Raspberry Patricia: variety description, pruning after flowering and cultivation features on a trellis
Raspberries are a symbol of sweet life. And the Patricia raspberry variety is direct evidence of this. Large and sweet berries will not leave anyone indifferent. In addition, the variety has won fans due to its high winter hardiness and resistance to many diseases. And it’s much easier to take care of Patricia than to repair varieties, although this raspberry bears fruit for more than 2 months.
History and description of raspberries Patricia
Eating sweet raspberries on both cheeks, sometimes you don’t even think about the origin of your favorite variety. But the story of Patricia is very interesting. Large-fruited raspberries first appeared in England. The bearer of the gene was a bush of the Molling Jew variety, popular on the island and in Western Europe. And breeder Derek Jennings made out unusually large berries.
Over time, on the basis of this genetic feature, large-fruited raspberries were created. Work in this direction was carried out in the USSR. Viktor Kichina, who worked at the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery, in 1986, conducted an experiment on crossbreeding the domestic variety Maroseyka and donor M102. The resulting samples were selected and in 1989 numbered as K55. And only in 1992, as a result of reproduction, the variety Patricia was born.
Patricia is a large-fruited variety, individual berries can grow up to 4 cm
The adult bush of Patricia grows to 1.8 m. The plant is erect and sprawling. There are from 6 to 10 shoots replacing the thawed and dead branches, on average about 6 pieces of root offspring. Direct shoots are slightly pubescent and covered with wax coating to a small or medium degree. A distinctive feature of Patricia's raspberries is the absence of thorns. Elongated and well-developed fruit branches are quite durable. On their 2–4 branches, up to 20 large fruits are formed.
Bushes of raspberry Patricia are tall and sprawling, shoots are devoid of thorns
The sheet plate is medium to large in size. The surface is slightly wrinkled, almost hairless. The light green leaf is crowned with a town edge. Young leaves are painted in red-brown shades.
The fruits of Patricia are conical in shape, even among large-fruited varieties, they stand out in both weight and size. One berry can grow up to 4 cm in length and weigh 11–12 g, but its average weight is 7–10 g. The surface of the fruit is velvety, painted bright red with a hint of raspberry. Small and uniform drupes are tightly connected to each other, due to which the ripe berry is removed from the stem completely. Seeds are few and very small. The fruits of Patricia are dessert. The pulp is juicy, melting in the mouth and sweet. The berries have a wonderful raspberry flavor.
The taste qualities of raspberry Patricia tasters are rated very highly - by 4.6–5 points.
- Patricia's early maturity is beyond praise: already in the second year after planting the berries you can taste it.
- The variety does not belong to the repair, but fruiting is surprising in duration. Harvesting is possible already in the first decade of June, and harvesting suffering ends only in mid-August.
- Fruiting occurs on last year's shoots. Productivity is high - on average up to 5 kg per bush. With proper care, Patricia can produce 8 and even 11 kg of berries from one plant. In the first 2 years, the variety will not be able to show all its capabilities. Peak fruiting is achieved starting from 3 years and can last up to 10 years of age.
- The variety is suitable for growing not only in the southern regions. The climate of central Russia, including the Moscow region, also perfectly meets the requirements of the plant. Patricia can withstand temperatures well -30 ° C, while ordinary varieties can freeze already at -15 ° C. Raspberries are also tolerant of high temperatures.
- Possessing excellent immunity, the variety resists anthracnose, didimella and botritis. But the plant copes poorly with late blight, so you need to regularly prevent this disease. Of the pests, the variety is too tough for raspberry shoot aphids.
- Large and beautiful berries of Patricia do not tolerate transportation very well. They lose shape very quickly due to not too dense consistency.
Patricia has a long fruiting period - from early June to mid-August
Table: merits and demerits of a grade
|Large-fruited and high productivity||Low portability|
|Great taste||Tall plant requires garter|
|Excellent frost resistance|| Berries can rot when excess|
|High temperature tolerance|
|No spikes make harvesting easier|
If you follow all the rules of planting and choose a healthy planting material, raspberries will quickly take root in a new place and will delight the crop.
The abundance of sunlight raspberries Patricia does not scare. Its leaves are not prone to burning. Good lighting will benefit the crop, the maximum amount of sugar will be formed in the berries. Rows planted from north to south will receive uniform illumination with sunlight. If raspberries appear in a dense shade, this will immediately affect not only the appearance of the plant, but also the taste of the berries. The shoots will be elongated, and the fruits will not please either size or taste.
Winter wind protection is a must. Bushes growing in the blown areas dry very quickly. To prevent this, raspberries should be planted in places covered from the north with buildings or densely planted decorative bushes.
Plant Patricia raspberries in a sunny place, but sheltered from the wind
For raspberries, it is important that the soil is rich in humus, has a loose structure and water permeability. Patricia will grow and bear fruit well on loam and sandstone. Saline, heavy clay, highly carbonate and marshy soils are not suitable for raspberry cultivation. In inappropriate areas, bushes are planted in high beds. But they have a significant drawback - they dry out very quickly. Therefore, such landings need to be given increased attention.
With all the love for watering, the root system of Patricia is very sensitive to stagnant water. It is important that the groundwater level does not lie closer than 1–1.5 m to the surface.
The most acceptable planting dates fall at the end of August - mid-September, but no later than 2-3 weeks before the onset of stable frosts. Over a period of rather warm and humid autumn, the seedling will have time to take root. Such favorable conditions have regions with a temperate climate, that is, those located in the south. Planted in autumn plants in spring will please you with rapid growth, the process of which will begin earlier than in spring plantings.
During the autumn planting, raspberry stalks must be covered with earth to a height of 12 cm, so that the growth buds do not freeze in winter.
Spring planting is also acceptable. But it is best carried out in regions where the spring is wet and long. Spring planting should go quickly before the movement of juices begins in the stems.
Choosing a planting date for Patricia raspberries, one must take into account the fact that the variety can poorly take root on insufficiently moist soils. Therefore, plant raspberries exactly when the weather in your area meets the requirements of the plant.
The future abundance of sweet berries directly depends on the right planting material. It is best to buy seedlings in specialized nurseries. In them you will not only get the right variety, but also get the necessary advice.
Appreciate the seedlings by the following parameters:
- Stem. It is very good when the bush has several formed stems. This suggests that the seedling is viable and ready for active growth. The bark on the shoots should be whole, not dried out.
- Root system. Well developed, without damage, rotten and dangling sections of the roots - the main indicator of the health of the seedling.
- The kidneys. At least 3 growth buds at the base of the shoot. It is from them that the branches will develop.
- Packaging. This point is no less important, as it will prevent the drying of the root system.
The root system of seedlings should be well developed and without damage.
Preparatory work on the site
If you decide to lay a raspberry, then a plot for it needs to be prepared 2 years before planting. On fertile soils of suitable structure, the plant will be able to show good yields for 10-12 years.
It’s nice to hold the soil under black steam - dig it carefully, choose the roots of perennials and do not sow anything. In this form, the earth is able to restore biochemical processes and physical characteristics.
The selected area can be seeded with green manure. These plants will displace weeds from the site, enrich the soil with useful elements and improve the structure. To green fertilizer does not go into the category of weeds, you need to mow it before flowering. For sowing use clover, mustard, cereals, cruciferous. If you do not use green manure, in the fall, under a deep digging, you need to make a sufficient amount of manure - per 1 m2 up to 2-3 buckets. Complex organic fertilizers can be added to organics - Kemira Universal, Stimul, Rost - 1 cup.
Siderata, sown before the raspberries, will perfectly prepare the soil
What else you need to know before planting raspberries:
- The bushes will not grow on acidic soils, so take care of making lime fluff in advance.
- Good neighbors for raspberries are pears, apple trees and plums, but the neighborhood with cherries is unfavorable.
- A close landing to blackcurrant, sea buckthorn and wild strawberries may turn out to be a failure.
- Among vegetable crops, bad predecessors are tomatoes, potatoes, and eggplant.
- The place where raspberries grew must rest for at least 5 years before laying a new berry.
When planting Patricia varieties, one must remember the tall bushes. Close and often planted plants will obscure each other, which will reduce the quantity and quality of the crop. Therefore, in popular tape plantings, the distance between the bushes should be at least 70 cm. The aisles are left wider - up to 1.5 m.
Planting seedlings is as follows:
- The fibrous root system of the seedling is about 20 cm in size, so the landing pit should be 40 cm in diameter and depth.
- Before planting, the roots of the seedling are soaked for 2 hours, but no more. You can add Kornevin or Heteroauxin to the water.
- If in the fall no fertilizers were added for digging, then humus, mineral additives are added to the pits and mix well with the soil.
- A small mound is built from the soil mixture at the bottom of the depression, on which the seedling is set. The roots need to be straightened.
- Then the seedling is covered with earth, slightly shaking at the top, so that the soil is distributed between the roots, leaving no empty spaces. Plants are planted at the same depth at which they grew before.
- After planting, the soil around the bush is tamped, a watering circle is made out and 5 l of water is poured into it.
- After the water has been completely absorbed, the plants are mulched. This will prevent excessive drying of the soil, which can be fatal for the seedling.
Video: planting raspberries in the fall
Caring for Patricia is much easier than for maintenance grades. But plain raspberries need good supervision.
For raspberries to please juicy fruits, it needs high-quality watering. But the plant does not like excessive moisture. Even a short stagnation of water in the roots can cause their death.
During the formation of the ovary, growth and ripening of berries, the soil in the raspberry should be in a moderately moist state, but no more. Controlling soil moisture is easy enough. You need to take a handful of earth from a depth of 15 cm and squeeze it in your hand. If the formed lump does not fall apart, then there is no need for watering yet.
Raspberry roots are not deep and cannot get moisture from the lower soil layer. Therefore, watering should be of high quality, able to saturate the soil with moisture to a depth of 40 cm. Up to 10 liters of water are used per 1 m2 of raspberry. During the ripening period, the amount of moisture is doubled.
To prevent water from spreading in vain on the surface, shallow grooves are dug on both sides of the landing to be irrigated. After absorbing moisture, the grooves are covered with dry earth. He loves the plant and sprinkling method. It is better to spend it in the evening, so that drops of water do not provoke a sunburn on the leaves.
If at the end of autumn there is hot weather with insufficient rainfall, then raspberries need to be abundantly watered. Moisturized plant tissues mature faster and are more resistant to frost. This should be taken into account if the raspberry is located on sandstones. Clay soils, in contrast, are not recommended for flooding.
On large raspberry plantations, it is convenient to use drip irrigation, in which moisture is delivered directly to the roots
Seedlings, especially planted in the spring, should be under strict control. If the delicate root system of a young plant experiences a moisture deficit or excess, then the plant may die.
Mulch will help maintain the proper moisture level in the soil and inhibit weed growth. It is used immediately after planting and throughout the entire growing season. Old mulch should be periodically replaced with a new one.
With nitrogen-containing fertilizers, you need to be careful - urea, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, phosphorus-containing superphosphate acidify the soil, which Patricia does not welcome. But you can’t completely leave raspberries without top dressing, this immediately affects the decrease in the quality of the crop.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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A good alternative to mineral fertilizers is organics, which contains almost the entire spectrum of nutrients.
- Rabbit or goat droppings, like manure, are bred with water in a ratio of 1/10. Bird droppings should be diluted with water 2 times more - 1/20.
- It perfectly nourishes raspberries and green manure. Make it very simple. You need to fill the tank (bucket or barrel) with chopped weed grass and plant tops about half. Pour water to the edges and cover with a lid, but not too tight so that gases escape during the fermentation process. After a few days, the mass will begin to bubble, and then acquire a characteristic smell. The finished concentrate will have a brownish-brown color, and foaming will stop. To prepare the working solution, you need to dilute 1 liter of concentrate in 10 liters of water.
Hand-made compost and green manure will feed raspberries perfectly
In total, up to 3 top dressings are produced during the growing season:
- in spring (in April);
- before flowering;
- in the fall after pruning.
If raspberries are late with growth, you can add a little nitrogen to the organics in the form of urea or ammonium nitrate - 15 g per 1 m2.
To avoid root burns, apply liquid fertilizer under raspberries only after moistening the soil.
Experienced gardeners are well aware of the peculiarity of raspberry Patricia. Its fruiting two-year-old branches dry up and die. They need to be cut, preferably near the ground itself, so that there are no stumps left. Together with dry, you need to cut and weak, undeveloped shoots. It is best to burn the removed material in order to suppress the spread of accumulated pathogens and pests.
After normalizing the shoots, the raspberry bush should consist of no more than 8 branches. Then the remaining shoots will have enough space and light for optimal development and fruiting for the next year.
In the spring, inspect the raspberry tree again and carry out the final normalization procedure, removing the broken or dried stems.
To increase the yield and quality of berries, in the spring (before the onset of sap flow), the ends of the shoots are shortened at a height of 1 to 1.5 m. From the remaining buds, side shoots of up to 30 cm or more in length are formed. Due to this, the fruiting period is also extended.
Video: pruning raspberries after fruiting
Due to the high productivity and the large size of the berries, the long branches of Patricia may be overloaded and break. In addition, caring for untied raspberries becomes difficult, the quality of berries decreases sharply. Thickened plantings are more often exposed to diseases and pest attacks. To prevent this from happening, the bushes need to be tied up.
The tied raspberry bushes look very neat and easy to care for.
The simplest and most common is the trellis method. By the way, he is also the most effective. You will need support pillars (iron or wood, for example) 2 m long and 5 mm diameter wire. Pillars are driven along a row of bushes every 3 m. Between them, a wire is pulled in 3 rows: at a height of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.6 m. A raspberry bush is fixed on the trellis, starting from the lower shoots. For tying it is best to use natural material so as not to damage the bark of the branches.
Video: making trellis yourself
The good resistance of well-groomed Patricia to frost has already been mentioned. But sometimes raspberries are located in very purged areas or winters are frosty, with sharp temperature drops and little snow. To exclude freezing shoots, it is better to play it safe.
Preparing raspberries for winter is not difficult. In October, when the branches are still quite flexible, 2 bushes are tilted to each other and tied up at a height of 30–40 cm from the soil surface. First, the bush is tied in the middle, and then its top is fixed at the base of the neighboring bush. Raspberries tolerates winter well under natural shelter - snow cover. If there is none, you can cover the bent bushes with spruce branches or covering material.
It is impossible to bend too low. This can break off the shoot at the base.
In the spring, do not rush to tie raspberries to the trellis. The branches are still very fragile and can easily break. Untie the bushes when the air temperature rises above +8 ° C. As soon as the process of sap flow begins in the plants, they themselves will straighten. After that, they can be safely tied up.
Video: how to properly connect the stems
Diseases and pests of Patricia
Despite the excellent health of the variety, groomed plantings often become targets of pest attacks and are affected by diseases.
Table: pests, diseases and control measures
|Diseases and Pests||Characteristic symptoms||Control measures||Prevention|
|Phytophthora (root rot)||With frequent waterlogging of the soil, the root system rots. Then the lower part of the branch begins to darken. Tissues in the affected part are destroyed.|
|Gray rot||The first signs of the disease can occur at the initial stage of fruit ripening. In the places where the berries come in contact, brown spots appear. Then the fungus covers the fruits completely, making them unfit for consumption.||You need to fight the disease with the help of fungicides - Ronilan, Fundazol or Rovral. Drugs are used only in accordance with the instructions.|
|Septoria||At the initial stage of the lesion, the leaves become covered with small brown spots. Then they turn white, a fringe of purple appears around them. Shoots can also affect the disease, after which they will die.||До начала распускания почек провести обработку растения Нитрафеном или 0, 5%-м раствором хлорокиси меди.|
|Малинная муха||Зимующий под кустом вредитель в мае начинает откладывать яйца в листья верхушечных побегов. Развившаяся личинка внедряется в стебель, что приводит к увяданию побега.|
|Малинный жук||Вредитель питается листовыми и цветочными почками. Жук откладывает личинку внутрь плода, где она развивается. Ягода не растёт, начинает вянуть и загнивает.||Фитоверм и Агравертин помогут справиться с проблемой. Раствор готовить строго по инструкции.|
|Цикадка белая||Питается соком, прокалывая отверстия на поверхности листа. На месте прокола образуются светлые пятнышки, которые сливаются в большие зоны поражения. У ослабленного растения снижается иммунитет, малина становится восприимчива к грибковым инфекциям.|
Фотогалерея: болезни и вредители малины
- Фитофтора поражает корни и ветви
- Серая гниль очень быстро распространяется в сырую погоду
- При заражении септориозом на листьях появляются характерные пятна — белые, окаймлённые пурпурными границами
- Личинка малинной мухи приводит к увяданию побега
- Малинный жук поедает почки, а личинка — ягоды
- Цикадка белая ослабляет малину, делая её уязвимой перед грибковыми заболеваниями
Как собрать и сохранить урожай
Ягоды малины Патриция собирают по мере их вызревания. Заниматься сбором нужно только в сухую погоду. Даже слегка влажная ягода быстро покроется плесенью. С уборкой урожая можно не торопиться, плоды довольно цепко держатся на плодоножке. Но и затягивать также не нужно, слишком перезревшая малина теряет форму и быстро стекает.
Перевозить на дальние расстояния урожай не получится. Мякоть, имеющая неплотную, нежную консистенцию, быстро пускает сок. Чтобы этого избежать, рекомендуется срывать ягоды с плодоножкой. В таком виде плоды могут без порчи пролежать 2–3 дня в холодильнике.
Если малину сорвать с плодоножкой, срок её лёжкости увеличится
При сборе урожая плоды сразу же сортируют. Целые укладывают в небольшие ёмкости тонким слоем, мятую ягодку сразу же пускают в переработку. Малина Патриция — универсальна. Из неё готовят ароматное варенье и джем. Кроме традиционных заготовок, можно и поэкспериментировать с ягодкой. Например, приготовить пастилу, конфитюр или мармелад. А в сочетании с другими ягодами получается превосходный вкусовой микс, который будет наполнен яркими летними нотками.
Малина, кроме великолепного вкуса и аромата, обладает и целебными качествами. Перетёртая с сахаром, она сослужит отличную службу при простуде. Для этих же целей ягоды можно высушить и заваривать целебные чаи.
Из малины можно приготовить не только традиционное варенье, но и необычную пастилу
Отзывы о малине Патриция
The berries are really great taste, very fragrant. The good news is that there are no spikes, it is more pleasant to collect. Ripens in my region since June 25. For some reason, the largest berries take on a non-standard shape, are deformed, bent, and often double berries come across - these are the first harvests, followed by normal standard berries. The color of the berry is red. The berries themselves are very attractive in appearance and are in demand in the market. Timely and complete harvesting of berries is important, since when ripe berries remain (especially in rainy weather like this summer), I notice rot on the berries with damage and neighboring ones in the bush. I do not apply chemistry. In general, the impressions of 5 year old cultivation are very positive, apart from minor nuances.Arik
Patricia is an excellent cultivar of large-fruited raspberries. I have been growing since 2001. Berry in my conditions is 10–12 g, shoots up to 2 m or more in height, require pruning and trellis. Productivity up to 100 kg per hundred square meters. Ripening begins on June 15–20. Absolutely no spikes.Pustovoytenko Tatyana
My friend has Patricia, she is very happy. Together, raspberries were traded on the market. She has Patricia (of decent size) sold much faster than my assortment.Yurets
my “Patricia” is growing. I’m not overjoyed. But she found out that she begins to bear fruit abundantly from the 3rd year. And in the 1st and 2nd years, a much smaller crop.Tatula
It is necessary to bend in the fall, but tasty and large on good ground. It does not creep.Michailo
There is another experience planting raspberries. Somehow seduced by the large fruited raspberries Patricia. Matured, beautiful, coarse, but to taste is not next to Kuzmina News. In addition, her bones are also large, this is related to the shortcomings. There is one more drawback, in my opinion, it gives such a shoot, mother don’t cry, she barely got rid.VERA
The long fruiting period of Patricia allows you to harvest a wonderful crop. Thanks to this, you can enjoy the bright taste of ripe berries almost all summer with health benefits. It will also remain on the blanks. A generous harvest does not mean that Patricia needs to bend his back all summer. Leaving is not at all burdensome, it would rather seem like a small charge in the fresh air.