Raspberry planting: consider all options
Everyone loves juicy and sweet raspberries. The berry grows in almost every garden. And the varieties of this yummy can not be counted. But for raspberries to be able to show their full potential, it needs to be planted correctly. Regardless of the variety, there are several planting methods that differ from each other. Each of them can be applied in one or another region of the country. In addition, the correctly chosen method will help to successfully place bushes even in the smallest garden.
Raspberry planting dates
Before you get your favorite raspberry variety, you need to choose the right timing for planting - not planted bushes on time can upset poor growth and lack of harvest. Everything is simple here. We determine the landing dates based on the climatic characteristics of the region.
- in central Russia, you can plant in the spring and autumn. The weather in these seasons does not skimp on rains, and the temperature completely allows the seedling to take root quickly. But experienced gardeners still prefer autumn planting;
- a feature of the southern regions is warm and mild autumn, and when it also rains, you simply can’t think of a better combination for planting. From late September through October, you can plant crops. Spring is not very suitable, as this season is often hot and dry;
- but in cold regions, spring planting is the only way out. After all, autumn in such areas is cold and fleeting. Raspberries simply do not have enough time to root. But the spring is long, with rainfall, which gives the seedling a lot of time for successful adaptation.
But for seedlings with a closed root system, these rules do not apply. The planting period of such a plant lasts a long time - from March to November.
Raspberry seedlings grown in a container can be planted at any time during the growing season.
Choose a place
In one place, raspberries grow and bear fruit for a long time. Therefore, choose the most convenient place for the plant.
- the site should be as light as possible. The abundance of the sun will benefit the quality and quantity of berries. Many varieties of raspberries feel great in light partial shade, especially in the afternoon;
- raspberries need to be protected from the wind prevailing in the winter. In the blown areas, the plant dries quickly. It is desirable that from the north the raspberry was securely covered. That is why raspberries are often planted along fences, behind buildings or under the cover of dense ornamental bushes;
Sunny, windproof places really like raspberries
- the culture prefers humus-rich soils, with a loose structure and permeable. Loams are considered most suitable. Sandstones are also considered suitable, but require the addition of more nutrients and moisture;
- subsurface water on the site should not reach closer than 1.2 - 1.5 m to the soil surface;
- so that raspberry bushes are evenly lit by sunlight, they are planted from north to south.
It is not recommended to plant raspberries on slopes or hills - the plant will suffer from a lack of moisture. In acid and clay soils, raspberries will not grow.
Neighbors in the site
Gardeners have long noticed that some cultures develop normally side by side, and some oppress each other. So, raspberries will not mind if fruit trees share the neighborhood:
- Apple tree;
The apple tree is considered the kindest neighbor for raspberries.
Currants and blackberries also do not interfere with the development of culture, if they are located at some distance. Not far from the raspberry, you can even plant a rose garden or plant a barberry. Dill will help attract pollinators.
And there are plants that scare away insects from raspberries:
- marigold in raspberries will be an excellent prevention against raspberries.
But there are also unwanted neighbors:
- Cherry depresses raspberries and reduces its productivity;
- strawberries can become a source of disease;
- laying raspberries on the site of growing potatoes and tomatoes is not recommended, as well as the close proximity to grapes and corn.
With regard to garlic, opinions differ. Some consider this plant a bad neighbor for raspberries. But there are voices in support of garlic, because its phytoncides do not like many insects.
Garlic planted around the perimeter of raspberries will scare away pests
The plant, which is considered to be a weed - a taupe, inhibits the growth of the subsidiary roots of raspberries. But at the same time, it helps to keep the soil in raspberries rainy.
Roots with powerful roots restrain raspberries
To prevent raspberries from spreading over the site, you need to plant a sorrel along the perimeter of the raspberry. The advantages of such a neighborhood are obvious.
- Firstly, sorrel is perennial, and it will not need to be sown every year.
- Secondly, it will serve in an aesthetic plan, because the sorrel looks much more beautiful than a piece of slate dug in the ground.
2 - 3 rows of sorrel along the perimeter of the raspberry will preserve its borders
The choice of seedlings and methods of storage until planting
Raspberry seedlings are best purchased in the fall. If you decide to experiment with varieties, then it is during this period that you can see how the berries look and even taste them.
- for planting, choose a 1-year-old seedling with a well-developed root system;
- it is desirable that the plant has 2 to 3 shoots;
- at the base of the shoot must be at least 3 growth buds;
- the bark and root should not have any signs of damage or disease.
A powerful root system is the key to the early survival of raspberries
The focus is on packaging. It is important. After all, the roots of raspberries should be in a wet state until planting.
If you can’t plant a seedling at once, then there are several ways to save the plant before planting.
- Robust store packaging contains wet sawdust. In this state, the seedling can calmly withstand from a week to 10 days. But you need to store it in the coolest room, for example, a balcony overlooking the north or the basement.
Proprietary packaging reliably protects raspberry roots from overdrying
- If the root system is open, then the seedling is best planted immediately in a temporary container - a 5-liter pot, and also put in a cool place. The filler is sand, which is periodically moistened. At temperatures from 0 to 7 ° C, the seedling can be stored until spring.
- If the seedling is dug together with a lump of earth, then it is better to put such a plant in a plastic bag and moisten the soil. In this form, raspberries will last a week.
A plastic bag will retain moisture in the raspberry roots until next weekend
- If seedlings are purchased in the fall, but want to plant in the spring, then the most reliable storage is in the prikop. Choose a site that is not blown by winds and is not flooded. Dig a trench, place a raspberry seedling at an angle of 30 ° in it at an angle, and sprinkle 1/3 of the soil. In the absence of snow cover for additional warming, you can use spruce branches.
Rules for planting raspberries
As already mentioned, raspberries prefer nutritious soils. Therefore, pre-planting preparation of the site must be carried out.
If you want to have a guaranteed crop, take your time planting raspberries, take 2 years to prepare the selected site. Yes, you were not mistaken. It takes so much to give the soil time to relax and increase its fertility. But after planting, raspberries will be able to demonstrate their full potential and will bear fruit for 10 to 12 years.
On prepared soils, the raspberry crop will surprise with generosity from year to year.
- For a year, legumes can be grown on the site; they will enrich the soil with nitrogen. The next year, the site should be deeply dug up, choosing the roots of perennials, and sow with green manure - cereals, mustard, clover or cruciferous. Without letting the herbs bloom, you need to mow them. Digging a site with plant debris should be carried out 2 to 3 months before planting. Siderata will not only enrich the soil with nutrients, but also improve its structure, make it more loose. Also on 1 ha of soil make:
- 160 - 200 kg of phosphorus fertilizers;
- 90 - 100 kg of potash fertilizers.
- You can just hold the ground under black steam without planting anything on it. Then on 1 ha you need to make:
- 35 tons of raw manure;
- 90 - 120 kg of phosphorus-containing fertilizers;
- 60 - 90 kg of potash fertilizers.
2 weeks before planting, soil cultivation is carried out, during which the final destruction of weeds occurs, loosening and leveling of the soil.
Siderats not only fill the soil with microelements, but also improve its structure
Methods and schemes for planting raspberries
There are several ways to plant raspberries.
Ribbon or single row
To plant raspberries in this way, you have to work hard. Nevertheless, the tape method is considered the most popular.
- Dig a so-called tape, that is, a ditch 40 to 50 cm wide and at least 40 cm deep. The length can be arbitrary.
The width of the trench should be about 50 cm, but the length can be arbitrary
- Add fertilizer and mix well with the soil. For 1 m² you will need: 3 kg of rotted manure; 30 g of superphosphate; 20 g of potassium salt.
- Plant raspberry bushes from each other at a distance of 45 to 60 cm. Aisles of at least 1.5 - 2 m wide. When determining the pattern, be sure to consider the height by which the variety can grow. For tall bushes, distances should be maximum.
- Plant raspberries so that the roots are placed vertically, without creases. If the root system has grown too much, it is shortened.
During planting, make sure that the raspberries do not bend
- Fill the root system with soil, carefully water the bushes and tamp.
- After planting, plants located in a straight line form a beautiful, even line.
The tape method is most often used when laying large plantations, as it allows the use of mechanisms in the care process.
In addition to the single-row method, there is a two-row. The essence of the method is the same as described above, but the bushes are planted in a tape not in one, but in 2 rows. Landing scheme is as follows:
- the rows in the tape are located at a distance of 40 - 50 cm or 80 cm from each other (given the tallness and the ability to shoot formation);
- bushes are planted every 40 to 50 cm.
Double row landing saves space
A two-row landing is suitable for small areas, as it saves space.
This is a kind of tape method. But its feature is a nourishing pillow laid at the bottom of the trench. Thanks to her, raspberries receive the necessary nutrients for a long time. In addition, decaying plant debris additionally warms the bushes.
- Dig a trench of arbitrary length, a width of 40 - 50 cm and a depth of 60 - 70 cm.
- If the soil is heavy clay, first lay a layer of gravel and sand with a height of 10 - 15 cm. Then plant residues are laid. The first layer is best laid branches. The second layer will be fallen leaves, hay and a small amount of green mass. So that the layers evenly “mature”, you can shift them with a layer of sawdust or fertile soil. It should be recalled that only healthy trees and shrubs should serve as the supplier of the plant base.
Thick branches are used as long-term decomposing organics.
- A layer of plant debris should be shed well with water. From above you can lay prepared soil mix from fertile soil, mineral and organic fertilizers.
Plant debris is watered so that they begin to overwhelm
Whatever type of planting you use, enclose the edges of the planting with slate or boards dug into the ground to a depth of 50 cm. This will prevent raspberries from escaping and spreading around the site.
Pitted, or bush
This method allows you to get the maximum yield.
- Dig a hole with a size of 35/40 cm. The distance between the planting pits should be up to 60 cm, and in the row spacing up to 1 m.
- Fill the hole with a mixture of mineral fertilizers and organics. To prevent tender raspberry roots from getting burned, sprinkle a 10-centimeter layer of fertile soil on top.
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- Bushes are planted, spreading the roots, fall asleep with soil, watered and compacted.
After planting, you need to ensure that each plant forms an independent bush. This is easy to achieve with a black film or a thick layer of mulch.
The bush method is used in regions with a humid climate. Thick plantings do not prevent the airing of the bush, which reduces the risk of disease.
If there are few seedlings, use a patched planting
Pits with a diameter of 80 cm and a depth of up to 40 cm are dug for this method. One such pit can accommodate up to 6 raspberry bushes planted over an equal distance. Such nests can be placed in rows or singly. The nesting raspberry is formed around the support driven into the ground. The shoots are tied at a height of 1.2 - 1.5 m. The result is a structure in the form of a sheaf. The disadvantage of this method is that the middle of the planting can be very thickened, and during the rainy season this will cause the berries to rot.
Raspberry planted in a nesting manner during the growing season resembles a sheaf
In the form of a curtain
This method is most often used in regions with harsh climates. Natural thickets help plants survive in difficult conditions. The essence of the method is that raspberries grow as in nature, with minimal care. When planting, they do not adhere to any schemes; local acclimatized low varieties are planted. For landing choose protected from the wind and sunny places.
The raspberry is formed naturally due to substitution shoots and the resulting offspring, gradually filling the allotted space. A few years later, a curtain forms, a group consisting of bushes of different ages. Every 3 to 4 years, when productivity decreases or raspberries begin to hurt, all the stems are cut. The new curtain is recreated by growing young shoots.
Raspberries grown in curtains need minimal care
The appearance of the curtain is not very attractive, but on the other hand, plantings are low-cost, and fruiting occurs annually in them.
When growing raspberries, it is very convenient to use trellises. This type of support greatly facilitates the care, especially for tall raspberries. Thanks to the trellis, long shoots do not break from the wind and do not bend under the weight of the crop, and ripening berries will receive the maximum amount of sun and will be clean even after rain. Trellis options may vary.
It holds raspberry shoots during the growing season with a wire or twine (this option is used less often). It consists of 2 or several, depending on the length of the row, vertically driven supports, between which the wire is stretched. As a support, metal pipes of small diameter, a wooden stake, etc. are used.
The one-sided trellis is a simple construction for the sapphire, which makes raspberry care easier
The only design difference is the method of dressing the bushes:
- fan - shoots are fixed in fan order, which is very convenient when growing repairing varieties with long branches;
This type of garter resembles an open fan.
- vertical flat - the most common type, raspberry shoots on it are attached in a strictly vertical direction;
- free - each raspberry shoot is fixed to the structure separately;
This method takes a lot of time, since each shoot is attached separately
- horizontal - a type of fastening that is used in the preparation of raspberries for winter.
This trellis allows you to warm raspberries in the winter
A single-lane trellis is perfect for tape planting with few bushes.
This type of design allows you to breed shoots, reducing planting density. Due to this, raspberries are less likely to get sick, productivity increases, and harvesting is simplified. The support is a base and two parallel tensioned wires that can be fixed at one or several levels. The lower level is suitable for young shoots, the upper ones support the adult branches.
Two-lane trellis allows you to fix both young shoots and adults
Depending on the type of base, 3 types of construction are distinguished.
- T-shaped - the base is installed in an upright position. A horizontal carrier is mounted on top. As a rule, they make 2 levels of horizontal mounts. A wire or twine is tied to their ends. Bushes planted in a row are staggered to the opposite edges of the trellis. Thus, the middle of the structure becomes free.
T-trellis can have one horizontal mount
- V-shaped - 2 supports of this design are installed at a slight inclination of 60 °. Raspberries planted between the supports are fixed on different sides. It is easy to make such a support, but it has one drawback - over time, the support can deviate more, since it is affected by the mass of the overgrown bush.
V-shaped trellis can change the angle of inclination over time
- Y-shaped - this type of design is best bought in a store or made to order. The essence of the design is that the bearing blades are fixed on hinges, helping to change the angle of inclination of the support as necessary, making it higher or lower. It is difficult to make a Y-shaped support on your own.
Y-shaped support - a complex structure, the implementation of which is best entrusted to a professional
Step by step trellis creation
At the beginning of the process, you need to decide what kind of structure you want to do. As the base, steel reinforcement, pipes of small diameter or wooden poles with a diameter of at least 10 cm are used. A wire, reinforced twine or twine is fixed between the posts.
- Wooden parts of the structure must be treated with a special composition that will protect against rapid rotting in the soil. Iron structures are covered with corrosion protection.
So that the metal structure does not suffer from rust, it is coated with a protective paint
- Designate places where the bases will be installed. The distance between them should be the same.
- To establish the base, using a drill, you need to dig holes - 50 cm for a wooden support, from 60 to 80 cm for iron (the depth depends on the massiveness of the structure). After installation, the recesses are covered with soil and well compacted.
Using a shovel, you can also dig a recess
- Then pull the wire. The bottom row is mounted at a level of 50 cm from the ground. The second - after 30 cm. The next - at an arbitrary height, given the growth characteristics of raspberries.
For fixing the wire, a different type of fastening is used.
This type of trellis is most convenient in the case when it comes to autumn mowing remont raspberries in a large area. So that the trellis does not interfere with the procedure, install temporary trellises. This type of design can be performed independently:
- dig holes up to 80 cm deep;
- cuttings of pipes (plastic or metal) are inserted into them;
So that the scrap of a metal pipe does not rust very much, it must be installed on the drainage layer
- the diameter of the digged-in pipes should be slightly larger than the inserted supports;
- then the trellises themselves are made (t-shaped or any others);
- prefabricated structures are inserted into installed fixtures;
- the wire is pulled;
- After the growing season, the trellis is easily removed from the mount and stored until spring in a suitable room.
Features planting raspberries in the regions
Do you know that Russia is considered the leader in raspberry production in the world? But the yield of this tasty and healthy berry in many respects depends on the region of cultivation. А так как наша страна огромная и климат в разных её концах существенно разнится, то для получения максимальных урожаев малину культивируют по-разному.
В центральных регионах России климат подходит для выращивания сладкой ягоды. Закладывать малинник предпочитают осенью, но также для посадки подойдёт и весна. Наиболее удачными способами посадки считаются ленточные, или рядовые. Можно высаживать и кустовым способом. Главное, чтобы соблюдалось расстояние между растениями и не создавалась загущенность посадок.
В южных регионах большой проблемой является высушивание побегов в зимнее время. В условиях бесснежной зимы сухой ветер способен сильно иссушить не только побеги, но и верхний слой почвы. Поэтому высаживать малину нужно исключительно в защищённых от ветра местах и в целях защиты дополнительно использовать мульчу. В летнее время малине угрожает сильная жара. Поэтому в Крыму и на Кубани малинник можно устраивать в молодом саду, чтобы лёгкая полутень смогла облегчить последствия высоких температур. Для посадки малины в саду лучше всего применять гнездовой способ.
В регионах с рискованным земледелием, например, в Сибири, тоже можно выращивать малину. Но высаживать её нужно в траншеи, куда предварительно уложена подушка из органических остатков и навоза. Разлагающаяся органика способна прекрасно согреть корни малины в зимнее время, а снежный покров сохранит наземную часть растений.
Чтобы в любом уголке России можно было собирать щедрый урожай малины, нужно соблюдать особенности посадки
Малину лучше сажать на открытые участки, где есть возможность подойти к ней со всех сторон. Это удобно и при уходе за ней и при сборе ягод.Светлана К
Посадка малины может быть произведена в ямы или траншеи. Я давно отказался от ямной посадки малины. Применяю траншейную посадку; хотя она несколько трудоёмка, зато в этом случае вся площадь посадки малины изначально одинаково обеспечивается нужными питательными веществами, что благоприятно сказывается на будущем урожае.Knora
Малину надо обязательно выращивать только на шпалере, это доказано опытом миллионов . При посадке ровными рядами, при установке столбов и проволоки ваша малина каждый год способна давать в 6 – 8 раз больше ягод и при этом вы получаете максимально возможное качество ягод . Все ваши усилия теряют смысл, если ваша зелёная фабрика ( растение малины ) не способна проявить свои природные преимущества и тянет своё существование наподобие дикой малины .Гуру
Хороший урожай малины зависит не только от правильно выбранного места для закладки малинника и сроков посадки. Без специальных опор в процессе выращивания никак не обойтись. Чтобы облегчить уход за малиной, обязательно соорудите шпалеру. Опора значительно облегчит уход за растением, поможет повысить урожайность, избежать возможных заболеваний и сохранит куст в целости. Тем более что существует несколько видов конструкций, собрать которые самостоятельно не составит труда даже новичку.