Raspberry Balm: how to get a big crop with classic care
It is pleasant to replenish your raspberry with new varieties and hybrids. Personally check them for yield in the conditions of their region, leave the best, get rid of the ever sick and frail. But in the gardener's collection there should always be basic varieties that will not fail. In all weather conditions and with minimal care each year they will give delicious and healthy berries. The Balm checked by time belongs to such grades. For several decades now he has been competing with the varieties and hybrids of European selection.
History of Raspberry Balm
The author of Raspberry Balsam is Ivan V. Kazakov. This is a famous scientist, fruit grower, candidate of agricultural sciences, academician of RAAS. Since 1963, the teaching and research activities of an outstanding breeder have been associated with the Kokinsky stronghold of the All-Russian Institute of Horticulture and Fruit Growing in the Bryansk Region. It was there that Kazakov and his team created new varieties of raspberries, which, by the way, became the basis of the assortment for the European part of the Russian Federation. Among them are the first in the country suitable for machine picking berries. Balm is included in this group.
Video: I.V. Kazakov confesses his love to a capricious lady - raspberries
By its origin, Balm is a hybrid, since it was obtained from the pollination of two different varieties: Bulgarian Rubin and Newburgh. The new raspberry entered the state variety test in 1982 and only 11 years later it entered the State Register of Selection Achievements. Almost the whole of Russia, except for the Urals, the Far East and the North, has become the tolerance region, that is, the territory on which the Balsam is able to show its best.
Balm is a classic raspberry, characterized by consistently high yields
In amateur gardens, Balm has been grown for over 30 years. Due to the high commercial qualities, the berry is well sold out in the market. This raspberry is universal in its purpose. It has the same raspberry flavor with a delicate forest aroma.
Description of the Balm Hybrid
By the appearance of the bush, Balm is an ordinary raspberry that throws up high shoots (180 cm). Spreading bush. The growth rate of the average growth is 20 shoots per linear meter. The leaves are large, wrinkled, bright green, matte, lighter on the back, pubescent, on the central vein there are hardly noticeable soft spines. Two-year-old shoots of brown shade, medium-prickly, annuals - green, with a wax coating.
Raspberry bushes Spreading balm, tall shoots, leaning to the ground
Raspberry Balm is mid-season, harvesting occurs at the end of June - July, depending on the region. The berries are large, ripen together, that is, they will have to be processed a lot and quickly. Fruits in shape resemble a wide cone with a rounded top. The weight of each is up to 3 g. The yield is higher than the average for this crop: 2.2 kg per bush, with industrial cultivation - 6-8 t / ha. Drupe is firmly connected, the berries are dense, do not crumble during collection, they are easily separated from the stem.
Ripe Balsam Berries Turn Ruby
Balm has a classic taste: sweet with sourness, raspberry aroma is present. This raspberry seems ordinary to one, sweet to others, others, on the contrary, feel “piercing sourness”. Much depends on soil composition, climate and quality of care. But there are properties that are very attractive to everyone in this hybrid:
- resistant to fungal and viral diseases;
- slightly affected by a spider mite;
- frost-resistant, shoots do not vypryvaet;
- reliable and stable, you are guaranteed to be with raspberries every year.
Video: Overview of Raspberry Balm
If you want to collect large and sweet berries, then select a sunny place under the raspberry. And this is not always located under the fence, where summer residents usually like to plant raspberries. If the earth is heavy, clay, then first dig up the whole plot allotted for the berry plant, adding loosening materials: peat, compost, hay dust, last year's leaves, small twigs, etc. Sandy soil can be corrected with the same materials.
It is better not to use sand as a baking powder, since it is crushed, but stones that do not ennoble the soil in any way make it loose to the detriment of moisture capacity. Sandy soils do not retain moisture and nutrients at the roots of plants, pass them through themselves to the lower layers, which leads to leaf chlorosis, poor development and fruiting in general.
On loamy and sandy loamy soils, it is sufficient to apply fertilizers. Sprinkle on 1 m², depending on the season of preparation of the site, before digging:
- in the fall - 1.5 buckets of humus, 30 g of superphosphate and 20 g of potassium sulfate;
- in spring - 1.5 buckets of humus, 0.5 l of wood ash.
When placing Balm on a prepared bed, consider its ability to grow tall and sprawling bushes. The distance in the row between the seedlings is a minimum of 0.7–1.0 m. Leave the row-spacings so that it is convenient for you to walk on them and pick berries, but not less than 2 m. Powerful bushes should be well lit and ventilated.
Wide aisles - this is good lighting of bushes and comfort when caring for raspberries and harvesting
The order of planting seedlings is as follows:
- in the excavated and fertilized area according to the scheme (minimum 0.7x2 m) make holes corresponding to the size of the roots of the seedlings;
- fill them with water heated in the sun, and wait until it is absorbed;
- place the seedlings in the holes, spread the roots and cover with earth;
- mulch the landings.
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Video: planting raspberries
Growing Raspberry Balm
In the cultivation of this raspberry there are no features and difficulties. Watering in the southern regions is needed once a week, but it is better to lay a drip. The soil should be moist to a depth of at least 30 cm. During the ripening period, watering stops. In regions with regular and heavy rains, this event can be completely forgotten.
In regions with rainy summers, the Balm can be left without watering at all, and in the South it will be free from drip irrigation
To build new shoots and bookmark the crop, Balsam needs top dressing. According to lazy technology, it is enough in the fall or spring to mulch the soil around the bushes with humus or to plant side rows of green manure, periodically mow them and leave to rot in place. If you want to get a richer crop of large berries, then carry out three dressings:
- In spring, as soon as the ground thaws, pour infusion of mullein or bird droppings. If there is no time and opportunity to cook them, and you are not an opponent of mineral fertilizers, then evenly sprinkle 30 g of urea for each square meter of raspberry fruit and loosen the soil. You can do this by melting snow or before the rain, then the fertilizer will dissolve and go to the roots in a natural way.
- During budding and flowering, raspberries need potassium, phosphorus and trace elements, which, incidentally, affect the taste of berries. You can make ash, as when planting (0.5 l per 1 m²), loosen and pour. Modern complex mixtures for fruit crops are also well suited: Agricola, Pure Leaf, Fertika, etc. Each fertilizer is accompanied by instructions, can be used for root and foliar dressing.
- In the fall, before shelter for the winter, sprinkle superphosphate (1 tbsp. L / m²) on raspberries, loosen and mulch with humus or compost.
Video: raspberry top dressing in spring and creolin processing
It is better to form raspberry from plants of the Balm variety by the tape method, with a bush it will be problematic to distribute and tie up to 20 shoots growing from one root. For tape cultivation, cut out all the shoots growing to the side (between the rows), and leave those that appear between the bushes. On one running meter there should be about 8 shoots, that is, approximately every 10 cm. Already in the second or third year you will get a raspberry wall. Mandatory need a trellis. It is enough to drive in the beginning and at the end of the row wooden poles or metal pipes and stretch between them 2 rows of wire: the first at a height of 60 cm from the ground, the second - 120 cm.
A raspberry-shaped ribbon is easier to tie to a trellis
On raspberries Balsam, you can double cut according to Sobolev, then the volume of the crop will double. Berries will be tied not only at the tops, but also along the entire length of the shoot. For this:
- At the end of May, not later than the beginning of June, pinch the tops of young, still green, shoots. Their height after pinching should be at least 70–100 cm. After this, the side branches begin to grow.
- In the spring of next year, pinch the tops of these side branches. As a result, the shoots will look like lush trees. On each side branch buds will appear, and then berries.
If you want to use this method of pruning, then increase the distance between the shoots with the tape method of growing up to 20 cm.
Also, the care of Balsam includes the removal of old lignified branches. Do not put off this event until the fall, when the leaves crumble. After all, along with them pathogenic fungi and pests will pass into the soil. Cutting and removing stems that have thawed, but still growing, from the plot immediately after the harvest, you do not leave the parasites a chance to switch to young shoots. In addition, the bush will have more power to bookmark and ripen the fruit buds of next year.
Shelter for winter Balm is desirable, although in some regions, for example, in the suburbs, this raspberry winters well, not bent to the ground. In areas with frosts below 30 ⁰C and below, the shoots need to be tilted so that in winter they are covered with snow and fixed, for example, by tying each other with twine. It is not necessary to bend the stems to the ground, you can break them. In the spring, immediately after the snow melts, straighten the raspberries and tie them to the trellis.
The balm does not need covering material, it is enough to bend the shoots below the level of snow and tie together
Harvesting and prescribing Balsam berries
The fruiting in Balsam is plentiful and short-lived. The berries will have to be collected and processed every other day. Surpluses can be shared with loved ones or sold in the market. The berries are dense, keep their shape well, put in a small layer in boxes, will worthily survive transportation and short storage. For personal consumption, you can: freeze; dry to use in winter for the preparation of healing tea; or cook the famous raspberry jam. But, of course, before this, it is recommended to get plenty of fresh berries, which contain a lot of trace elements and vitamins important for the human body.
Raspberries contain up to 11% sugars (glucose, fructose, pentose), traces of essential oil, pectin and protein substances, mucus; vitamins C, A, B; 1-2% of organic acids (malic, citric, tartaric, salicylic, etc.), alcohols (tartaric, isoamyl), ketones (acetoin, diacetyl, β-ionone), anthocyaninin, catechins (d-catechin, l-epigallocatechin); up to 0.3% of tannins.//ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%9C%D0%B0%D0%BB%D0%B8%D0%BD%D0%B0#%D0%A5%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0% B8% D1% 87% D0% B5% D1% 81% D0% BA% D0% B8% D0% B9_% D1% 81% D0% BE% D1% 81% D1% 82% D0% B0% D0% B2
Video: the easiest raspberry jam recipe without water
If you do not have the opportunity to carry out all the necessary measures to care for large-fruited varieties, then there is a risk of being left without a crop for several years. Then it is advisable to plant unpretentious varieties on the plot that have an average fruit size, then they are guaranteed to bring a crop annually. This applies to the varieties: "Gusar", "Skromnitsa", "Balsam", "Malakhovka", "Kirzhach", "Lazarevskaya".Sineglazka
My favorite raspberry varieties are 'Meteor', 'Oksana', 'Balm'. Every year I harvest a great crop. In the spring, when I plant new raspberry bushes, I make a planting hole for each plant with a width and depth of at least 30 cm, and add rotted manure and ash there. Mineral fertilizers and other chemicals I do not use.GalinaNik
Raspberry Balsam gives a stable harvest without requiring special care. The simplest and most well-known agricultural practices can be applied to it. It is caused by an increase in yield for top dressing and double pruning. Berries have a simple unobtrusive taste of forest raspberries, are fresh and chic in harvesting.