Raspberry Gusar - frost-resistant repair grade
Cultivated raspberries have been cultivated in Russia since ancient times. The berry is appreciated not only for its taste, but also for its medicinal properties. However, the culture often freezes in winter, the number of fruits decreases in the heat, in adverse conditions of the disease lead to significant loss of yield, causing trouble and rapidly growing shoots. Cultivating the variety of Gusar remont raspberries will help to avoid most problems and get a useful sweet berry crop twice a season.
The history of raspberries Gusar
Repairing raspberry garden type known for more than 200 years. However, the second wave of fruiting was insignificant. Productive foreign repairing varieties in Siberia and central regions did not have time to give up to 70% of their harvest before the onset of early frosts.
In the 70s of the 20th century, work on the creation of frost-resistant species began at the Kokinsky stronghold of VSTISP. Scientist Ivan Vasilievich Kazakov, who created a fundamentally new berry culture, is called the “father of Russian repairing varieties”, “wizard”. Having visited its experimental plantations, domestic and foreign experts described what they saw as a miracle. The result of thirty years of work of the breeder is obtaining fruitful, frost-resistant, practically not damaged by diseases and pests of repair varieties, the best of which, according to gardeners, is Gusar. I.V. Kazakov received it when polluting the American Kenby hybrid with species immune to viral diseases. No wonder the new variety, superior to the parental form, received such an unusual name - Hussar, which means persistent, bold, brave.
The variety was included in the State Register in 1999 with approval for use in the Central, Middle Volga, Volga-Vyatka, North-West and North Caucasus regions. For remontant raspberries, unlike ordinary varieties, not only biennial, but also annual shoots are fruiting. During the season, you can get a crop twice - in summer and autumn.
A hussar is a raspberry of an early ripening period, so it manages to fully ripen in the sunny period and give the main crop to the cold weather. Gardeners cultivating this variety, admire it. In one place, the berry bush bears fruit well for 20 years. A pronounced wax coating on the shoots protects them from excessive evaporation of moisture and makes the plant drought tolerant. Possessing frost resistance, the Hussar steadily tolerates a decrease in temperature to -25 ° C.
Among the benefits of this raspberry is immunity to major diseases. There are practically no wormy berries on it, it is rarely affected by a weevil, gall midge. And due to the lack of abundant root shoots, the culture does not fill the garden space and directs all its forces to the formation of the crop.
Raspberry Gusar belongs to the repairing varieties and can bear fruit twice a season
The hussar grows in the form of a high (up to 2.7 m in height) sprawling shrub. The stems are straight, powerful, covered with a wax coating, without pubescence. Brown biennial shoots. Small spikes of medium size, dark purple, are located in the lower part of the shoot. This feature makes it easier to care for plants. Dark green wrinkled leaves are large, slightly twisted, slightly pubescent. A sheet plate along the edge is serrated.
Raspberry Hussar forms a tall, sprawling bush with straight stems
Berries with an average weight of 3.2 g have the shape of a blunt cone. The flesh is bright ruby in color, juicy, aromatic, sweet and sour, the taste rating is 4.2 points. The fruits contain: sugar 10.8%, acid 1.8%, vitamin C 27.2%. The average yield is 83.6 c / ha; up to 3-4 kg of berries can be collected from the bush.
Raspberry is a natural doctor, it has long been used in folk medicine for neurasthenia, atherosclerosis, and blood diseases. Berries are consumed fresh, dried, frozen, and vitamin preparations are prepared: juices, fruit drinks, preserves.
The disadvantages include a large spreading of the bush, which requires significant area under the raspberry: between plants, leave a distance of at least 1 m, between rows - 1.5–2 m. In addition, branches with a height of more than 2 m must be tied to a support in order to maintain the crop.
Being a reliable and proven variety, the Hussar is still inferior to modern repair species, which give higher yields and are distinguished by giant fruits (weighing more than 10 g).
Husar raspberry cone-shaped berries of bright ruby color, juicy, sweet and sour taste
Video: raspberry varieties Gusar
Caring for the future harvest, you need to choose the right place for shrubs and acquire healthy planting material.
The most illuminated areas are diverted under the berry. Even slight shading delays the ripening of the fruit, negatively affects the quality of the crop. The berry crop should receive as much heat as possible, therefore it is planted on the south side of the garden, along fences, barns, protected from cold winds by planting fruit trees, hedges.
It is undemanding to soil conditions, but prefers loose fertile land. The previous cultures are very important for raspberries. You should not lay a berry in areas where tomatoes and potatoes used to grow. Culture grows well after cucumbers, legumes, zucchini. Raspberries get along well with an apple, cherry, red currant. And it is advisable to plant grapes and sea-buckthorn in another corner of the garden.
Remontant raspberry prefers to grow in well-lit areas: the more sun the plant receives, the sweeter the berries will be
High yields can be achieved by planting green manure (lupine, mustard) before planting a raspberry, which heals the soil and increases its fertility. They are plowed into the soil a month before planting.
Shrubs should not be planted in lowlands, which after flooding often flooded, as well as in areas with a low level of groundwater. Excess moisture is detrimental to the root system of raspberries, the risk of developing diseases increases, frost resistance decreases.
The culture grows well on sandy or light loamy soils with neutral acidity. The plant will also take root in clay areas, but in conditions of high humidity, the bush will grow intensively, and fruit ovaries will form weakly. Therefore, to improve the quality of clay soil, sand (1 bucket per m2) must be added. Lime acidic soil (500 g of lime per m2).
Usually raspberries are planted along the fence or near the outbuildings to protect it from strong gusts of wind.
On the site, raspberries can be planted in small groups of 3 plants 70 cm apart. You can grow the culture in a tape way, arranging rows after 1.5–2 m. Often, repair raspberries are used as an element of decor, planting 3 bushes in a triangular pattern. Varieties with a variety of fruit colors look especially elegant: red in the Hussar, yellow and orange in other varieties. Like an exotic bouquet, such a combination of lush green foliage with colorful berries looks in the garden.
Culture is planted in spring and autumn. In the spring, it is necessary that during the week the positive temperature is maintained. However, in spring planting, fruiting is not so plentiful, because all the forces of the plant go to survival. The most suitable period for planting is autumn, 20 days before the frost: seedlings have time to take root before the cold, prepare for winter, and in the spring all efforts should be directed to shoot growth and crop formation.
Nurseries offer a large selection of raspberry seedlings. When choosing a plant, you should carefully consider it. The seedling should have a developed root system, without signs of rot, and the branches should be flexible, without spots. Planting material, acquired in late autumn, is dug in the garden until spring.
Recently, gardeners have preferred container seedlings - small plants with 5-8 leaves grown in pots. They can be planted throughout the garden season. In addition, such seedlings further develop a more powerful root system and strong shoots.
It is better to purchase seedlings in pots: they are easier to take root and develop a more powerful root system
20 days before planting, they dig a plot, remove weeds, add 2 buckets of humus, 50 g of superphosphate, 30 g of potassium salt or 300 g of ash per 1 m2. Lime (500 g per m2) is added to strongly acidic soil.
When raspberries are formed from separate bushes, they dig holes 60x45 cm at a distance of at least 1 m from each other. When growing in a linear way, trenches with a width of 50x45 cm are prepared with a distance between rows of 1.5–2 m, between bushes - 1 m.
In large areas, raspberries are grown in rows, landed in trenches
- A few hours before planting, the roots of the seedlings are lowered into a solution with Kornevin, Heteroauxin - biostimulants that accelerate root formation and increase stress resistance.
- A mound of fertile soil is poured at the bottom of a hole or furrow.
- A seedling is lowered onto it, the root system is evenly distributed over it.
The seedling is lowered into the pit, while the root neck should be at ground level
- They fill the plant with soil, holding it, so as not to deepen when tamping.
- Around the bush form a circular groove for irrigation.
- 5 liters of water are introduced into it.
- After absorbing moisture, the soil is mulched with a 10-centimeter layer of straw, hay. Mulch improves the structure of the soil, retains moisture in it, and contributes to a slower freezing.
The soil around the seedling is covered with a layer of mulch
- Shoots are shortened to 40 cm.
In a temperate climate, for more intensive shoot growth and increased yield in early spring, raspberries are freed from snow and covered with a black film. This contributes to better warming up of the soil, earlier start of vegetation (for 2 weeks) and increase of productivity by 500 g from 1 m2.
Video: planting raspberries
Raspberry Gusar is unpretentious, care for it consists of watering, loosening the soil, fertilizing and removing weeds.
Watering and loosening
The culture is hygrophilous, watering in a dry summer is especially necessary. Moisten the raspberry every 7 days (10 liters per bush). However, stagnation of water during excessive watering has a depressing effect on plants.
Use different methods of watering raspberries. Imitation of rain using sprayers allows you to moisten not only the soil, but also the foliage and air. However, at the time of fruiting, this type of irrigation is not used to avoid rotting berries.
When sprinkling, the soil and foliage are well wetted, the air is moistened
Often use watering through grooves laid around the bushes or in the aisles. After absorbing moisture, the grooves must be closed. Drip irrigation is carried out using tapes with droppers, into which water is supplied under pressure. This type of irrigation allows you to maintain the necessary soil moisture, and also significantly reduces water consumption.
Drop watering reduces water consumption and provides uniform soil moisture
Before the onset of cold weather, pre-winter watering is mandatory (20 liters of water per bush). After each watering, the soil is loosened to remove the soil crust, which prevents air from reaching the roots. Loosening is carried out to a shallow depth (7 cm) so as not to damage the superficial root system. Then lay a layer of mulch from straw, humus.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Repair raspberries are more demanding on food than ordinary varieties. From the 2nd year after planting, the berry is surely fed. In the spring, nitrogen fertilizers are applied (30 g of urea per m2), stimulating the intensive growth of shoots. In mid-summer, shrubs are fertilized with nitrophos (60 g per 10 l), at the end of the season with superphosphate (50 g) and potassium salt (40 g per m2). You can use liquid fertilizers Kemira, Nutrisol, Yaromila-agro together with water during irrigation through a drip irrigation system.
Raspberry Gusar responds well to top dressing with complex mineral fertilizers
A good organic feed for raspberries is mullein, bird droppings, diluted in water 1:10 and 1:20 (5 l of solution per m2). In autumn, the soil under the bushes is mulched with humus or compost - this mulch reliably warms the roots during the winter cold, and by spring, overheating, turns into a useful fertilizer.
They do not recommend using fresh manure: it contributes to the development of pathogenic microflora, and can cause a burn of the root system.
The source of calcium, potassium, magnesium and other elements necessary for the growth and development of plants is ash (500 g per m2). But even organic fertilizers can harm the plant if applied in excessive quantities.
Root dressing should be combined with foliar. Spraying foliage with Uniflor-micro liquid fertilizers (1 tbsp. L per 10 l), Crystal (30 g per 10 l) not only saturate raspberries with nutrients, but also save them from pests.
On well-fertilized soil, raspberries Gusar gives excellent yields
Experienced gardeners to feed raspberries use infusions of herbs. Dandelion, nettle is placed in a 50-liter barrel, add 100 g of ash, a handful of earth, 100 g of yeast, 1 kg of chicken droppings, pour water and leave for fermentation for 7 days. Then the infusion is diluted with water (1:10) and poured under a bush of 0.5 l.
Repairing raspberry pruning has its own characteristics. If the berry is grown to produce one full late summer crop, at the end of October all the shoots are cut. Such pruning simplifies berry care, does not require shelter for the winter. Together with the stems, pests and diseases wintering on the aerial parts of plants are destroyed.
If you plan to get 2 harvests per season, only the two-year-old stalks are removed, the annuals are shortened by 15 cm. In the spring, they must inspect the bush, remove frozen and dry stems.
Pruning remontant raspberries when growing it as an annual and perennial crops differs: with a multi-year cycle, only fry shoots are removed, with a single-year, all
In summer, excess shoots are completely cut off, leaving 3–6 branches. With this pruning, optimal illumination is created, the bush is well ventilated, receives the necessary nutrition.
Video: how to trim repair raspberries
Branches laden with fruits sometimes lie down, with strong gusts of wind breaking out of fragile shoots can occur. Therefore, it is better to grow raspberries on a trellis, which also greatly simplifies maintenance: it is easy to approach the bushes and harvest, they are evenly warmed up in the sun and well ventilated. Garter shoots to the trellis is carried out at a height of 50 cm, 1.2 m and 2 m.
When grown on a trellis, the stems are tied at a height of 0.5, 1.2 and 2 m
You can use the fan method of garter to the support. Pegs are installed on both sides of the bush, to which part of the stems of one plant and part of the branches of the neighboring one are tied at different heights.
You can form bushes in the form of a fan by linking to the pegs at different heights part of the stems of one plant and part of the branches of the neighboring
Growing raspberries as an annual crop and mowing the stems allows you to safely survive the winter cold. It is only necessary to cover the roots with a layer of mulch. However, gardeners usually prefer to harvest twice a season. In this case, only two-year-old shoots are removed in the fall, annuals are sheltered.
A hussar is a frost-resistant variety that tolerates winter without warming under a snow cover of at least 40 cm thick. However, plants can freeze during snowless winters and in adverse conditions. After pre-winter irrigation and mulching with humus, the stems bent by an arc are attached to a wire stretched along a row, covered with non-woven material. To avoid sprouting shoots, cover them no earlier than a week before frosts.
Before the onset of cold weather, raspberry bushes are bent and covered with agrofibre
Repair raspberries are propagated in several ways. The seed method is rarely used, it is quite laborious, and varietal characters are lost.
The culture propagates well with green cuttings. In early summer, young shoots with a height of 5 cm are cut underground and planted in a greenhouse at an angle of 45 degrees. Regularly moisturize, ventilate. Rooting occurs after 15 days. Green plants need to be fed with complex fertilizer and planted a week later in the garden according to the 10x30 scheme for growing. In the fall they are transplanted to a prepared place.
It is easy to propagate raspberries with the help of green cuttings, which take root 15 days after cutting
Raspberries are rapidly propagated by root offspring. In the summer, 15-centimeter shoots are dug out along with the roots and planted in the designated area. It is easy to propagate raspberries by dividing the bush. The bush is divided into parts with root and shoots. Each part with branches shortened to 45 cm is planted separately.
Raspberries are quickly propagated by root offspring
Raspberries are propagated using root cuttings. At the end of the season, the roots are cut into pieces of 10 cm and planted on the site, having previously applied fertilizers. Water, mulch the soil and cover it with coniferous paws for the winter. In early spring, having released the beds from the spruce branches, they stretch a film over them. When green offspring appear, the film is removed. In the fall, seedlings are transplanted.
Diseases and Pests
Husar's repairing variety is rarely ill. However, in adverse conditions, culture still needs to be protected.
Table: Disease, Prevention and Treatment
|Anthracnose||Brown spots appear on the foliage and stems, the stems rot and break. The development of the disease contributes to rainy weather.||After leaf fall, burn leaves, regulate watering.||Sprinkle with Nitrofen (300 g per 10 l) before buds are pulled out.|
|Septoria||The disease is strongly manifested in high humidity. Light spots with a brown border are formed on the foliage, the leaves dry out.||Do not plant bushes too close together, do not flood.|
|Purple spotting||The stems are covered with dark spots. Affected shoots dry out. The spread of mushroom spores is facilitated by thickened planting and high humidity.||Get rid of overgrowth, observe moderate watering.||Before buds bloom, treat with Nitrofen (200 g per 10 l), 1% DNOC.|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Disease
- Humidity contributes to the spread of anthracnose
- Septoria affects stems and leaves
- Shoots affected by purple spotting dry out
Table: Pests, Prevention and Control
|Aphid||Aphids populate the leaves and stems of raspberries, eating their juice. Young shoots dry up and die.|
|Raspberry beetle||The beetle feasts on foliage, buds, the larvae feed on the pulp of ripe fruits. The pest can destroy up to 50% of the crop.|
|Raspberry tick||The parasite feeds on plant sap, leaves are deformed, acquire a pale green color, the bushes grow poorly.||Observe the watering regime.||Before opening the buds, treat with Nitrofen (200 g per 10 l).|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Pests
- Aphid colonies accumulate on raspberries, drawing juices from it
- Raspberry beetle causes great damage to raspberries, damaging leaves, buds and fruits
- The oblong body of a raspberry tick is painted yellow
In the fight against parasites, useful insects come to the aid of gardeners: a seven-spotted ladybug, a rider, a mantis, a lacewing, dragonflies. To attract them to the site will help flowering plants: dill, anise, coriander.
Our raspberry tree all consists of a Hussar. Just off the edge are a few Runaway bushes. The hussar is very satisfied. Я считаю, что это едва ли не лучший сейчас отечественный сорт малины по сумме положительных хозяйственно-ценных свойств. Крупная, вкусная, красивая ягода. Сорт устойчив к комплексу болезней и вредителей, сорт малошиповатый, дающий мало поросли. Урожайный, отзывчивый на полив и удобрение, отдающий ягоду продолжительный период. Winter hardy. Единственно — всё же лучше иметь в его посадке шпалеру. А как он хорош в заморозке! Если аккуратно разморозить, ягоды остаются совершенно целыми и сухими. Хоть на выставку! Мы и пироги с малиной печём, и вареники варим, и просто — посыпал сахарком и с топлёным молочком или просто так, на десерт. Вот только что я мисочку умял с медком и ложечкой Старого Таллина.Эппл
Мне очень нравится Гусар, кусты высокие, мощные, и ягоды крупные.мадам лемуан
Сорт Гусар — отличный. В это лето замучилась собирать урожай. Ещё большой урожай был у желтоплодной малины. Сорт, по-моему, Золотой гигант, точно не помню. По агротехнике малина очень любит навоз. Я весной свой малинник мульчирую полуперепревшим навозом толщиной около 20 см. Растениям нравится.Пухлик
У меня растёт известный сорт Казакова Гусар — в первый год плодоношения ягоды были отличные, в этом году из-за недостаточного ухода выглядел уныло. Наглядный «антипример» того, что бывает с продуктивным сортом в плохих условиях Shocked. Хочу весной пересадить Гусара туда, где можно будет дождевать и мульчировать.Жабка
Гусар понравился вкусом и размером ягод, посадка первого года, ещё трудно судить по урожайности, в описании написано «не требует подвязки», но, по-видимому, лукавят, сейчас саженцы 1, 60 м, начали наклоняться даже без ягод. В следующем году будем делать шпалеры.alenyshka
Я пригибаю малину Гусар на всякий случай и подрезаю перед этим. Очень уж он высок. Не болеет, не мёрзнет, и червячки его не трогают. Ягоды очень крупные. А насчёт травы я давно уже слышал, что малина всякий мусор любит, в том числе и скошенную траву. Видимо, получается что-то типа мощного мульчирования, которое сохраняет влагу.Rulaman
Этот сорт малины очень неприхотлив. Я бы даже сказала, что неприхотлив вообще. При очень плохом уходе мы смогли получить довольно крупный урожай. Малина «Гусар» с лёгкостью переносит отсутствие увлажнения. Наша живёт практически в железобетоне из засохшей суглинистой почвы. Рыхли — не рыхли, стоит полить водой и дать высохнуть — как все каменеет. Поливали очень редко. Рекомендую для дачников, которые очень редко трудятся в своём саду (не бегают со шлангом или лейкой каждое утро). Короче, спартанские условия ей по плечу.izhoga
Ремонтантный сорт Гусар привлекает внимание садоводов возможностью лакомиться свежей малиной летом и осенью, когда других ягод уже нет в саду. Культура не требует особого ухода, зимостойка и устойчива к вредителям. Кроме того, её можно выращивать не только для получения сладких плодов, но и для озеленения участков. Удивительное свойство ремонтантной малины созревать на срезанной веточке, поставленной в воду, позволяет использовать её как оригинальную составляющую букета для украшения домов, банкетных залов, садовых выставок.