Raspberry Brilliant - frost-resistant variety with large berries
Raspberries are a unique berry. It is valued not only for its sweet taste and bright aroma. Due to its healing properties, it is used in medicine for colds. Such a tasty medicine promotes a speedy recovery and saturates the body with vitamins. A handful of raspberries is a wonderful antidepressant: the copper in its composition strengthens the nervous system and improves mood. Raspberries are a favorite of gardeners and farmers. But not every variety can withstand the harsh conditions of Siberia, where there are crackling frosts in winter, and spring and even in June, return frosts are observed. For a sharply continental climate, only raspberries with increased resistance to adverse environmental factors, such as Shiny, are suitable.
History of Raspberry Varieties Brilliant
The variety was obtained by domestic breeders at the Siberian Research Institute of Horticulture. M.A. Lisavenko from crossing varieties of Cumberland and Molling Landmark. From the famous American black raspberries, the hybrid inherited a sweet taste, good transportability, from the British parent variety - bright, beautiful fruits and the ability to harvest without fear of thorns. Since 1989, Brilliant has been in variety testing, and in 1993 it was introduced into the State Register for the West Siberian, East Siberian, Volga-Vyatka and Ural regions (Altai Territory and the Republic of Altai, Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Republic of Khakassia, Novosibirsk and Omsk Regions).
Raspberry Brilliant - a hybrid obtained by Russian breeders at the end of the last century
Perennial shrub is highly winter hardy, tolerates severe frosts. Even young seedlings freeze extremely rarely - only in those years when other plantings die under conditions of severe icing of the soil in the absence of snow cover.
The variety is endowed with strong immunity - it is not afraid of desiccation in extreme heat, it is resistant to aging during prolonged rains, it is rarely sick and is almost not affected by raspberry mosquito and spider mite.
Berries of Raspberry Shiny ripen in tenths of July
Raspberries Brilliant mid-early ripening. Ripe berries appear on branches in the tenth of July. Fruiting continues until the end of July, which makes it possible to enjoy fresh raspberries for a long time. Berries are harvested in 5-6 receptions, when overripe, they do not crumble. The farmers appreciated the beautiful presentation of large berries with a pleasant taste.
Characteristics of Raspberry varieties Shiny
A medium-sized bush 1.3–1.5 m high with branches of medium thickness. The biennial stems are straight, light brown, the annual stems are green with a bluish bloom. Elastic shoots with a drooping top under the weight of the berries tend to the ground, so you need to use support when growing raspberries. Spikes are located only in the lower part of the shoots, which greatly facilitates harvesting. The leaves are oval, medium in size, dark green, shiny. Raspberries do not clog the plot, as the bush gives a small number of shoots. It blooms with white medium-sized flowers collected in racemose inflorescences.
Raspberry Shiny forms a medium-sized bush with flexible shoots
Productivity - 35 kg / ha. The berries are large, with an average weight of 2.6 g, maximum - 5.6 g, spherical shape. Raspberry got its name due to the glossy surface of the fruits of a dark red color. The pulp is dense, juicy, aromatic, with a pleasant sweet and sour taste. They contain sugar - 5.5%, acid - 1.3%. The berries do not lose their shape even during heat treatment: during cooking, they do not stick together and do not boil.
Thick berries do not boil in jam
Red raspberries are healthier than yellow. But the most useful for health - black raspberries, it contains 3 times more antioxidants than other berries.
The variety is self-fertile, does not need additional pollinators. Even when growing a single bush, ovaries will form. But crop yields will be significantly higher if 2–3 other species are planted nearby.
High adaptive abilities, resistance to diseases and pests, large-fruited and good taste qualities distinguish the variety from other varieties of raspberries.
Large-fruited and excellent taste distinguish raspberry brilliant among other varieties
Productivity of a variety depends not only on weather conditions, but also on the location of raspberries, the quality of planting material and compliance with planting rules.
The best place for a berry
For raspberries, an open sunny area should be reserved, protected from the north by a fence or buildings. Culture will come to terms with light partial shade, but it grows poorly in the shade: shoots are pulled out, berries are smaller.
For a raspberry, you should choose a sunny place, protected from the wind by a hedge
The soil should be enriched with humus and have good moisture and air permeability. High yields on sandstones can be achieved if significant doses of fertilizer are applied and regular watering is plentiful. It is better not to plant raspberries on heavy clay soil, in damp lowlands, where groundwater comes out close to the surface. Unsuitable for raspberry trees are also elevated areas where snow is blown away by the wind in winter and the shoots freeze, and in the warm season the rain water does not linger, leading to quick drying of the soil.
Raspberry will generously give a harvest if it grows on loose fertile soil
When choosing a place, it is necessary to take into account the level of soil acidity. On acidic soils near raspberries, especially in wet, rainy weather with cooling, signs of nitrogen starvation — chlorosis — quickly begin to show, root growth worsens, and as a result, plant absorption of nutrients and water decreases. To deoxidize the soil for digging, lime (500 g / m2) is added.
Experienced summer residents must observe crop rotation and try not to plant the berry in that corner of the garden where strawberries, tomatoes and potatoes were previously grown. Good predecessors of raspberries are siderata, zucchini, pumpkin, beans. After 7-8 years, the raspberry should be transplanted to another place.
Raspberries will feel great in the area where green manure used to grow
The author of these lines noted that raspberry feels good next to red currants, cucumbers and carrots, cherries and apple trees. But at the same time, fruit trees should not obscure berry plantings. But I try to plant sea buckthorn away from raspberries - these competing plants will fight for moisture and nutrition, as a result, the harvest of both crops suffers.
Raspberries can be planted in spring and autumn. The period of spring planting of bushes with an open root system is limited - it should be done before the buds open. In this case, the plants have time to take root and go through all the development phases during the season. But fruiting will not be too plentiful, since all the forces are aimed at strengthening the root system and growing shoots. Autumn planting is carried out 3 weeks before the onset of cold weather, so that the seedlings undergo adaptation in a new place, take root and grow stronger. The specific landing dates depend on the weather and climate conditions of the region. Seedlings grown in containers can be planted throughout the season.
Container seedlings can be planted all season
Do not take risks and take a plant in the market, it is better to make a purchase in large nurseries or garden centers. Only a company with a good reputation will guarantee the survival of the bush and the conformity of the fruits with the declared variety. When choosing a seedling, you should carefully consider it. The plant should have a branched root system, without growths and signs of decay and flexible branches with a thickness of 8-10 mm. The container seedling must be removed from the package: the earthen lump must be intact, not crumble and the whole is entangled with thin roots.
In raspberry seedlings, the root system must be well developed
A large selection of planting material usually occurs after the completion of gardening, in late autumn. To save the seedlings until spring planting, they are dug in the garden. Dig a trench to a depth of 15 cm, making one side inclined. Plants are laid out on it, sprinkled with roots and branches 2/3 of the length of the earth and, having densified the mound well, cover it with spruce paws. In winter, sprinkled with snow, seedlings will not freeze, and prickly branches will protect against hares.
Saplings in prikop perfectly wintered
The site should be prepared in advance: dig, weed out, fertilize with humus (20 kg \ m2) with the addition of superphosphate (60 g) and potassium salt (30 g) or ash (300 g). With strong acidification, lime (500 g / m2) is added to the soil.
Raspberries are dug up and fertilized
In areas of risky farming, it is especially effective to use the biohumus AgroProst (12 kg \ m2) when planting. Organic fertilizer due to the high content of humic acids, potassium and phosphorus increases soil fertility immediately after application. And the insoluble form of nitrogen eliminates nitrogen attack during the autumn planting of the bush.
When applied to the soil, the AgroProst fertilizer dramatically increases the biological activity and fertility of the earth
Raspberries are planted in a bush or linear way. Single bushes are planted in pits 60x45 in size, leaving a distance of 1 m between them. On raspberry plantations it is advisable to use rows in rows in trenches 50 cm wide, 45 cm deep, leaving row spacing 1.5 m wide. Plants are arranged in a row with an interval of 70 cm between them.
On raspberry plantations, planting is carried out in rows in trenches
Acquired seedlings 2 hours before planting are dipped with roots into the water, adding a growth stimulant (Kornevin, Heteroauxin) to it, and Fitosporin to prevent the development of root rot.
- The bottom of the trench or pit is covered with earth for a third with an elevation in the center.
- A sapling is placed vertically on the knoll, spreading the roots in different directions. Container seedlings are handled together with an earthen lump.
Raspberry seedlings are lowered into the pit and the roots are well spread.
- Pour the earth to the root neck, leaving it open.
- The soil is compacted so that no air voids form around the roots.
- 5 l of water is poured into the formed circular irrigation groove.
After planting, seedlings must be watered
- The planted plant is cut at a height of 30 cm from the ground.
- The root zone is mulched with straw, hay or humus.
The soil around the seedling is mulched with humus
During spring planting, protecting the seedlings from the bright rays of the sun, the first 2-3 days they are shaded with agrofibre.
Video: planting raspberry seedlings in autumn
The whole raspberry growing season needs care, and after the season is over, it is necessary to prepare it for wintering.
Watering and loosening
The drought-resistant variety tolerates sunshine and a short-term lack of moisture. But the berries will be juicier and sweeter if regularly irrigated. However, raspberry should be watered in a dose, since stagnation of moisture in the soil leads to poor aeration, which can cause the development of rotten roots, freezing of plants in winter and even their death.
With regular watering of raspberries, the berries will be juicy and tasty.
Bushes are watered 1-2 times a week so that the water saturates the soil to a depth of 30-40 cm - it is in this layer that the raspberry root system is located. Norm - 10 liters per plant. In the rainy summer, watering is stopped, and in the fall, if the weather is dry, they will definitely carry out pre-winter watering, increasing the volume of water to 20 liters per bush.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
To moisturize raspberries use sprinkling, irrigation along grooves and drip irrigation. Sprinkling is carried out using a hose or sprinkler, while water is sprayed onto the soil and plants. This type of irrigation allows you to create the most favorable conditions for crop growth, especially in the dry period. But when berries are ripening, sprinkling is not used so that the berries do not become sap.
When sprinkling, not only the soil is well irrigated, but the entire bush
During this period, irrigation along the grooves is used, excluding the contact of water with the crown. Watering grooves are made on both sides of the row, departing from the plants by 40 cm, to a depth of 10 cm. Water is let into them, and after absorbing moisture, they are covered with earth. Irrigation of the grooves is usually used in small summer cottages; on large raspberry plantations, drip irrigation is more effective. The water supply system for tapes laid along the rows of plants is fully automated and allows you to maintain the necessary soil moisture.
During drip irrigation, water enters the plants through pipes laid along rows of bushes
After rainfall or irrigation, the root zone is loosened, thereby improving the water and air permeability of the soil. Loosening in the root zone is carried out to a shallow depth (not more than 7 cm), trying not to damage the superficially located root system, deeper in the rows between rows, by 10-12 cm. Then a thick layer of mulch of hay, straw, humus is laid. Mulching helps preserve moisture, improves soil structure, protects the roots from overheating in the summer heat and hypothermia in the winter cold.
The root zone must be mulched with straw or other organic material
Feeding raspberries is the key to getting sweet, large berries. In early spring, stimulating the intensive growth of young bushes, they are fed with nitrogen fertilizers. Mullein diluted in water (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20) are applied under the bushes (normal - 200 ml / plant). Instead of organics, you can use urea (30 g \ m2), ammonium nitrate (40 g \ m2). Dry fertilizer is scattered along the root zone and must be irrigated. After the introduction of nitrogen-containing compounds that increase the level of acidity, the soil around the bushes is sprinkled with wood ash (1 cup).
Dry fertilizer is scattered around the bushes and must be irrigated
When ovaries appear raspberries need to be fed with phosphorus-potassium fertilizers. A dry mixture of potassium sulfate (30 g \ m2) with superphosphate (60 g), Berry (50 g \ m2) are closed in the row-spacings to a depth of 8 cm. Or carry out fertilizer irrigation with the addition of Ideal water (30 ml \ 10 l). It will provide an increase in productivity and the application of Biohumus (60 ml \ 10 l) under the root or foliage. Biofertilizer increases the amount of nutrients, and also helps to increase beneficial microorganisms. In order to better winter the plants, at the end of the season they are fed with superphosphate (60 g) and potassium salt (30 g \ m2), AgroProst (800 g per bush).
Culture is sensitive to the lack of trace elements, loses its inherent taste and aroma. Weak shoot growth, yellowing of the leaves can be caused by nitrogen starvation. With iron deficiency, the veins of the leaf plate remain dark green, and the rest of the leaf brightens. Deformation and twisting of leaves, the appearance of a dark edging - a sign of a lack of potassium. With a lack of phosphorus, the sheet plate acquires a bluish or purple hue.
Nitrogen deficiency can be judged by the yellowed raspberry leaves
Feeding raspberries with infusion of yeast, which are a growth stimulant and a source of necessary bacteria, gives a good effect. I dissolve 10 g of dry or 500 g of fresh yeast in 10 l of warm water, add 5 tbsp. tablespoons of sugar and insist 2 hours. Then I dilute the yeast with 1: 5 water and add a handful of ash. Twice during the season - in May and summer, when ovaries are formed in warm weather after moistening the root zone, I pour 500 ml of nutrient solution under the bush.
Fertilizer made from yeast stimulates the growth of raspberry shoots
As an organic feed, summer residents use herbal remedies: infusions of nettle, onion peel, banana skins. The nutrient liquid, diluted 1:10 with water, is applied under the raspberry bushes once a month.
Video: what is important to do for raspberries in spring
Support for berry bushes
Elastic branches with a drooping top under the load of the crop can lie on the ground. As a result, berries, especially in wet weather, get wet and rot. Strong gusts of wind can completely break the weak young shoots. Therefore, experienced gardeners prefer to grow raspberries using a support, which greatly facilitates the care. Several garter methods are used - stake, fan and trellis. A single bush is simply fixed to a peg, which is driven in from the side. With a linear landing, it is more convenient to trellis support of several columns installed along a row at a distance of 3-5 m from each other. They fix twine or wire at a height of 50 cm from the ground and 1 m 20 cm and tie shoots to them in an inclined position.
The trellis support for raspberry bushes is constructed from support pillars and several rows of wire
With a fan garter, the support is installed on both sides of the bush. Two adjacent bushes are tied to each stake at different heights: part of the branches of one and part of the other.
By placing pegs on both sides of the plant, you can form a bush in the form of a fan
The experience of growing raspberries at the Moscow fruit and berry station showed that the trellis method is most effective: the yield is higher by 25%, the size of the berries increases by 4%. The bushes mounted on the trellis are well warmed up by the sun and ventilated, it is easy to approach them and harvest.
Proper and timely pruning of the bush contributes to increased productivity. In early spring, as soon as the snow melts, completely frozen branches are removed or the frozen parts of the branches are cut off and dusting the places of cuts with ash. 5 shoots are left on the bush, the rest are disposed of. The branches do not break, but are cut with a sharp secateurs.
Gardeners with experience at the beginning of the season must pinch the tops of young branches, shortening them by 15 cm. As a result, the growth rate of shoots decreases slightly, nutrients enter the buds, stimulating the development of lateral sprouts and the formation of ovaries.
The tops of young branches of raspberries pinch to increase ovaries
After picking the berries, the fruiting branches are cut. They are cut off at the very base, because pests can settle under the bark for wintering. At the same time, normalization of annual shoots is carried out, removing weak, broken so that the berry does not spend on them nutrients and moisture. All cut dead wood is removed from the site and burned.
Pruning raspberries is carried out with a sharp secateurs, removing prolific shoots
Video: how to cut raspberries (instructions for "dummies")
Raspberries are propagated by seeds and vegetatively. The seed method is rarely used: it is quite laborious and does not guarantee the preservation of varietal characters.
It is much easier to breed your favorite variety with shoots or cuttings. Root siblings dig along with a lump of earth and transplanted to a new place. It is advisable to do this in cloudy or rainy weather so that the bright sun does not dry out the young shoots. The survival rate of offspring is almost 100%.
Root offsprings chopped off from the root and planted in the garden
Easy to propagate raspberries and root cuttings. In autumn, pieces of rhizome 15 cm long are planted in the garden, after watering and mulching, they are covered with fir branches and left to winter. During spring warming, after melting snow, the area is freed from the spruce branches and covered with a plastic film. With the advent of sprouts, the shelter is removed and cared for, as with ordinary raspberry, spending water and fertilizer in smaller quantities. At the end of the season, root cuttings are planted horizontally in prepared trenches. The survival rate in this case is up to 80%.
Root cuttings 15 cm long are kept in a greenhouse until sprouts appear
When grafting, green or lignified cuttings are used. Green cuttings are harvested in June from annual shoots, cutting them into 5-centimeter pieces. The lower oblique cut immersed cuttings for 2 hours in a solution with a biostimulator Kornevin. Then they are planted on a seedbed at an angle of 45 degrees and a temporary greenhouse is built to create a greenhouse effect. With regular watering and ventilation, rooting takes place in 2 weeks. Three times a season young sprouts are fed, irrigated. In the fall, transplant to a permanent place.
Rooted lignified cuttings are planted in a permanent place in the fall
Lignified cuttings are cut after the end of the season and stored in the basement in wet sawdust. In the spring, after the establishment of warm weather, they are planted in open ground, covered with a film and then taken care of, like green cuttings.
How to protect raspberries from frost
Frost-resistant raspberry Shiny winters well in continental and temperate continental climates, young shoots do not freeze. With high snow cover, the variety withstands frosts down to -34 ° C and even more. Lunges are quite rare in low-snow harsh winters. Therefore, in regions with mild winters, it is enough after autumn pruning to carry out water-charging irrigation and mulching of the root zone.
In regions with mild winters, it is enough to mulch the soil, and tie the bushes and bend so that a strong wind does not damage the branches
In areas with a cold climate, it will be necessary to tie the shoots into bunches and tilt them to the ground so that in the cold they are completely covered with snow. For additional warming, you can sprinkle the branches with a small (5-10 cm) layer of soil or cover with agrofibre. The shoots are covered with non-woven material not earlier than a week before frosts, in order to avoid aging. In winter, it is necessary to throw snow to the berry bushes - under the snow coat they will easily bear the cold and piercing wind. In the spring, after thawing snow, shoots are freed from shelter and tied to a trellis.
Raspberry bushes are bundled, bent to the ground and covered with non-woven material
Video: how to help raspberries successfully winter
No matter how resistant the Shiny variety to infectious agents and pests is, adverse environmental factors can lead to outbreaks of diseases and mass accumulation of parasite insects on raspberries. Therefore, during the season it is necessary to carry out preventive treatment of shrubs.
Table: Common Raspberry Diseases
|Anthracnose||On young shoots and leaves, small purple spots first appear, which, growing, acquire a gray color with purple bordering. The bark is covered with ulcers, cracking. The berries turn brown and dry. The disease often affects untidy neglected bushes, especially planted in moist lowlands. The massive development of the disease contributes to the loss of large amounts of rainfall.|
|Gray rot||Cold weather in rainy summers can cause gray rot to develop. The flowers turn brown, the ovaries dry out, the berries are covered with a gray coating.|
|Powdery mildew||Powdery mildew spreads in hot, humid weather. The leaves are covered with white coating, the tops of the shoots are deformed, cease to grow. Yields and marketability of berries are reduced.|
Photo Gallery: Signs of Raspberry Disease
- With anthracnose, the bark on the shoots is covered with ulcers and crack
- In the bushes affected by gray rot, the ovaries dry up, the berries are covered with a gray coating
- Powdery Mildew Sign - Whitish Plaque on Leaves
Table: The main raspberry pests
|Raspberry moth||The pest hibernates in fallen leaves and old branches of raspberries, activated in early spring, damaging undeveloped buds. As a result, the growth of shoots slows down, crop volumes decrease.|
|Aphid||A warm spring without precipitation contributes to the mass accumulation of aphids on plants, sucking juices from young leaves and shoots and causing wilting. The flowers dry out, fruit ovaries do not develop.|
|Raspberry and strawberry weevil||The presence of the pest in the raspberry can be detected by small holes in the leaves and fallen buds. Adults feed on lush green foliage and lay eggs inside the bud. Drying buds fall, fruiting falls. With a mass attack, weevils can lose up to 90% of the crop.|
Photo Gallery: Raspberry Pests
- Raspberry Moth - a harmful butterfly that lays eggs in raspberry plantings
- Entire aphid colonies cling to raspberry leaves and shoots, sucking nutritious juices out of them
- Raspberry-strawberry weevil eats juicy raspberries
Its natural enemies - entomophagous insects: lacewings, ghost flies, ladybugs will help cope with aphids. Planting marigold, mint, legumes and spice crops in the garden contribute to their increase in numbers. For 3 weeks, each ladybug eats from 7 to 10 thousand aphids and other insects.
Ladybugs are natural enemies of aphids, causing great harm to raspberries
BRILLIANT. Shoots with inclined tips, elastic, without spikes in the upper and middle parts of the shoot. The shoot-producing ability is medium. Leaves of medium power, dark green, shiny. Mid-late maturity. Ripens in August. Harvested in 5 ÷ 6 receptions, 74 ÷ 126ts / ha. The variety has high fertility and self-fertility. Highly winter resistant. The shoot tissues damaged in the winter period are easily restored, resistant to aging and physiological drying. Moderately drought tolerant. Resistant to raspberry mosquito, other pests, diseases. Does not need pesticides. Berries when fully ripened do not crumble. The berries are large (average weight 2.6 g), dense, good taste. Tasting score 4.6 points, universal purpose. Extraordinarily delicious compote of berries of the variety Shiny.lkreklina
Berries are large (up to 7.2 g) of ruby color with a glossy surface. The taste is good. Tasting score 4.0–4.1 points. Harvested from the first decade of August to the end of September. Harvest (2.5–3 kg per bush). The berries are large, one-dimensional, do not crumble. Very tasty, large and juicy.Marina Pravdina
greenforum.com.ua ›archive / index.php / t-3305.html
Raspberry is a very healthy plant. The taste of berries is unforgettable, and also the fruits are healthy. You can make tea with the foliage of this shrub. In the store they took a brilliant raspberry sapling. Previously, raspberries of this variety were taken, and it took root well, but the seedlings were Russian. In this case, Belarus. It's no secret that Belarusians now have a lot of goods from the EU and they are flowing to our country in an endless stream. Therefore, it is too early to speak for the quality of this seedling. The seedling is well packed. On the back there is a characteristic of the goods. Only the manufacturer forgot to mention how to plant such plants. Soak them before planting in water for 10-15 minutes. Despite the green leaves, the roots are overdried. They, apparently, were not watered from the EU itself. Moreover, the land is so dry that the soil repels water (as if it is peat that has been lying in the sun for several years).SergeyBo
Raspberry Brilliant - a real find for domestic gardeners. She is not afraid of either a winter cold, spring return frosts, summer drought or heavy rains. She is rarely sick, resistant to pests. But a generous harvest of fragrant berries can be expected only when growing crops on fertile land and with proper care.