeds other, less whimsical varieties.