Redcurrant: the main stages in the cultivation and care
Redcurrant is a perennial deciduous shrub with a height of 0.5 to 2 m. In the wild, it is found on the edges of the forest, on the banks of rivers or streams throughout Eurasia. This is a favorite berry of many gardeners, modern varieties with good care are able to produce up to 10-12 kg of juicy sour berries.
History of growing red currants
The first mention of redcurrant in Western Europe dates back to the 15th century. The plant was used to form hedges, and the berries were used for medicinal purposes. Around the same time, currants began to be grown in Russia, mainly at monasteries, using berries as a medicine and making tinctures from them.
A well-groomed redcurrant bush is very beautiful during the ripening period of berries and can decorate any garden
Currently, the leading country for growing red currants is the United States. But even in Russia they do not forget about this culture: in almost every garden plot you can find 1-2 bushes.
Redcurrant is a winter-hardy plant that withstands frosts down to −40 ° C. In summer, thanks to a powerful root system, it suffers much less from heat than blackcurrant, and the life span of the bush is up to 20 years without reducing yield.
In dry gardens without watering and human attention, redcurrant bushes grow to 50–70 cm in height and produce a small crop. With regular feeding and irrigation or in low places where groundwater is close to the ground, red currant grows as a powerful bush up to 2 m in height and can produce up to 12 kg of berries.
Currant blooms with nondescript flowers collected in a brush
Currant blooms in May with nondescript yellow-green flowers collected in a brush. Depending on the region and variety of currant, the ripening of berries can begin by mid-June or July. Ripening is uneven: the first to sprinkle berries in the sun. Red currants rarely crumble from the bush, so it can be harvested as needed. They pick red currants like grapes with a brush, without tearing berries, so they are better stored and transported.
Red currants from the bush are collected in clusters
Redcurrant satisfies hunger and thirst; it has a lot of vitamin C, the daily rate of which can be replenished by eating only a handful of this berry. In addition, the berry contains pectin, so the red currant jelly turns out to be thick. Compotes, jams, preserves, jelly, marmalade, tinctures, wines, liqueurs are prepared from it.
Varieties of red currants
To enjoy the fresh berries of red currant all summer, you can plant varieties with different ripening dates: early, mid-ripening and late. You can also pick up bushes with various shades of berries: red, burgundy, pink. Some varieties of redcurrant perfectly fruit in single bushes, that is, self-fertile (able to pollinate their own pollen), while others need a pollinating neighbor.
Depending on the variety, red currant berries can be small (0.7 g) or large, reaching 1.5 cm in diameter and weighing up to 1.5 g.
Table: The main varieties of red currant
|Grade||Ripening period||Bush height||Brush length||Productivity||Features|
|Chulkovskaya||early||tall||8–13 cm||up to 10 kg||self-fertile, winter-hardy, resistant to powdery mildew|
|Konstantinovskaya||early||medium||8–9 cm||up to 4 kg||self-fertile, winter-hardy, berries are large, unstable to anthracnose|
|Erstling Aus Fierlanden||middle||tall||9–13 cm||up to 18 kg||large berries up to 1.5 cm in diameter, frost-resistant, resistant to anthracnose|
|Yonker van Tets||middle||tall||9–13 cm||up to 6.5 kg||medium self-fertility, frost-resistant, densely leafy, resistant to anthracnose|
|Natalie||middle||tall||7–9 cm||up to 12 kg||self-fertile, frost-resistant, medium resistance to powdery mildew and anthracnose|
|Dutch||late||tall||7-8 cm||up to 5 kg||winter-hardy, resistant to diseases and pests|
|Rondom||late||tall||9–13 cm||up to 15–25 kg||one of the best varieties in Europe, resistant to diseases and pests|
Photo gallery: red currant varieties for Moscow region
- Natalie is a very high-yielding variety that can produce up to 12 kg of berries
- The Early Sweet variety is distinguished by tasty but small berries. Productivity up to 4 kg of berries
- Rachnovskaya currant has a slightly spreading bush, giving up to 5 kg of sweet berries
- Yonker van Tets is a tall and compact bush with high winter hardiness. Gives 6 kg of berries
Photo gallery: red currant varieties for Siberia and the Urals
- Chulkovskaya - a very productive currant, medium-sized berries with a pleasant dessert flavor
- The Dutch variety is a tall, but compact bush with pale pink berries. The taste of berries is dessert
- Variety Beloved - the bush is able to produce up to 12 kg of crop. Very popular due to its winter hardiness and high self-fertility.
- The Ural Lights variety is highly resistant to spring frosts and diseases.
- Variety Ural souvenir has good winter hardiness, delicious berries. Medium spread bush
The main stages of agricultural technology of red currant
Red currants are much less demanding to care than black currants. She begins to bear fruit in the second or third year after planting, increasing yields every year. To maintain the declared varietal yield for many years, you need to regularly feed, water the bush in the especially hot months of summer and remove very old branches.
Planting red currants
For planting red currants, it is advisable to choose a light, protected from cold winds place with fertile soil. However, if in your area in the summer in the sun the thermometer rises to 50 ° C, then plant the currant under the trees at partial shade, preferably from the northeast side, so that the sun illuminates it only until noon.
Soil preparation for planting red currants
Red currants are best planted in loose loamy or sandy loam soils with a neutral reaction. On acidic soils or in wetlands, red currants grow very poorly.
2-3 weeks before planting currants, we begin to prepare a planting pit. In the selected area, we dig a hole with a diameter of 50-60 cm and a depth on the bayonet of a shovel. In places with clay soil, you can dig a hole more so that currants do not lack nutrients.
2 weeks before planting a seedling, a pit is prepared with a diameter of 50 cm and a depth on the bayonet of a shovel
Mix the excavated soil with a bucket of compost (humus), a glass of ash and 200 g of superphosphate. We fall asleep again in the pit and carefully water it to compact the soil.
Planting redcurrant cuttings
If you want to try a new variety, it is better to order planting material with a closed root system - in pots or special packages.
Better to buy cuttings with a closed root system
Local nurseries often grow currants in the open air without pots and sell them with an open root system, so take care of the roots in advance: take a damp rag and bag where you wrap the bottom of the seedling.
The best time to plant red currants in the middle of Russia is the beginning of autumn, literally the first days of September: there is no summer heat, and the cuttings are rooted perfectly. For the southern regions, landing dates are shifted a month later.
Stages of planting red currants:
- Before planting, we soak the roots or a pot of seedlings in water for 1-2 hours.
- In a prepared landing pit, dig a small depression corresponding to the size of the root.
- If red currant grows in a pot of earth, then it is carefully pulled out of the pot without damaging the earthen lump. Roots straighten if they twisted into a spiral.
If in a pot of earth the roots began to grow in a spiral, they must be straightened
- The pot is placed obliquely in the pit, at an angle of 45 degrees to the north, the root neck is buried 5-7 cm below the soil level.
Correct planting of currant cuttings: the root neck is deepened, the handle itself is looking north
- Sprinkle the seedling with soil and watered.
- The trunk circle is mulched with straw or leaves, too long branches are shortened, leaving no more than 25 cm above the ground.
How to save redcurrant seedlings before planting
Sometimes it happens that purchased seedlings come too early in the spring, when there is still snow in the garden and planting in a permanent place is impossible.
Storage of a seedling with an open root system in a warm apartment is simply unacceptable. When it is not possible to place the plant in a cool basement, for example, if the buds have already opened, then you need to take a pot or planter with fertile soil and temporarily plant a seedling there.
Small seedlings obtained in the fall can be stored until spring, without planting in pots, and laying on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. First you need to wrap the roots with a damp cloth, and the trunks with thick paper.
Planting redcurrant seeds
Currants are perfectly propagated by seeds, but very often the descendants do not repeat the qualities of the parent bush, especially if several different varieties of red currant grow on the site, which can be pollinated.
Usually the seeds of ripened berries are simply squeezed out onto the soil, sprinkled with earth. Spring water contributes to the swelling and germination of seeds, and by the end of summer small but strong seedlings grow.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Video: currant from seeds
Friends and foes of red currant
Many gardeners are aware of the compatibility of vegetables and specially select pairs for better fruiting and neighborhood. But not everyone even suspects that among the shrubs and trees there is also mutual love and enmity.
Most often, you can observe the planting of shrubs along the fence, with black and red currants planted nearby. It turns out that gooseberries are the best neighbors for redcurrants, and blackcurrants prefer honeysuckle to their neighbors rather than their red-berry relatives.
Gooseberry is the best neighbor for redcurrant
In addition, all berry bushes love planting tomatoes, marigolds, marigolds, mint and other aromatic herbs in their tree-trunk circle. With their essential oils, they drive away various pests of currants.
In the year of planting, red currant does not need additional top dressing, because a significant amount of humus and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the pit.
In subsequent years, currants should be fed at least 2 times a year: in spring and autumn.
Table: red currant top dressing
|Spring: April - May||Summer: June||Autumn: September - October|
|1 bucket of compost or humus under the bush||1 bucket of compost under the bush in late autumn after the first frost|
In addition to these top dressings, it is very good to mulch the near-trunk circle with straw, grass, hay, leaves and spill every 2 weeks with preparations containing beneficial bacteria (Radiance, Baikal EM-1, East).
Never feed the currant with nitrogen fertilizers at the end of summer - a new growth of shoots will begin, which will not have time to prepare for the winter and freeze.
Photo gallery: preparations for increasing soil fertility
- Shine contains many needed bacteria sown on sawdust
- Baikal EM-1 in liquid form contains a set of beneficial microorganisms
- East EM-1 contains beneficial bacteria
- Granulated horse manure Orgavit is able to feed the plant with potassium and phosphorus
- Biohumus is a great way to increase soil fertility
If it is not possible to use organic matter, then in early spring, when loosening the soil, 10 g of urea per 1 m2 are added, in June - bird manure infusion, and in October - 100 g of superphosphate and 50 g of potassium chloride.
The fruiting of red currant occurs on branches whose age is from 2 to 5 years. But since currants produce several new shoots each spring, on the whole there should be from 20 to 25 branches of different ages on the bush.
The oldest, five-year-old branches are harvested immediately after picking the berries, and in the summer they remove the extra spring branches (growth of this year), leaving 4 or 5 of the healthiest and most powerful branches. In July, tweak the branches to get lateral growth.
Ideally, on a bush of red currant should simultaneously be:
- 4–5 branches of spring growth (annuals);
- 4-5 last year's branches (two-year-olds) with berries;
- 4–5 branches of three years old with berries;
- 4–5 branches of four years of age with berries;
- 4–5 branches of five years old, which are cut immediately after collecting berries from them.
Pruning currant bush is also carried out in spring and autumn. In the spring, you can remove broken or frozen branches, and in the fall - old, diseased or already fruitless. Usually, the shoots of red currants branch little, so they do not shorten it, but cut it to ground level.
How to rejuvenate red currants in spring
If your red currant has not seen the secateurs for a long time and has turned into huge thickets, then the yield on such a bush will be insignificant, and the berries will be small. To correct the situation, you need a cardinal anti-aging pruning, which is usually done in the spring before buds open.
To rejuvenate the plant, all branches are cut flush with the ground.
- First remove the old thick and dark brown branches, cutting them to ground level.
- Remove upwardly growing fattening shoots, leaving sloping.
- Delete horizontally directed lower branches.
- Remove the shoots growing inside the bush.
Redcurrant loves the bush to be blown away by the wind, so regular haircuts are a must.
It is easiest to propagate currants with cuttings or layering - in this case, the young bush will completely repeat the mother plant.
Propagation by cuttings
- At the end of August, when rejuvenating pruning, cut several shoots and cut into pieces 20–25 cm long, remove the leaves.
- Each shoot should have 4–5 kidneys, make the lower cut oblique 0.5–1 cm below the kidney, and the upper one, straight 1 cm above the kidney.
- Each stalk with the lower part dipped in the preparation of Kornevin and planted in the soil in a permanent place or for rooting in a separate bed with loose earth.
- Plant the cuttings at an angle of 45 °, with 2 kidneys immersed in the ground, and the rest should be above the ground.
- When planting on a bed, leave between 15-20 cm between cuttings.
- Pour cuttings and mulch with loose compost, peat or dry earth. Periodically monitor the soil so that it does not dry out.
- By the end of autumn, cuttings usually take root, next spring shoots appear from the buds.
Redcurrant cuttings quickly take root and take root
Propagation by layering
- In the spring, they choose last year’s shoot and bend it to the ground, where a groove 5-8 cm deep is specially dug.
- The shoot is laid so that the crown is above the ground, and the shoot itself is in the groove.
- They pin the shoot to the ground with wire arches and sprinkle with loose soil by 1 cm.
- When sprouts appear from the buds and grow to 10 cm, they are sprinkled with loose soil almost to the upper leaves.
- It is important to keep the soil moist at the layering.
- The soil is added several times during the summer.
- In mid-September, the shoot is cut off from the mother bush and gently dug.
- The branch is cut into pieces according to the number of rooted shoots and planted in a permanent place.
Several shoots can grow from one layering
Red currant treatment for pests and diseases
Plants with high immunity are rarely affected by diseases and pests, so you need to follow the rules of agricultural technology and carry out preventive spraying.
- Plant plants in a ventilated, sunny area.
- Do not thicken the planting, leave 1-2 m between the plants, and the distance to the buildings should be at least 1 m.
- Remove diseased branches or parts of the plant in a timely manner - do not let the disease spread.
- Do anti-aging pruning of the bush for better ventilation.
- For prevention in spring, spray currants with a mixture of drugs: Fitolavin + Farmayod + Fitoverm (1 tbsp. Of each drug diluted in 10 l of water).
- Each week, starting with the appearance of the first leaves, spray the currants with a bio-cocktail: dilute 2 Ecoberin and Healthy Garden granules in 1 liter of water and add 2 drops of liquid HB-101.
Such measures allow you to grow currants without the use of chemicals, since the proposed drugs are biological.
Photo gallery: drugs for the prevention of pests and diseases on red currant
- Phytolavin helps cope with viral diseases
- Farmayod used against bacterial infections
- Fitoverm - biological product from pests
- Ecoberin boosts plant immunity
- A healthy garden helps the plant cope with adverse conditions
- HB-101 - natural growth stimulator and activator of immunity
The bio-cocktail increases the plant's immunity, reduces the negative effects of stress: heat, temperature, wind.
Photo Gallery: Red Currant Pests
- At the moment of flowering, currant butterfly lays eggs in the buds. Emerging caterpillars eat berries
- The main preventive measure for the appearance of glassware is cutting old shoots without leaving stumps
- During the spring summer, the leaflet lays eggs, from which caterpillars then emerge and eat currant leaves. Prevention from butterflies - spray Summer clerk, and from caterpillars - Bitoxibacillin
- Red gall aphids can produce several generations over the summer. Damaged leaves are collected and burned. The plant is sprayed with Karbofos or Fitoverm
If pests have appeared on the currant, then biologics are used: Fitoverm - from ticks and aphids, Bitoxibacillin - from caterpillars. Spraying is carried out 2-3 times with an interval of 4-5 days.
Photo Gallery: Redcurrant Disease
- Anthracnose, as well as spotting, are fungal diseases. Sprinkle currants with copper sulphate every 10 days.
- Terry - a viral disease, requires quick treatment by spraying, in more complex cases, the plant is removed
- Powdery mildew affects too thickened plantings, when it occurs, currants are sprayed every 10 days with a solution of 3% iron sulfate
Growing red currant on a stem
In addition to the standard cultivation of currants with a bush, the standard formation of red currants is often used.
Table: Pros and Cons of Standard Currant Growing
|The benefits of growing currants on the stem||Cons of growing currants on the stem|
|Fruit branches are high above the ground, making picking berries easier||Branches can freeze if the boom is high and the snow cover is low|
|It’s easier to care for the soil under the bush||The bush suffers more from strong winds, may break|
|Currant is less sick because there is no contact of foliage with soil||To maintain the desired shape, it is necessary to regularly trim and process the standard|
|It is easier to protect from pests by installing trap adhesive belts on the stem|
|Currant becomes decorative, decorates the site|
|The vacant space under the stem can be planted with useful herbs|
How to give currants a standard shape
- To get a standard-shaped currant, you need to plant a thick bare annual shoot. When the shoot reaches the desired height of the stem, pinch the top.
The formation of red currants on the stem
- Next year, we remove all lateral shoots and processes along the entire length of the stem, and in August we pinch off the crown shoots.
- In the third year, last year's shoots will give the first crop. Caring for the strain mentioned above. Pinch the tops of the annual shoots in the crown again.
- Fourth year: the currant bears fruit in full force, we cut the old branches after picking the berries, and pinch the young ones.
- Further care for the standard currant remains the same: the removal of root offspring and shoots on the trunk of the stem.
Currants can be grown in a small tree - on the stem. She is very decorative
Growing red currants on a trellis
This is a very unusual way of growing red currants, more used in industry than in personal gardening.
Стена из красной смородины, выращенная на шпалере
Суть метода заключается в том, чтобы выращивать кусты смородины в одной плоскости — вертикальной. При большом объёме посадок получается стена.
Таблица: преимущества и недостатки выращивания смородины на шпалере
|Хорошо опыляется||Дополнительные затраты на установку шпалеры|
|Удобно обрабатывать почву||Затраты на покупку посадочного материала|
|Проще собирать урожай||Дополнительный полив|
Как вырастить смородину на шпалере
- Прежде всего для выращивания смородины на шпалере подбираются высокоурожайные сорта, устойчивые к болезням и вредителям. Ягоды должны быть крупные, товарного вида и хорошего вкуса, урожайность кустов не менее 4 кг.
- Шпалера изготавливается качественно, с выкапыванием ям и заливанием туда цемента со стойками. Крайние опоры должны быть дополнительно укреплены растяжками, а нижние концы опор обрабатываются противогнилостными или антикоррозийными препаратами. Высота столбов 2–2, 5 м, на них через каждые 50 см натягивают проволоку.
- Вдоль шпалеры высаживают двухлетние саженцы смородины на расстоянии 0, 7–1 м друг от друга. Каждый саженец обязательно обрезают, оставляя около 20 см стебля с тремя почками.
Формирование красной смородины на шпалере
- Следующей весной из этих почек получатся мощные побеги, их располагают веером и привязывают к нижней проволоке.
- На следующий год эти ветки оставляют расти вверх, а новые молодые побеги от корня пускают веером и привязывают к шпалере. В конце лета проводят обрезку, укорачивая побеги, тем самым заставляя их ветвиться.
- В последующие годы также продолжают формировать стену, а с 5-летнего возраста куста проводят омолаживающую обрезку, вырезая старые побеги и заменяя их на новые.
Красная смородина на шпалере представляет из себя сплошную стену
Красная смородина — не только полезная ягода, но и настоящее украшение сада. Большое разнообразие сортов по срокам созревания, окрасу ягод и размеру позволит выбрать смородину по душе для любого садовода.