Raspberry Bryanskaya: variety description and cultivation features
Each gardener seeks to grow on his plot only the best, most productive and large-fruited varieties of berry crops. Moreover, the less hassle with the plant, the better. From year to year, breeders are working hard to create varieties that meet these requirements. One of them is raspberry variety Bryansk - a real masterpiece of domestic selection.
The history of growing raspberries Bryansk
Bryansk is very often confused with the Bryansk divo variety, attributing to it the characteristics of the latter. This is a gross mistake - despite the fact that both varieties were bred in the same institution and the same person took part in their creation, there is nothing in common between the Bryansk and Bryansk divas - they have different ripening dates, taste and cultivation technology.
Bryansk appeared at the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Nursery. This raspberry was sent to the state test in 1977, and ten years later it was included in the State Register of Plants under the identifier 7704739 and zoned in the Central, Volga-Vyatka and Middle Volga regions. The authorship of the variety was assigned to Ivan Vasilievich Kazakov.
As a result of crossing varieties Kostinbrodskaya (left) and Novosti Kuzmina (right) raspberries appeared Bryansk
Varieties Kostinbrodskaya and Novosti Kuzmina acted as parents of Bryanskaya, the latter of which is positioned as an absolutely unpretentious variety recommended for cultivation by novice gardeners. Both varieties are characterized by high self-fertility, a pleasant fruit taste, stable yield and frost resistance, but they are often sick and affected by pests. Bryansk inherited both positive and some negative qualities of parents.
Description and characteristics of the variety
The bush of Bryansk raspberry is tall and powerful, but at the same time slightly sprawling, rather compact. The ability to form shoots is average - new branches are formed in a small number (usually 4-6 pieces), but they are quite enough to preserve the bush and its harmonious development. After serious damage to the aerial parts (for example, freezing), a temporary loss of the plant's appearance is possible.
Bushes of Bryansk are tall, slightly spreading, with erect shoots.
Branches of Bryansk are erect, with drooping tops and a small number of thorns. The leaves are complex, typical for raspberries, dark green above, whitish below. The flowers are small, white, located in the axils of the leaves or on the tops of the shoots. The berries are quite large, with a beautiful ruby color, round or blunt in shape. The average weight of the fruit is 3 grams. The pulp is sweet, delicate and very aromatic, has excellent taste - 4.7 points out of a possible five.
Berries of raspberry Bryansk beautiful ruby color with fragrant sweet pulp
Although raspberries of this variety are zoned in three regions of the country, due to their unpretentiousness, it is very in demand throughout Russia, as well as in neighboring countries. Bryansk raspberry early ripe, characterized by increased winter hardiness. Productivity is above average - 50–80 kg / ha. Due to the excellent taste characteristics, the fruits of Bryansk can be consumed both fresh and used for processing. The variety exhibits relative resistance to anthracnose and didimella, but is often affected by a spider mite.
A plant is planted both in autumn and spring, but in the first case, all measures must be carried out at least four weeks before frosts, otherwise the seedlings will not have time to get enough roots and will simply die. The best option is to land in the last decade of September - early October.
Soil and planting requirements
For any raspberry (including Bryansk), fertile soils with moderate humidity and light loams are most preferred. On sandstones, heavy clay or marshy soils normally develop and the plant will not bear fruit.
Acidic soil this culture tolerates much better than most plants, however, increased acidity is harmful in itself - such a soil dries out for a long time and is poorly aerated, it is very difficult for the roots to absorb moisture and useful elements from it. As a result, the development of plants slows down or stops completely, they weaken and become more susceptible to various diseases.
If you know that the soil on the site has a high acidity, it must be limy.
For liming, 0.5 kg of slaked lime, 0.5 kg of dolomite flour, 0.3–0.7 kg of chalk or 0.4–0.5 kg of ash are applied per square meter of soil. The selected substance is uniformly scattered over the site and sealed to a depth of 20–35 cm by digging. It is recommended that liming be carried out a year or two before planting raspberries (in extreme cases, 6 months). In the future, the procedure will need to be repeated every 3-5 years.
Liming of the site is best done 1-2 years before planting raspberries
It is best to plant raspberries in areas where legumes and cereals, dill, garlic, beets, carrots and lupins grew last year. Avoid planting raspberries after tomatoes, strawberries, potatoes, peppers and eggplant, as this increases the likelihood of developing diseases. Choose well-lit areas protected from gusts of cold wind for landing.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Saplings choose medium-sized ones, with two to three short shoots (the larger the bush, the harder it transfers the transplant) and several powerful roots. On shoots and leaves there should not be traces of mechanical damage, signs of illness and pest damage. To protect seedlings from verticillus wilting, before planting, their roots are treated with Agat 25K, following the manufacturer's instructions. It is also good to soak the root system for 6–8 hours in a Kornevin solution - this stimulates root formation and protects raspberries from fungal diseases.
Raspberry seedlings should be medium-sized, with two to three short shoots
How to plant raspberry varieties Bryansk
Proper landing is the key to caring for any crop. Bryansk does not impose any individual requirements, it is planted according to the standard scheme. You can plant raspberries both in separate bushes and in trenches - it depends on the gardener's preferences. In the first case, landing is as follows:
- In the spring, after the last snow has melted, for each bush, dig a 50x40x40 cm planting hole. The gap between the holes is at least 50 cm, the row spacing is at least 150 cm.
- Prepare for each seedling a fertile mixture of 10 kg of compost or rotted manure, 400 grams of ash, 100 grams of superphosphate, 50 grams of potassium sulfate and the top layer of excavated soil.
- Pour a layer of the nutrient mixture into the pit and place the seedling on top so that the replacement bud is slightly below ground level. Carefully spread the roots and sprinkle them with the rest of the nutrient mixture.
When planting, it is important that the replacement kidney is slightly below ground level, because a new shoot will grow out of it instead of the prolificated one (it is called the replacement shoot)
- Well compact the soil near the planted bush, make a shallow hole and water the plant with 5-7 liters of water.
- Mulch the soil around the seedling with leaves, humus or rotted straw and cut the plant at a height of 30 cm.
Mulching reduces moisture evaporation and inhibits weed growth
Some gardeners recommend removing all leaves after planting to make it easier for the plant to take root.
If planting is done in the fall, then about 1.5 months before it, dig a plot to a depth of 25 cm. At the same time, fertilize: for every square meter, you need 2-3 buckets of humus, 200-400 grams of superphosphate and 100-200 grams of sulfate potassium. This procedure will allow the next 5 years to do without phosphorus and potassium fertilizing. Further actions are similar to spring planting, with the exception of the second point - since the site is fully fed in advance, fertilizers are not added to the wells themselves.
If you plan to grow raspberries in a trench way, then you need to plant it a little differently:
- At the site, ditches are dug with a depth of about 60 cm and a width of 120 cm, separating the upper layer of soil from the bottom. The row spacing is at least 1.5 meters.
To plant raspberries in rows, trenches are excavated in the area 1.2 m wide and 60 cm deep
- The bottom of the trenches is covered with a ten-centimeter organic pillow - rotted manure, plant debris, fallen leaves.
- The topsoil is mixed with fertilizers (a bucket of rotted manure, half a bucket of sand, a third of a bucket of chicken manure, a glass of urea and half a glass of potash and phosphorus fertilizers per meter).
- The ditches are filled with a fertile mixture, after which raspberry bushes are placed in them, observing a distance of 50 cm between the latter. Then the plants are watered. The bottom layer of the soil removed from the pit is mixed with sand and humus and the ditches are completely covered.
Video: how to plant raspberries
The subtleties of care
Care for raspberries of the Bryansk variety is carried out according to the following agricultural rules:
- If raspberries are planted in rows, then it is most advisable to build a support for it, that is, a trellis. In the spring, at least 1.5 meters high poles are dug at the edges of the site and two rows of wire are pulled between them at a height of 60–70 cm and 120 cm. If the site is large, then additional pegs should be driven into the ground every 5 meters to avoid sagging wire. Shoots have a fan on a support and strengthen. Two years later, two more rows of wire are added to the trellis - at a height of 30 cm and 150 cm. Among other things, raspberries so fortified are much easier to care for.
To prevent raspberry branches from breaking with gusts of wind and from the weight of the crop, you can fix them on the trellis
- Plants are rarely watered, but so that the earth is wet by at least 30–40 cm. As a rule, 7–8 liters of water are spent on one adult bush. The first watering is carried out in late May, the next - in the second decade of June. During fruit ripening, raspberries need another two or three waterings, and the last time the plants are watered at the end of fruiting. If the weather is very hot, without natural precipitation, raspberries should be watered every week; if it is rainy, there is no need for artificial moisturizing. Do not use cold water for irrigation and avoid getting liquid on the leaves - this can trigger the development of fungi.
- In the last decade of March - early April, raspberries are fed with nitrogen (5 grams of urea and a shovel of cow manure are bred in 10 liters of water).
- To stimulate fruiting, pruning should be done in early spring. Strong, well-developed branches are shortened by 15–20 cm, and weak, sick and frozen branches are completely removed. Cropped shoots burn.
For raspberries to bear fruit abundantly, pruning must be done in spring
- Particular attention is paid to preventive measures. Before budding, you need to clean the bushes from dead shoots, remove the remnants of last year's leaves and treat the plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid. To prevent the appearance of a spider mite, raspberries are sprayed with Cumulus or Karbofos before flowering. Actellik and Fufanon are used to protect plants from pests, and Topaz is used to protect against powdery mildew. If, nevertheless, pests or signs of any disease appeared on the bushes, it is necessary to carry out the treatment with appropriate drugs according to the manufacturer's instructions.
- Weeds must be weeded out between the rows so that they do not pull useful elements from the soil and do not cause the development of fungi.
- Periodically, it is necessary to loosen the soil near the bushes, and then mulch it with straw, humus, crushed bark or needles.
- To prevent raspberries from spreading around the courtyard, they make a fence around the raspberry, for example, they drive iron sheets into the ground.
- In the autumn, old mulch is removed and burned, and then a shallow digging of the soil is carried out. If more than five years have passed since planting, potassium-phosphorus fertilizing is applied to the soil - 60 g of superphosphate and 40 g of potassium salt for each plant. Fertilizers containing nitrogen cannot be used in autumn.
- When the raspberries finish bearing fruit, they cut it again, removing dry and diseased shoots. The cut branches are burned.
- Although the Bryansk variety is characterized by high winter hardiness and can withstand frosts without shelter, it is better not to risk it and provide the raspberries with reliable protection. In late autumn, the leaves are removed from the shoots by running them with the hand in the mitten from the bottom up (but not vice versa, so as not to injure the buds), then the branches are tilted to the ground and attached to the lower wire trellis. Then raspberries are covered with spanbond or other covering material.
The raspberries bent by an arch and the bound shoots are covered with a spanbond for protection against frosts
Table: Raspberry Disease
|Disease||Symptoms||Methods of struggle|
|Anthracnose||The fungal disease anthracnose manifests itself in the form of single spots of a grayish-white hue with a purple border on a raspberry stalk. The leaves dry up, in the affected area the tissue dries and falls out.|
|Purple spotting||This disease is spread by spore fungus. The fungus affects the buds, stems, leaves, raspberries. Initially, the diseased area has a light purple color with black dots in the center (often at the points of leaf attachment). The stem of the bush is gradually destroyed, cracks appear, raspberries dry up, the affected area acquires a red-brown color.||At the beginning of the growth of this year's shoots, two weeks before flowering and after harvesting, they are sprayed with copper-containing solutions: 1% Bordeaux liquid (10 g per 1 liter of water), XOM according to the table on the package.|
|White spotting (septoria)||A fungal disease of raspberries is common. The leaves and stems of the bushes are affected. Brownish spots up to 3 mm in size appear on the leaves. Over time, the spots turn white with the formation of a brown fringing. During the sporulation period black dots are noticeable. On the stems in the central part of the shoots, near the buds, whitish spots with the same black dots also appear, the bark cracks.||Control measures are the same as for other fungal diseases: thinning of plantings, treatment with copper-containing solutions.|
|Ulcerative spotting||Fungal disease. On the affected stems along their length grow brown spots of a blurred shape. Black convex formations appear on the spots, which spray gray spores. The fabric quickly splits and spots become loose, soaked. The disease develops with high humidity.|
|Rust||Fungal disease is common. It affects the shoots and leaves of raspberry bushes. In the spring, small yellow mushroom pads first appear on the tops of the leaves. In the summer, the underside of the leaves is covered first with orange and then with dark pads of the mushroom. In dark cushions, spores hibernate on flying leaves. In humid conditions, the disease develops until late autumn.||Control measures are the same as for all fungal diseases: thinning of plantings, treatment with copper-containing fungicides. Weakly affected shoots can be shortened.|
|Bacterial root cancer||The disease is not detected immediately. At first, raspberries slow down growth, and then lose their taste - the berries become fresh. You can detect the disease by transplanting bushes. In this case, a tumor up to 5 cm in size can be seen on the rhizome, the base of the shoots or on the roots. The reasons can be an alkaline soil reaction or prolonged raspberry cultivation in one place.||After 3-5 years, it is recommended to change the place of planting of bushes and in case of infection, disinfect the roots. For 10 l of water, 100 g of copper sulfate is taken and the roots are immersed there for 5-10 minutes.|
|Witch's broom||A very complex viral disease that is almost untreatable. Viruses spread through wounds inflicted by a non-sterile instrument, through the bites of sucking insects, root shoots. Many thin shoots appear from the root of the bush, the bush grows. Over time, the shoots grow lower, barely reaching 15–20 cm in height. Leaves are also significantly smaller.|
Sick bushes gradually cease bearing fruit.
|You need to monitor the colonies of ants - aphids. Damaged bushes must be uprooted and burned.|
|Raspberry mosaic||In the shoots, the leaves become mottled with alternating light and dark green patches. The leaves are asymmetrical, tuberous. The disease is strongly manifested in early summer, as well as at the end of the growing season, in late autumn.|
Fruiting in the affected bushes is reduced, the berries are tasteless and hard. Young shoots degenerate - they become with small wrinkled leaves and become thinner. Viruses spread through wounds inflicted by a non-sterile instrument, through the bites of sucking insects, root shoots.
Table: Common Raspberry Pests
|Pest||Symptoms of lesion||Control measures|
|Raspberry stem fly||You can determine the defeat by the withered and slightly inclined tops of young shoots. If you pull at the affected apex, it will come off without much effort. On the remaining hemp, the circular path made by the caterpillar is immediately visible, and in it you can notice the pest itself. It is he who causes the main harm to the plant. Subsequently, the tip of the affected shoot blackens, decays and gradually dies. The larva gradually descends to the base of the shoot, emerges from it, burrows itself into the soil and hibernates there. In May, a mass flight of adults begins. The female lays one egg at the top of young shoots. A week later, a new larva is born, which continues to destroy the plant.|
|Raspberry beetle||Pests gnaw holes in the buds and eat away their contents, and on the leaves gnaw through the tissue between the veins. Then the females lay their eggs in a flower at the base of the ovary. After 10 days, larvae are born, they spend 3 days outside, and then feed on the receptacle and berries. On non-fruiting shoots, the appearance of a raspberry beetle is indicated by numerous leaf damage. On fruit-bearing stems, pests can be found in buds, and their larvae in berries during harvest.|
|Побеговая малинная галлица||Для обнаружения галлицы на молодых побегах необходимо оттянуть края в местах растрескивания коры. Там обычно находятся личинки. Особенно важно обратить внимание на растрескивание коры и наличие личинок при покупке посадочного материала, чтобы не занести вредителя в свой малинник. Зимуют личинки в верхнем слое почвы у основания побега. Первый лёт наблюдается во второй половине мая. Самка откладывает яйца под кору молодых побегов: в потёртости, порезы, раны и трещины. Через неделю появляются белые личинки, которые с возрастом становятся розовыми, потом оранжевыми, а через 2 недели уходят в почву и окукливаются у основания куста. Вылет нового поколения и откладывание яиц происходит через 3 недели с момента окукливания.||Для предотвращения повреждения малины побеговой галлицей следует приобретать сорта, наиболее устойчивые к этому вредителю. Нужно высаживать только здоровый посадочный материал, а лучше всего — молодые растения без надземной части, то есть одни корневища или корневые черенки. Химические обработки от этого вредителя неэффективны.|
|Малинная стеблевая галлица||Наиболее активный лёт этого вредителя приходится на период массового цветения. Самки откладывают по 8–15 яиц в нижнюю часть молодого побега, в который проникают родившиеся оранжево-жёлтые гусеницы. Через 3–4 недели на побеге образуется вздутие, где обычно зимует вредитель. Именно по этому вздутию уже осенью можно легко узнать о заражении растения.||Осенью повреждённые побеги необходимо срезать чуть ниже вздутия и уничтожить. Если здоровых стеблей достаточно, то повреждённые можно удалить полностью.|
|Малинная почковая моль||Основной вред наносят личинки этого вредителя, которые во время набухания почек проникают в них, выедая содержимое. Затем личинки вгрызаются в сердцевину стебля и там окукливаются. Повреждённая почка погибает, а стебель остаётся бесплодным, поскольку почти в каждой почке находится вредитель. В период цветения появляются тёмно-коричневые бабочки с жёлтыми пятнами на передних крыльях. Они откладывают яйца — по одному в цветок. Новые гусеницы питаются плодоложем, затем опускаются по стеблю вниз, переходят на побеги, проникают в трещины коры на высоте 30 см от почвы и там зимуют в белых коконах. Появление этого вредителя малины можно обнаружить весной по начавшим и прервавшим своё развитие побегам. Если разломить такой побег, то внутри окажется гусеница.|
|Малинный клещ||Взрослые особи зимуют под чешуйками почек и расселяются во время их распускания. Вредитель обитает на нижней стороне листьев, которые сверху покрываются бледно-зелёными маслянистыми пятнами. К концу августа при температуре 11 °С клещи теряют подвижность и уходят на зимовку.|
|Spider mite||Взрослые особи зимуют в сорняках под листьями и другим мусором. В мае наблюдается их распространение. Паутинный клещ обитает на нижней стороне листьев, опутывая их тонкой сетью паутины. Сильнее подвержены повреждению ослабленные растения. Следует помнить о том, что наиболее интенсивно клещи расселяются в засушливую погоду.||Если вредитель получил большое распространение в прошлом году, кусты необходимо опрыскивать раствором Фуфанона до начала цветения и после окончания плодоношения (концентрация такая же, как и против малинного клеща).|
|Aphid||В центральной полосе России распространено два вида этого вредителя — листовая и побеговая. Живёт тля небольшими группами или, напротив, крупными колониями. Тля очень опасна, поскольку является переносчиком вирусных заболеваний.||Против тли необходимо проводить химическую обработку до цветения и после сбора урожая. Кусты опрыскиваются либо Фуфаноном (10 мл на 10 л воды, расход — 2 л на 10 кустов), Актелликом (15 мл на 10 л воды, расход — 1, 5 л на 10 м2), либо Инта-виром (1 таблетка на 10 л воды, расход — 1, 5 л на 10 м2).|
|Землянично-малинный долгоносик||Cеровато-чёрный жучок. Жуки очень прожорливы, особенно сильно они повреждают молодые листочки, подгрызают цветоносы, цветки быстро темнеют и отваливаются. Самки откладывают яйца в бутоны. Появившиеся там личинки выедают часть цветка и окукливаются. Обнаружить их просто: если засыхающий бутон разломить, то в нём окажется очень маленькая безногая личинка белого цвета с жёлтой головкой. Со второй декады июля из личинок-куколок выходят молодые жуки, которые повреждают листья. На зиму жучки прячутся под опавшую листву и комочки почвы.|
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