Raspberry Zyugana - a promising repair grade
Raspberry Zyugana is considered one of the most promising repair varieties. With improved characteristics, it surpasses many other varieties in yield, beauty and taste of berries. Sweet, with a slightly noticeable sourness and a real raspberry aroma, they are in demand among buyers, which makes it possible for farmers who grow berries for the market to make good profits. And gardeners are happy to enjoy fresh raspberries from summer to late autumn and make delicious preparations for the winter.
History of Zyugan variety
The first repairing varieties appeared 200 years ago, however, the area of autumn fruiting was insignificant. In the world selection, work was purposefully carried out to create new fruitful forms of the remodeling type, having attractive large berries and well tolerating transportation. In 1999, as a result of crossing raspberries Terri-Louise and Joan Squre, the Swiss company Lubera managed to get a universal variety of Zyugan. Since then, this remont raspberry has been successfully grown both on garden plots and on industrial plantations, not giving way to the leading position of the newly created varieties.
Zyugana - a repairing variety created by Swiss breeders
Zyugana is a repairing raspberry variety that produces crops in the summer and re-fruiting in the late summer, until the frost. However, for regions with rapidly approaching autumn cold, it is more efficient to grow this raspberry with a one-shot return. The second wave of fruiting occurs at the end of the season, when in many regions of Russia and Belarus it is damp and cold. With prolonged precipitation or fruits caught in frost, they become more watery and softer, and it may rot individual drupes. However, it is possible to solve the problem with late return by growing bushes in film greenhouses or by covering them on a trellis with non-woven material.
In a damp, cold climate, it is more advisable to grow Zyugan raspberries indoors
Zyugan variety is best shown in the south of Ukraine: due to heat resistance and drought tolerance, the berries do not bake in the sun without shading (which is very important for commercial cultivation on large plantations) and have time to ripen on annual shoots at the end of the season, since the climate here is mild and warm.
Ripe berries do not crumble, but only darken a little
Raspberries ripen on two-year shoots - the second decade of June, the second harvest starts in mid-August and lasts until late autumn. Gardeners and farmers recognize the variety as very promising because of the consistently high yield - from one bush per season you can collect up to 9 kg and excellent taste of the fruit.
Gardeners appreciate the Zyugan variety for beautiful fruits and high yields
Characteristics of Zyugan Raspberries
The bushes are strong, compact, 60–70 cm wide, 1.5–1.7 m high, can grow up to 1.9 m. They are distinguished by good survival rate, and multiply rapidly. Powerful vertically growing branches do not bend under the weight of the crop and can be grown without additional support. Shoots are low-prickly, branch very well, form 250-300 fruit ovaries. Large leaves of bright green color are slightly wrinkled.
Zyugan raspberry bushes are strong, tall, all covered with berries
Fruits of a rounded elongated shape, bright red with a raspberry tint, shiny, large, with an average weight of 5–7 g, subject to agricultural technology, can reach 12 g. The pulp is juicy, with a bright aroma, sweet with a slightly noticeable acidity, successfully emphasizing the rich taste gamut. It is inferior to Polka in the amount of sugars, but has a more saturated, refreshing taste. Ripe berries do not crumble from branches, are more dense in structure than Polka's, and tolerate transportation well.
The shape of Zyugana berries is round-elongated, the color is bright red with a raspberry tint
Variety of universal purpose, used for fresh consumption, freezing, making jam, stewed fruit, jelly. It is notable for its good keeping quality - it does not lose its commercial qualities within 4 days, and berries can be stored in the refrigerator for a week. Raspberry tolerates winter cold well, however, with severe frosts (over -300 ° C) it is advisable to warm the bushes with agrofibre.
Large berries with dense pulp are well stored after picking.
Zyugan today is considered one of the most promising repair varieties, but it also has its drawbacks. Among the minuses, late ripening in autumn can be noted. Therefore, in the northern regions it is more efficient to grow it as an annual crop, cutting off all shoots for the winter. Also, in a variety in a damp, cold climate, a reduced resistance to root rot is observed.
Video: Raspberry Zyugana - repair variety-timer
In order for Zyugan to reach her full potential, it is necessary to create the most favorable conditions for her.
The best place for raspberry
For good growth and ripening, the berry needs a lot of light throughout the day. It is advisable to choose a sunny place, protected from the north by a fence, buildings, fruit trees, but raspberry bushes should not be in the shade. When choosing a place, it is also necessary to take into account the location of groundwater - raspberries can disappear in moist lowlands.
The best place for raspberries is well-lit, closed from the winds by a fence
The culture prefers to grow on fertile loose soil with a neutral level of acidity. In an acidic environment, plants are deficient in nitrogen, which leads to poor development of the root system, which is unable to provide plants with the necessary nutrition and moisture. To alkalize the soil during digging, lime (500 g / m2) is added. The best soil for raspberries is sandy loam and loamy. Sites with sandy light soil are also suitable, but it will require the introduction of increased doses of fertilizers and regular heavy irrigation.
It should be remembered that raspberries cannot tolerate shading and prefers to grow on loose fertile soil.
When choosing a place for a raspberry, the author of these lines necessarily takes into account previous cultures. Raspberries grow well after beans, pumpkins, zucchini, siderates (phacelia, mustard, lupine). But after eggplant, tomatoes, potatoes and strawberries, it is better not to grow it. After 8 years, the bushes are transplanted to a new site, since the useful properties of the soil are depleted over time.
The compatibility of raspberries with other crops must also be considered. Near the berry can be broken beds with carrots, cucumbers, garlic, planted bushes of red currant, blackberry. Undesirable neighborhood with sea buckthorn, jasmine, grapes.
Raspberries get along well next to a blackberry
But planting nearby fragrant plants - red elderberries, marigolds, garlic can protect raspberry bushes from pests. Their strong smell, spreading in the air, scares away many harmful insects.
Raspberries are planted with an open root system at the beginning and at the end of the season. Spring planting must be completed before the buds open. Seedlings manage to take root and form a crop. However, they spend maximum effort on the restoration and development of the root system, the growth of shoots is not so intense and the harvest is not too generous.
Raspberry planting dates depend on weather and climate conditions and the availability of planting material
The most favorable time for planting remontant raspberries is autumn. During the autumn planting, carried out 3-4 weeks before the first freezing, the plants will have time to take root, settle down in a new place and begin to actively develop with the onset of spring. Seedlings with a closed root system can be planted by transshipment to the site all season.
How to choose seedlings
It is very important to acquire healthy planting material. Therefore, first of all, it is necessary to carefully consider the root system of the seedling. It should be fibrous, with a large number of branches, not have signs of rot or growths. Shoots should not be dry, flexible, about 1 cm thick and not too long. The smaller the size of the seedling, the easier and faster it will take root. Tall plants, after planting in the first year, will spend all their resources on the further growth of stems, and not on the development of roots.
Seedlings should have a branched root system without signs of disease
A seedling with a closed root system must be removed from the container to make sure that the lump of the substrate does not crumble and sprouted with roots. The survival rate of such plants is 100%, when transplanted, their growth does not slow down.
Seedlings with a closed root system have a 100% survival rate
Quality varietal seedlings can be purchased in nurseries and garden stores. The widest choice usually happens after the end of the season, when it is too late to land. For storage, raspberry bushes are laid in a prikop made in a quiet corner of the garden. To do this, prepare a trench with a depth of about 15 cm, making one side at an angle. Branches, freed from leaves, are laid on it, they are covered with earth for 2 \ 3 lengths and densified well so that the cold wind does not penetrate the roots. Topped spruce branches. Under a layer of snow, plants will not suffer from winter cold, and prickly spruce branches will protect them from rodents.
In prikop raspberry seedlings will be well preserved until spring
After digging and cleaning weeds, the area under the raspberry is seasoned with organic matter (20 kg of humus) and mineral fertilizers (60 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium salt). On infertile, humus-poor heavy soils, it is useful to use AgroProst biofertilizer (12 kg \ m2), which increases the biological activity of the soil and makes it more loose. For alkalization, lime (500 g / m2) is added to strongly acidic soil.
Land for planting raspberries is seasoned with humus and mineral fertilizers
In small areas, planting is usually carried out by the bush method, on large plantations it is more convenient to grow raspberries by the tape method. Under single bushes, dig holes 60x45 cm, placing them at a distance of 1 m from each other. For industrial landings, trenches with a depth of 45 cm are prepared, leaving a distance of at least 1.5 m between the rows.
With a linear landing, trenches are prepared with a depth of 45 cm
Before planting, the roots of the seedlings are dipped in a solution of heteroauxin - a growth activator, and to prevent the development of root rot, add Trichodermin (1 g \ 1 l).
- Fertile soil is poured into the pit or trench with a knoll.
- A bush is placed in the center of the pit, seedlings are placed in trenches at intervals of 70 cm.
The seedling is placed vertically in the planting pit.
- Spread the roots in different directions. A seedling from the packaging is planted with a lump of earth.
- Sprinkle plants, leaving the root neck open. Compact the soil in the root zone.
Sprinkle the sapling with earth, leaving the root neck open
- Around the bush form a watering hole and pour half a bucket of water into it.
After planting, seedlings are watered well
- Shoots are shortened to 25-30 cm.
- Mulch the soil with a layer of hay, straw or humus.
If planting is carried out at the beginning of the season, young plants need to be covered in the first days with non-woven light material to protect them from the active spring sun.
Video: proper planting of repair raspberries in 2017
Agrotechnics Raspberries Zyugan
Repair raspberries are more demanding on food and moisture. Only regularly watering and feeding berry bushes, you can count on a generous harvest.
Watering and loosening
The drought-resistant variety of Zyugan tolerates the hot climate of southern Russia, the berries do not bake in the sun, but will be much juicier with heavy irrigation. Once a week, and with a prolonged absence of rainfall and more often you should water the bushes (the norm is a bucket per plant), moistening the soil to a depth of 40 cm.
The soil under raspberry bushes needs to be wetted to a depth of 40 cm, where the main roots are
Given the susceptibility of the variety to diseases of the root system, waterlogging during spring floods and stagnation of water in the rainy season should be avoided. In autumn, if the weather is dry, on the eve of frost, the bushes are abundantly watered (20 l / plant).
Summer residents usually moisten raspberries through grooves laid in the aisles or made around individual bushes. Water is introduced into the grooves with a depth of 10 cm, and after absorbing moisture, they are closed. In extreme heat, it is more efficient to use the sprinkler method, in which water from a hose with a spray gun or from sprinklers under high pressure is sprayed over the bush. At the same time, leaves, branches, soil are well wetted and the air is moistened. But during the ripening period of the berries, so that they do not get sour, this method of watering is not used.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When sprinkling, water is sprayed over the bushes, moistening the branches with leaves, soil and air
Any watering should be carried out not in the sultry noon, but in the morning or evening hours, in order to reduce the evaporation of moisture and to avoid burns of leaves under the scorching sun.
In the industrial cultivation of raspberries, a drip irrigation system is used. Pipes with droppers are stretched along rows along the ground, through which water enters the plants. Such irrigation is fully automated and allows you to constantly maintain the desired soil moisture.
Drop watering is carried out using pipes laid along the rows of raspberries.
After watering or rain, it is necessary to loosen the earth around the bush to a depth of 7 cm, trying not to touch the roots, in the row-spacing deeper, by 10-12 cm. Mulching with hay and straw will help to maintain moisture in the soil. As a mulch, biohumus AgroProst can also be used, spending 5 l of the mixture on a bush.
Mulching raspberries with organic materials helps preserve moisture in the soil
Full Raspberry Nutrition
In order for berry bushes to bring abundant harvests for many years, it is necessary to take care of good nutrition. Experienced gardeners in the appearance of plants can determine the deficiency of trace elements and quickly eliminate the cause, feeding them with the necessary fertilizers. Leaflets appearing in spring do not increase in size, turn yellow, shoots grow slowly - signs of nitrogen starvation. With a lack of potassium, the leaves curl, become brown along the edges, as if burnt. With a lack of iron, the leaf plate turns yellow, and the veins remain green.
Nitrogen starvation can lead to the development of chlorosis
At the beginning of the season, for intensive shoot growth, raspberries should be fed with nitrogen fertilizers. As soon as the snow melts, ammonium nitrate (40 g \ m2) or urea (30 g \ m2) is scattered around the bushes and abundant watering is carried out. Instead of the mineral composition, you can use organics - a solution of mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20) with a calculation of 200 ml per plant. After nitrogen fertilizers acidifying the soil, it is necessary to sprinkle the root zone of the bush with 200 g of ash.
Urea is used at the beginning of the growing season
Repair raspberries are too sensitive to chlorine, so fertilizers that do not contain a component harmful to it should be selected for it.
During the formation of ovaries, the need for raspberries in phosphorus and potassium increases. Ideal nutrient solution (30 ml \ 10 l) is added under the bushes or granules of superphosphate (60 g \ m2) and potassium sulfate powder (30 g) are scattered in the rows. To enrich plants with minerals, top dressing is carried out on a sheet with a solution of Crystal (20 ml \ 10 l), Berries (20 g \ 10 l). After fruiting, the bushes need to quickly regain strength in order to prepare for the next season. In the fall, a mixture of granular superphosphate (40 g / m2) and potassium sulfate (20 g) is added for digging.
Complex fertilizer Berry contains all the necessary trace elements raspberries
To increase soil fertility, I use green manure. In June, sowing mustard, blue lupine in the aisles, and in late autumn, when digging, I mix green mass with the ground. During the winter, it rots, enriching the soil with nutrients.
Siderata mow at the end of the season and close up in the soil between the rows of raspberry
An excellent organic nourishment for raspberries is infusions of herbs (nettle, dandelion), a decoction of onion husks, bread kvass. The concentrated nutrient liquid is diluted with water (1:10) and used once a month with watering.
Video: the first ovary of repair raspberries + nutrition and protection !!!
Trellis for berry bushes
So that the bush does not fall apart and the branches loaded with the crop do not lean towards the ground, Zyugan raspberries should be grown with a garter to the support. For this variety, it is recommended to install a two-row trellis with a height of 2 m. Columns are dug along a row at a distance of 3 m from each other and a wire is pulled at a height of 60 cm and 1 m 40 cm, on which branches are fixed. With the trellis method of growing, optimal conditions are created for the bushes: they are well ventilated, receive the necessary amount of light and heat, and assembly work is facilitated.
When grown on a trellis, the most favorable conditions for remont raspberries are created
For single bushes, you can use the cola or fan garter method. In the first case, a stake is set in the center of the bush to which the branches are tied. However, the shoots collected in bunches are illuminated unevenly, because of crowding, there is a risk of developing diseases, the berries inside the bush develop and ripen more slowly. Therefore, the most acceptable fan garter, in which the supports are installed in the row-spacing, and some branches of one bush and part of the shoots of the other are fixed to each stake.
When the fan formation of the bush, the support is installed in the aisle and only part of the branches of one plant and part of the other are attached to it
Pruning remontant raspberries, giving a double crop per season, has its own characteristics. In the autumn, after harvesting, cut-off branches are cut and at the same time rationing of annual shoots is carried out, removing thin and weak-growing ones. 7–10 most powerful branches are left in the bush. In spring, immediately after the snow melts, the overwintered bush is carefully examined, frozen, broken shoots are cut out with a sharp pruner, the frozen parts of the branches are removed and the cuts are dusted with wood ash.
When planning to get the crop twice in the next season, in the autumn only the shoots that shoot away are removed
When the bush reaches a height of 90-100 cm, you can remove the tops of the shoots, which stimulates branching and the formation of more ovaries. At the same time, the deadlines for autumn fees are slightly postponed, which is undesirable for many regions. However, pinching is not necessary, since Zyugan and without removing the growth point gives a large number of side branches.
If raspberries are grown as an annual crop, all shoots are completely cut off near the ground, leaving no plant debris in which pests can winter.
Growing remont raspberries as an annual crop, all branches completely cut at the end of the season
Video: how to trim repair raspberries
When breeding raspberries, the seed method is rarely used, it is easily propagated vegetatively. Root offsprings that can be dug up and used as seedlings take root well. They are separated from the uterine bush and transplanted with the ground.
The most productive method of propagation is cuttings. In autumn, root cuttings are harvested, cutting rhizomes into parts 10-15 cm long, and they are planted in grooves to a depth of 3 cm. After moistening and mulching, the plantings are covered with spruce branches, released in the spring from branches and covered with a film until green sprouts appear. Young shoots regularly moisturize and feed, and by autumn, powerful seedlings grow, which are transplanted to the prepared site.
Root cuttings are first planted in a greenhouse
It is easy to propagate the favorite variety with the help of stem cuttings. In June, young shoots are cut off, rising 5 cm above the ground, and after dusting the lower oblique cut with Kornevin powder, they are planted in a greenhouse. Green cuttings need to be regularly moistened, aired, and after 2 weeks they will have roots. Care for them is carried out the same as for adult plants, while reducing the amount of water and fertilizing. By autumn, plants are ready for transplanting in raspberries.
Raspberry cuttings root in 2 weeks
Lumber cuttings are harvested in the fall and stored all winter in wet sawdust. With the onset of spring, they are planted on a seedling bed and subsequently grown in the same way as green cuttings.
How to protect raspberries from frost
With good frost resistance, Zyugan raspberries can withstand a significant drop in temperature. In the southern regions, it will be enough after pruning and pre-winter watering to mulch the basal zone with humus, and in winter to throw snow to the bushes. But in severe frosts above + 300С, especially in light snowy winters, shoots can freeze. Therefore, in the northern regions additional insulation will be required. Tied shoots in bunches are tilted to the ground and covered with agrofibre. With the advent of spring and melting snow, the bushes are freed from shelter and tied to a support.
Sheltered raspberries will painlessly endure frosts even in snowy winters
Disease and Pest Prevention
Zyugan's remontant raspberry has good immunity, rarely is wormy. However, a cold, damp climate can reduce resistance to root rot, and severe drought can lead to a massive spread of pests. To prevent an outbreak of diseases, it is necessary to use healthy seedlings and not to forget about preventive treatments for raspberry.
Table: Raspberry Disease
|Root rot||The development of the disease contributes to stagnation of water in the soil, planting raspberries in lowlands with close occurrence of groundwater. Infected plants become weak, stunted and particularly susceptible to winter injury. Dark spots appear on the stems, the color of the leaves changes, acquiring a reddish tint, new shoots do not form. The underground part of the root neck and roots become brown in color and rot over time.|
|Root cancer||The source of infection are bacteria in the soil or on seedlings. Pathogenic organisms are especially active in dry, hot weather, affecting the root system and the lower part of the stem. Bumpy growths appear on the roots, diseased plants give a weak growth, the berries are smaller, their taste is deteriorating.|
|Powdery mildew||Летняя жара при повышенном уровне влажности может стать причиной активности грибных спор — возбудителей болезни. На листьях образуется беловатый налёт, замедляется рост побегов, заражённые соцветия не образуют завязей.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Raspberry Disease
- При развитии корневой гнили на стеблях в прикорневой зоне появляются тёмные пятна
- У растений, поражённых корневым раком, на корнях образуются наросты
- Характерный признак мучнистой росы — появление светлого налёта на листьях
Table: The main raspberry pests
|Chafer||Массовый лёт жуков приходится на период цветения малины. Взрослые особи повреждают бутоны, в результате не образуются завязи. Прожорливые личинки грызут корни кустов, что часто вызывает гибель молодых растений.||Весной опрыскать почву и кусты раствором Немабакта (1:100), Антихруща (20 мл\10 л).|
|Raspberry moth||Вредитель уходит на зимовку, спрятавшись в опавших листьях и прошлогодних стеблях. Ранней весной гусеницы нападают на набухающие почки, что приводит к слабому росту побегов, снижению урожайности.|
|Aphid||In warm, dry weather on raspberry bushes you can see whole colonies of aphids that feed on juices of young herbs. Leaves and shoots fade, buds dry out, fruit ovaries do not form.|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Pests
- Chafer beetle appears on raspberries during flowering, damaging the buds
- Raspberry moth flies out at the beginning of raspberry flowering and lays eggs inside the flowers, from which gluttonous caterpillars hatch
- Aphid colonies cling to young shoots and leaves and suck juices out of them
The natural weapon against aphids is a ladybug, which can destroy up to 50 parasites in a day. But the main pest exterminators are its larvae, which clean the garden of 800 insects over the entire cycle of their development. To attract ladybugs near the raspberry, I plant daisies, yarrow, and once a week I spray garden plants with sweetened water.
Ladybug per season can destroy up to 4, 000 aphids
Advantages: large berry, does not burn in the sun, the bush does not fall, is not picky, reproduces well. Disadvantages: rather prickly (small spikes) Zyugan is a remont raspberry variety (fruiting on young shoots from August to frost). I grow this variety for 3 years, I got uterine roots from Poland. The berry is quite large (the first fruiting and the last berries weighing up to 10 g), with an average bone. It is inferior in taste to summer varieties (less sweet and aromatic), but at the same time the taste is quite rich, not cloying. Ripens quite actively, the ripe berry does not crumble (it easily stands up to 5 days, even in rain and wind). Raspberries are very picky, do not require garter and frequent watering. The variety showed excellent performance on two-time fruiting, but with this cultivation it requires more attention (removal of prolific shoots, top dressing, treatment from pests). Real productivity - 120 kg per 1 hundredth. Great for a summer cottage!Fermera
This is my Zyugan this year. Planted in the autumn with thin twigs, with a diameter of 3-5 mm. But the roots were not bad, with the beginnings of shoots. Almost all took root. The growth was good, it was waved at 2 m. The first berries were, in my opinion, weighing more than 5 g. Unfortunately, I could not take the first berries, in the photo there are 2 berries of the middle fruiting. The first ones were much larger. In the photo there is 1 bush at the beginning of fruiting. The taste is good, the portability is excellent. Judging by the number of plows - productivity should be at an altitude. In general, I liked the variety.Oleg Saveyko
My Zyugan proved to be good this year. The berry is larger than the Shelf, but not so sweet. Regarding the fact that it is erect, I will say that with the strong wind of 2011, the entire Regiment lay down, and Zyugan and Phenomen remained standing (more or less), at least got up a day later. It was a spring landing.Sortosad
Great variety. Pleases really high productivity and high taste. Conducted an experiment. He put Zyugana in a package from under Spanish strawberries and put it in the refrigerator. After 6 days I took it out, the berry seemed to be only from the bush!Tezier
Slightly began to deteriorate the taste of Zyugana. Before that, it was sweeter than summer. Continues to bloom en masse, I do not have time to prune. A week I did not pick berries, it rained. On the Brusilovskaya and Khanty-Mansiysky Khanty-Mansiyskiye some berries lay fallen on the ground - not a single one on Zyugan. After a week of storage in the refrigerator, I don’t know how the market is, but personally I didn’t notice much difference with just the torn one. I have to tie it up: the lower laterals grow huge. Sometimes you will not immediately understand that this is not the main branch. So they have to be tied up so that they do not lie on the ground.Arsenal
Changed the other day Zyuganu. Powerful root, multiplies well by root buds, gives a lot of shoots of substitution. From the 1st bush, planted in the spring, in the fall to 10 shoots of substitution + a lot of planted root buds.Vladimir-76
Raspberries Zyugan has a powerful root system
The universal variety of Zyugan raspberries gives a stable crop, is famous for its productivity and bright dessert taste of fruits. Gardeners are attracted by the opportunity to feast on fragrant berries until the frost, farmers appreciate the variety for its resistance to extreme weather conditions, the ability to maintain its presentation in transit and excellent taste. However, in regions with high humidity and early autumn cooling, this raspberry is best grown as an annual crop.