Repairing raspberries Caramel - aromatic large-fruited variety
Many people believe that the large fruits of garden raspberries are not tasty enough, while the small berries of forest raspberries are very sweet and fragrant. Indeed, the main emphasis in breeding work was previously made on winter hardiness, productivity and culture immunity. Recently, however, special attention has been paid to taste. One of these new remodeling species is Caramel, so named for its sweet taste and aroma, like forest raspberries.
History and description of the variety
For more than 200 years, cultivating remont raspberries has been cultivated, but in old varieties fruiting in the autumn is negligible. Caramel is an achievement of Russian modern selection. For 10 years, our scientists conducted experimental development in many regions of the country, as a result, researcher I.V.Shiblev from Nizhny Novgorod created the fragrant variety Caramel. In 2016, it was included in the State Register and recommended for cultivation throughout Russia from Kaliningrad to Kamchatka.
A repairing medium-early ripening variety. Since not only biennial, but also annual shoots are fruitful, the crop is received twice during the season - in summer and autumn. It is characterized by frost resistance, therefore, the culture can be cultivated even in regions with a cold climate.
Variety characteristic Caramel
Caramel forms a straight-growing bush of medium size (up to 1.5 m), stable, not requiring garter. Young shoots with a wax coating, pubescent, green, turn purple by the end of the season. The prickling of the branches is average, the thorns are not very hard, located along the entire length of the shoot.
Caramel grows with a medium-sized stable bush that does not require additional support
The main value of the variety is berries with an average weight of 3.8 g, a maximum weight of 8 g, wide conical shape, light red, shiny. They contain: sugar - 4.2%, acid - 1.0%, vitamin C - 48.0 mg per 100 g of berries. The pulp is tender, sweet, with a raspberry aroma, taste rating - 4.6 points. The dense pulp of the fruit allows you to transfer transportation without loss of presentation.
Fresh fruits are not stored for long, 2-3 days in the refrigerator. Most of the crop goes for freezing, making jam, syrup, kvass, juice. Fresh raspberries are recommended to be included in the menu for patients with hypertension and atherosclerosis. Hot tea with raspberry jam or dried berries helps with colds, decoctions of the leaves have an anti-inflammatory effect in diseases of the stomach.
Caramel raspberries have light red shiny berries, sweet as caramel
Caramel begins to bear fruit in the first year, the average yield is 112 kg / ha, up to 5 kg of berries can be obtained from the bush. Harvested from biennial shoots is harvested in July, from annuals - in September - October.
Resistance to diseases and pests at the level of standard varieties. The disadvantage is the average drought tolerance and heat tolerance. In extreme heat at temperatures above +35 ° C the berries are baked, the branches dry even with good watering.
Future raspberry harvests will largely depend on the choice of place and correctly carried out planting of seedlings.
For planting raspberries in central Russia divert elevated, warm and sunny areas of the garden. In southern regions with a hot and dry climate, shrubs are planted in partial shade. To protect the berry from the cold northerly winds, it is recommended to place it along the fence, hedges, farm buildings.
Plots protected from the wind by a fence or utility buildings are allocated under the raspberry
Raspberries should not be planted in lowlands, which after flooding often flooded, as well as in areas with a shallow groundwater table. Excess moisture is detrimental to the root system of plants and provokes the development of fungal diseases.
Gardeners with experience always observe crop rotation and never plant raspberries where pepper, tomatoes, and strawberries were grown last season. Culture grows well after cucumbers, legumes, zucchini.
Loose fertilized earth with neutral acidity is suitable for remont raspberries. Before planting, lime, dolomite is added to acidic soil. Over time, soil fertility decreases, so after 8-10 years, raspberries are transplanted to another place so that productivity does not fall. Raspberries get along well with an apple, cherry, red currant. But grapes, sea buckthorn, parsley are undesirable neighbors.
Culture is planted in spring and autumn. In spring, it is necessary that positive temperature values are maintained during the week. Seedlings quickly take root, grow vegetative mass and begin to bear fruit in autumn. However, in spring planting, fruiting is not so plentiful, because all the forces of the plant go to survival. The most suitable period for planting is autumn, 20 days before the frost: seedlings have time to take root before the cold, and in the spring all efforts should be directed to the growth of shoots and the formation of the crop.
The acquisition of seedlings
High-quality planting material is the key to a good harvest. Healthy seedlings are acquired in garden centers or nurseries, where varietal diversity is great. There you can get advice about the characteristics of the plant and its care.
Raspberry seedlings should have a well-developed fibrous root system
When buying, you should carefully consider the seedling: it should have flexible, not dry shoots, without dark spots, as well as a fibrous root system without rot and damage. It is better to purchase plants in a container - they are planted together with an earthen lump, the integrity of the roots is not violated, therefore, the survival rate will be higher.
2 weeks before planting, they dig a plot, release it from weeds, add 2 buckets of humus, 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium nitrate or 300 g of ash per 1 m2. Strongly acidic soil is brought to a neutral reaction by adding 500 g of lime per 1 m2.
Raspberries can be planted in two ways: bush or ribbon. During the formation of single bushes, 60x45 holes are dug with a distance of 1 m from each other. On large areas, it is preferable to plant culture in rows. For this, trenches are prepared with a width of 50 cm, a depth of 45 cm, leaving between the rows 1.5 m, between the plants 70 cm.
Raspberries can be planted in rows in trenches 45 cm deep
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings should be kept for an hour in a solution of a biostimulant (Kornevin, Heteroauxin), which accelerates root formation and increases the immunity of plants.
Raspberry planting sequence:
- At the bottom of the pit, part of the fertile land is poured in the form of a knoll.
- Lower the sapling on it, carefully spreading the roots. A plant from a container is planted along with a lump of earth.
The seedling is placed in the planting hole, carefully spreading the roots
- They fill it with soil, gently shaking the seedling, so that there are no voids around the roots. During spring planting, the root neck should be flush with the surface of the soil. In autumn, the root neck should be deepened 2-3 cm into the ground so that during the winter frosts the replacement bud located at the base of the stem does not die.
- The plant is watered with five liters of water.
After each raspberry planting, 5 liters of water are added to each well.
- Shoots are shortened to 30 cm.
- The soil is mulched with a 10-centimeter layer of hay and straw.
Video: planting raspberries
The yield and taste of a variety are affected not only by weather conditions, but also by the fertility of the soil and the amount of watering.
Watering and loosening
Repairing raspberries Caramel suffers both from excessive overmoistening of the soil, and from a lack of moisture. In extreme heat, with insufficient watering, the shoots weaken and dry out, the berries grow smaller. With excessive moisture, the tops of the shoots turn yellow, the culture freezes even with relatively small frosts.
The berry is watered once a week (10 liters per bush), young plantings - more often. The plant especially needs moisture during flowering and fruit formation. In small areas, irrigation is carried out by sprinkling or through grooves. Sprinkling with a hose or an automated irrigation system with sprinkler nozzles is recommended in the morning or after sunset. At the same time, not only the soil is moistened, but also the foliage. However, at the time of fruiting, this type of irrigation is not used to avoid rotting berries.
When sprinkling, not only the soil is moistened, but also the foliage
Often use watering through grooves. Around the bushes make circular watering grooves and add water to them. When tape landing, watering grooves are laid on both sides of the row 40 cm from the bush.
On large areas, drip irrigation is more appropriate. The drip irrigation system, consisting of a tape with droppers, allows you to evenly deliver moisture directly to the roots.
Drop watering is convenient to use on large raspberry plantations
At the end of the season, before the onset of frost, pre-winter watering (20 liters per bush) is mandatory.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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After watering, loosening should be carried out to remove the soil crust, which prevents air from entering the root system. Due to the surface location of raspberry roots, the soil in the aisles is loosened to a depth of not more than 15 cm. Then, a layer of mulch is placed under the bushes, which retains moisture in the soil and prevents the growth of weeds.
The caramel repairing variety is demanding on soil fertility, the lack of trace elements immediately affects the appearance of the shrub. If the leaves turn yellow, the shoots grow weakly - which means that the plant needs to be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. With a lack of calcium, the leaves are deformed, the ovaries fall. A little potassium - the leaves twist, a dark rim is visible on the edge of the leaf plate. Magnesium deficiency is manifested by yellowing of the leaves from the middle to the edges.
In the year of planting, the berry is not fed. The following season, in the spring, ammonium nitrate (40 g / m2) is added for digging - nitrogen stimulates rapid shoot formation, and for the formation of ovaries - potassium salt (60 g / m2). In mid-summer, shrubs are fertilized with nitrophos (60 g / 10 l), at the end of the season with superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (40 g / m2).
Complex fertilizer Agricola contains all the necessary trace elements for berry culture
Mineral fertilizers are useful to alternate with organic - mullein, bird droppings. They are diluted with water in the ratio of 1:10 and 1:20 and contribute 5 l of solution to the bush. Instead of potassium salt, you can use wood ash (500 g / m2). In autumn, the soil under the bushes is mulched with humus or compost - this mulch reliably warms the roots in the winter cold, and by spring, overheating, turns into a useful fertilizer.
Experienced gardeners to feed raspberries use infusions of herbs. Dandelion, nettle is put in a 50-liter barrel, add 100 g of ash, a handful of earth, 100 g of yeast, 1 kg of chicken droppings, pour water and set to wander for a week. Then the infusion is diluted with water (1:10) and poured under a bush of 0.5 l.
From a banana peel, you can prepare an infusion rich in potassium. The peel of 3 bananas is poured with 3 liters of water, insisted for a week. On the bush spend 1 liter of infusion.
Only on well-fertilized soil can high yields of raspberries be obtained
Dense strong bushes Caramel do not bend even under the weight of berries. However, growing on trellises greatly simplifies maintenance: it is easy to approach the bushes and harvest, they are evenly warmed up in the sun and well ventilated. The support is easy to install on your own. On poles 2 m high, installed 3 m apart, pull the wire in 3 rows and tie the bushes to it.
When growing raspberries on a trellis it is easier to care for it, the bushes are evenly lit and well ventilated
To ensure high yields, it is necessary to properly form a bush. Trimming remont raspberries has its own characteristics. If the berry is grown for a single crop, at the end of October all the shoots are cut. Such pruning simplifies berry care, does not require shelter for the winter. During the season, they also get rid of small shoots, which take 50% of the nutrition of the crop.
If you need to get 2 harvests per season, in the autumn only cut-off stems are cut, to get a single crop, remove all shoots
If they plan to get 2 crops per season, only the two-year-old stalks are removed, the tops of the annuals are shortened by 15 cm. In the spring, they carefully inspect the bush, remove frozen and dry stems. Before flowering, pinch shoots 1 m long to form lateral branches and increase yield. However, fruiting will then shift by 2 weeks.
Video: how to trim repair raspberries
You can plant the entire berry, having only one raspberry bush on the site. Raspberries are easy to propagate, but you need to remember that layering and aerial green cuttings are not suitable for seedlings.
There are several effective ways to propagate a plant:
- Seminal. The method is time-consuming, while varietal traits are lost, therefore it is used during breeding work in agricultural laboratories. In private households not applicable.
- By dividing the bush. An adult plant with a powerful root system can be divided into 4–5 parts. In autumn or early spring, the stems are shortened to 45 cm, they dig a bush with roots and divide it. Each division must have developed roots and 2-3 strong shoots. Seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place and watered.
During a raspberry transplant, a bush with a powerful root system can be divided into parts
- Root offspring. They germinate from the roots at a distance of about 30 cm from the uterine bush of raspberries. Throughout the summer, you can dig out small stems 10-15 cm tall with roots and immediately transplant them to a permanent place. It is advisable that the roots be 12-15 cm long. In order for the offspring to take root well, you need to tear off the leaves and shade the first 2 weeks after transplantation.
- Root cuttings. In spring or autumn, at a distance of 30–40 cm from the center of the bush, carefully dig out the root. Its diameter is preferably greater than 2 mm. The root is cut into cuttings with a length of about 10 cm so that each one contains 1-2 kidneys. The procedure must be done carefully to preserve small roots. Cuttings are laid in loose fertile soil, where grooves with a depth of 10-15 cm were made in advance, fall asleep and watered. If planting was made in the spring, then already in mid-September, grown seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place. In the case of autumn planting of cuttings, they need to be mulched before spring.
The method of propagation by root cuttings is very good when raspberry stems are affected by the disease
- Green cuttings. In early summer, cuttings 10–15 cm long are cut from the shoot so that the lower part is white, located below ground level. For 12 hours, the cuttings are kept in a root formation stimulator (Heteroauxin, Kornevin), then planted under a film for rooting. The greenhouse is regularly ventilated, moisten the soil, and in autumn, seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
To stimulate rooting, cuttings need to withstand 12 hours in the root stimulator
It is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of "stalk" and "green stalk" (green shoots shoot). Shank - part of the stem with the kidneys. Green stalk - the top of a green growing shoot.
Video: Raspberry propagation by root offspring
At the end of the growing season, it is recommended to remove all shoots. Growing Caramel as an annual culture and mowing the stems allows you to safely survive the winter cold, as well as prevent the appearance of pests wintering on the shoots. It is only necessary to cover the mulch roots. However, for gardeners, the ability to get 2 crops is more attractive. In this case, only two-year-old shoots are removed in the fall, annual stems are insulated. Branches bent by an arc are attached to a wire stretched along a row, covered with agrofibre. To avoid sprouting shoots, cover them no earlier than a week before frosts.
Annual shoots of remont raspberries must be covered for the winter
Video: care for remont raspberries
Diseases and Pests
The variety is quite resistant to many infectious diseases, you should only follow the rules of agricultural technology and implement preventive measures in time.
Table: Raspberry Disease, Prevention and Treatment
|Anthracnose||Necrotic spots are visible on the leaves and stems, the fruits are wrinkled. The occurrence of the disease contribute to long rainy periods. The disease leads to significant crop losses.||Remove fallen leaves.||In the spring, spray with Nitrafen (300 g / 10 l).|
|Purple spotting||Brown-purple spots form on the shoots, the buds dry out, the leaves wither. The development of fungal disease contributes to the bushiness and high humidity.||Burn fallen leaves, do not thicken the planting.||Before flowering, treat with a 2% Bordeaux mixture.|
|Gray rot||Mushroom spores quickly spread in wet weather. Outgrowths of gray color are formed on the shoots, the fruits rot.|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Disease
- Anthracnose can cause significant crop loss.
- The development of gray rot contributes to increased humidity
- When the bush thickens and in rainy summer raspberries can be affected by purple spotting.
Table: Raspberry Pests, Prevention and Control
|Raspberry and strawberry weevil||Larvae gnaw the bud, weakening the flowering. Beetles eat leaves.||Spray in the phase of the green cone Fufanon (10 g / 10 l).|
|Raspberry beetle||The beetle feasts on foliage and flowers, the larvae feed on the pulp of ripe fruits. The pest can destroy up to 50% of the crop.|
|Aphid||The pest sucks the plant juices, depletes them, which leads to a decrease in productivity.|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Pests
- Raspberry-strawberry weevil causes great damage to raspberries, damaging leaves and buds
- Raspberry beetle eats foliage and flowers
- Aphid is a peddler of viral diseases
In the aisles, you can plant repellent plants: dill, sage, basil, tagetes, which repel pests by their smell.
Indeed, the caramel is sweet, the berry separates well, the children liked it.
Being with Yesichev, we tried two rems. Nizhny Novgorod raspberries - Penguin and Caramel. Both bushes “cheerfully stand”, in the sense they don’t fall without trellis, both have beautiful, marketable berries, but the Penguin didn’t like the taste, but Caramel is very good.
From the above, I saw and “ate” Caramel. For Remontant there is a very worthy taste, the bushes hold their shape well without support (it was in August at the Kaluga GSU).
Among the repairing varieties, raspberries Caramel is favorably distinguished by the sweet taste of berries. Moreover, the culture does not require special care. Gardeners are also attracted by extended periods of fruiting: from mid-summer to the very frosts, you can enjoy fragrant raspberries and make vitamin preparations.