Raspberries: how to grow your favorite Russian berry
Raspberry grows in almost every area, but not all gardeners manage to get abundant harvests from it. Most often, the cause of a small number of berries is errors in agricultural technology. We learn how to avoid them and maximize the potential of this culture from the article.
The history of raspberry cultivation
From ancient times people used raspberries as a healthy treat. Its seeds were found by archaeologists during the excavation of settlements of the Bronze and Stone Ages. The love of the ancient Greeks and Romans for this plant is also documented. They picked berries not only for eating, but also for the treatment of various diseases. Raspberries were also popular among Slavic tribes: proof of this is the numerous references to it in works of oral folk art.
In ancient times, people picked raspberries not only for eating, but also for the treatment of various diseases
The first written mention of raspberries as a garden plant dates from the 4th century. However, this culture became widespread only in the 16th century, when Western European monks began to tame it. They transplanted forest bushes to their plots, looked after them and selected the best forms. At the beginning of the 17th century, written descriptions of varieties of this culture with white and red berries were already appearing, and in 1826 a catalog with 26 varieties was published in London.
On the territory of Russia, forest raspberries were planted in gardens even under Yuri Dolgoruky, but its first cultural forms appeared here only in the 17th century. Monasteries and boyar estates quickly became recognized centers of malinovodstvo. Moreover, in many of them not only harvested, but also engaged in breeding work. As a result, by 1860 the number of cultivated varieties increased to 150 .
Today, raspberries are cultivated in many countries of the world. It is grown both in large farms and in small private gardens. Recognized leaders in its industrial production are:
- Russia (210 thousand tons of berries per year);
- Serbia (90 thousand tons of berries per year);
- USA (62 thousand tons of berries per year);
- Poland (38 thousand tons of berries per year).
Selection of raspberries does not stop. Today there are a huge number of varieties of this culture. Among them, you can find plants with red, yellow and black coloration of fruits of different ripening periods, including those with a repair type of fruiting .
The main stages of growing raspberries
Raspberry growing begins with the choice of planting material. Young plants should have a developed, fibrous root system without any growths or cones and intact stems with a diameter of 8-12 mm. It is advisable to purchase them in large specialized stores or garden nurseries - this will help to avoid the grafting, which sellers often sin in small markets or fairs.
In large nurseries, raspberry seedlings are stored in cold greenhouses in winter
After buying seedlings from the gardener, a new exciting life begins. Just stick raspberries in the ground and forget about it before fruiting does not work. For a plentiful harvest, a newly made raspberry grower must follow the basic rules of agricultural technology.
Landing in a permanent place is one of the most important stages of raspberry cultivation. Mistakes made at this time will certainly affect the quality and quantity of the crop, and in some cases can lead to the death of the plant. Raspberries can be planted in open ground in spring, immediately after establishing positive temperature, or in autumn - at least a month before the onset of cold weather . In regions with a cold climate, preference should be given to spring planting, and in the warm south, autumn is also acceptable.
Raspberry prefers well-lit, sheltered from the wind areas. Most often, it is planted along fences or walls of buildings, but care must be taken to ensure that they do not obscure the plants . For this, plantings are placed at a distance of at least 3 m from the buildings.
If it is planned to plant raspberries near the fence from corrugated board, the distance to it should be at least 3 m
The composition of soils raspberries is not particularly demanding. It bears fruit well on loamy, sandy loam, chernozemic or other soils with a slightly acidic or neutral reaction. Only areas with a high level of groundwater and very dense clay soil, conducive to stagnation of moisture, will not fit it.
Good and bad neighbors for raspberries
When choosing a place to grow raspberries, you should pay attention to the nearest neighbors. Do not plant it next to strawberries or strawberries, as these crops have common diseases and are affected by the same pests. In addition, the roots of raspberries and strawberries are located at the same depth, which is why bushes become competitors in the extraction of nutrients.
Raspberry is also negatively affected by its close proximity to cherries, currants, and sea buckthorn. Due to these plants, which deplete the soil, it may lack nutrients, which will certainly affect the quantity and quality of berries.
Raspberries respond well to planting next to apples, honeysuckles, pears, plums and barberries, and plants such as garlic, marigolds, parsley, basil, chamomile and calendula even protect the raspberry from attack by pests. Dill, which attracts pollinating insects, can significantly increase raspberry productivity. At the border of the raspberry, experienced gardeners often plant sorrel, because it is able to limit the spread of shoots in the area.
Many gardeners believe that garlic protects raspberries from pest attacks.
Many people are worried about the “runaway” raspberries ... Last year, in early spring, on the advice of acquaintances from the Czech Republic, sorrel sowed two rows of sorrel along the perimeter of the raspberry - this year only two “escaped” across the border)), but there is nowhere to put the sorrel.Ella7
It should not be placed raspberries in areas previously occupied by representatives of the nightshade species. Between planting these crops must pass at least 2 years. The best precursors for raspberries are legumes and cereals .
It is better to plant raspberries in open areas where it is possible to approach it from all sides. This is convenient when caring for her, and when picking berries.Svetlana K
The details of planting raspberries
There are two main ways of planting raspberries: bush and trench.
The bush method consists in planting each plant in a separate hole at a distance of 1-1.5 m from each other . It is ideal for growing tall varieties with a powerful, wide crown. In order to plant raspberries in the bush method, it is necessary to perform the following actions:
- Dig a hole 50 × 50 cm in size and fill it with a mixture of fertile soil, a humus bucket, 35–40 g of superphosphate and 20–25 g of potassium salt.
For planting raspberries, pits 50 × 50 cm in size are enough
- Place the seedling in the center of the pit. Carefully spread its roots and cover them with earth, watching for its even distribution. The growth point should remain above the surface of the earth.
Raspberry seedlings cannot be buried
- Carefully compact the soil around the future bush.
During compaction of the earth, one cannot press hard on the root of a raspberry seedling
- Pour raspberries abundantly and mulch the trunk circle with humus, sawdust or other organic matter.
Mulch will prevent drying of the soil around raspberry seedlings
The trench method of planting raspberries is considered more time-consuming. However, it allows you to save space on the site and get more berries due to the uniform distribution of nutrients between the bushes. In addition, raspberries planted in this way are easily tied to a trellis.
The trench method is often used in large farms growing raspberries on an industrial scale.
Raspberries are planted in trenches in several stages:
- Dig the required number of trenches with a depth of about 50 cm and the same width at a distance of at least 1.2 m from each other.
In order to make the trench even, use a stretched cord
- A layer of coarse organic matter (branches of bushes or trees, leaves, cardboard, boards, etc.) with a thickness of 10-12 cm, which, gradually decomposing, will nourish raspberry bushes, is laid at the bottom of the trenches . To improve decaying, plant residues are sprinkled with earth and watered with warm water.
When planting raspberries, only healthy parts of plants can be used as an organic layer
- Trenches are filled with a mixture of fertile land and mineral fertilizers. The thickness of the soil layer is about 10 cm.
Mineral fertilizers must be added to the soil intended for planting raspberries
- Raspberry seedlings are placed in the center of the trenches with an interval of 40-50 cm and sprinkled with earth, carefully holding plants.
Raspberry seedlings in a trench should not be placed too close to each other
- Tamp the soil, water well and thoroughly mulch.
Sawdust can be used as mulch under raspberry seedlings
Regardless of the planting method chosen, the area of the raspberry should be limited. To do this, sheets of iron, slate or other durable material are instilled around its perimeter. Failure to comply with this rule can lead to uncontrolled sprouting of raspberries and the appearance of its overgrown in the most inappropriate places.
You can plant raspberries in pits or trenches, but I have long refused to land in pits. I chose planting in trenches, although this is more time-consuming, but the whole area where raspberries are planted is equally provided with the necessary nutrients, which favorably affects the harvest.Nedyalkov Stefan Fedorovich Homestead newspaper No. 5, March 2007
Watering and fertilizing
Raspberry is a rather drought-tolerant plant, but with a lack of moisture, its yield is significantly reduced, and with an acute shortage, the bushes weaken and may eventually die. Young plants with an underdeveloped root system are especially in need of water. During the first year after planting, they are regularly watered, constantly keeping the soil moist.
In the first year after planting, it is necessary to water young raspberries often
5-7 waterings per season are enough for adult plants:
- in spring, before flowering begins;
- during filling berries;
- during fruit ripening;
- immediately after harvesting;
- before wintering.
Watering raspberries should be rare, but plentiful: it is necessary to wet the soil to a depth of 20–40 cm. Usually, 3-4 buckets per square meter are required. m landings.
A rich harvest of raspberries is impossible without fertilizing. It is produced according to the following scheme:
- in the early spring (before the first watering), urea is scattered in the stem circles (flow rate of 20-30 g per sq. m);
- in early summer, the bushes are fertilized with a solution of potassium monophosphate at the rate of 10–20 g per square meter. m;
Phosphorus and potassium are necessary for raspberries to increase yields
- from the beginning of berry formation, raspberries are watered with liquid organic fertilizer every 2-3 weeks. For its preparation:
- within 7-10 days, insist on recently mowed grass in warm water (1: 2 ratio), mullein (2:10) or bird droppings (1:10);
- the resulting liquid is filtered, diluted 10 times with water and plants are watered with this solution (the concentrate consumption rate is 1 liter per 1 sq. m);
- during autumn digging, superphosphate (30–40 g per sq. m) is brought into the ground.
To feed raspberries, you can use ready-made complex fertilizers for berry crops. When using them, you must follow the instructions.
Mandatory agronomic technique in the cultivation of raspberries is pruning. It is carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn. However, in summer it is not recommended to weaken control. During the entire growing season, it is necessary to remove excess root shoots in a timely manner. This can be done easily with a sharp bayonet shovel, which cuts the root that nourishes the extra shoot.
During autumn pruning, the following is removed:
- all biennial shoots;
In autumn, two-year-old raspberry shoots that are removed have been removed: brown, lignified
- damaged by pests and diseased annual stems;
- broken and weakened branches;
- young shoots that do not have time to ripen before the onset of winter.
In addition, the remaining annual shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm, which helps to stop their growth and accelerates maturation.
The result should be separate bushes, consisting of 5-7 healthy and strong annual shoots. All excess shoots are also ruthlessly removed - this will prevent excessive thickening of the plantings, which negatively affects the number and size of berries, as well as making it difficult to care for raspberries.
Autumn pruning of remont raspberries intended for a single autumn crop is carried out using a different technology . It consists in mowing all ground shoots with leaving stumps no more than 2-3 cm high. This operation is carried out in late autumn or early winter, after the first frosts.
Video: the basic rules of autumn pruning raspberries
Spring pruning begins immediately after the snow melts. Its purpose is to remove shoots that have not survived the winter. Partially damaged stems are cut off at the level of the first healthy kidney, and the dead ones are completely removed. Too long shoots shorten. Optimum for fruiting is a height of 1.5-1.8 m.
The own method of spring pruning of summer raspberries was developed by the outstanding malinovod Alexander Georgievich Sobolev. It is carried out in two stages:
- Annual raspberry stalks are cut at the end of May at a height of 1 m.
- In the second year of the shoot's life, also at the end of spring, the tops of all lateral branches, which appeared in large numbers due to the initial pruning, are removed.
By such a formation, a well-leafy bush with a large number of fruit twigs and ovaries is obtained.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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All remote shoots of raspberries burn. The fire is guaranteed to destroy insect pests and spores of pathogenic fungi that may be inside or outside the stems.
Pest and Disease Control
Raspberries, like many other berry crops, often suffer from diseases and pests. To combat them, the bushes are processed according to the following scheme:
- in spring, during budding, against purple spotting, anthracnose, septoria and other diseases, spray with 1% Bordeaux fluid;
- before flowering against raspberry beetle, weevils and aphids, the plantings are sprayed with Actellic or other insecticidal preparations;
- after harvesting and removal of seedlings that are underdeveloped, underdeveloped, dried up or damaged by galice, they are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux fluid. In the presence of pests, the stands are additionally treated with a drug with an insecticidal effect;
- in late autumn, after the leaves fall, the raspberry plantation is again sprayed with 3% Bordeaux fluid.
Against many pests of raspberries, a solution of Bordeaux liquid helps
Most often raspberries are propagated vegetatively. It allows you to save varietal characteristics of the plant and, compared with seed, takes much less time. Vegetative method involves the use of:
- root offspring;
- green cuttings;
- root cuttings.
Root offspring are young plants that have their own root system, but are still dependent on the mother bush. They are most often used for the propagation of raspberries. In large farms, root offspring are obtained from specially grown mother liquors, which are not allowed to bear fruit.
Raspberry offspring associated with the mother bush
In private areas, root offspring are selected on the fruiting raspberry. Do it this way:
- Look for suitable plants begin in the summer.
- Well-developed specimens celebrate and try to create the most favorable conditions for growth for them.
- Weak offspring are removed so that they do not pull nutrients onto themselves.
- In early autumn, young plants are carefully dug up and planted in a new place using standard technology.
Root raspberries are dug up in early autumn and planted in a new place.
Nettle is a young shoot of raspberries, formed from the accessory buds of horizontal roots . She appears at a distance of 2-3 m from the mother bush without any action from the gardener. Usually they destroy it, but if it is necessary to obtain new plants, it serves as an excellent planting material.
When propagating raspberries with nettle, several rules must be observed:
- young shoots are taken only from healthy bushes, bringing an abundant harvest of delicious berries;
- all the flowers are cut off from the plants selected for planting material, not allowing the setting of berries;
- the mother bush is well fertilized with nitrogen-containing fertilizer (for example, urea), it is regularly watered and thoroughly mulched in its trunk circle with organic matter.
If everything is done correctly, then already at the end of June a large number of root shoots will appear around the bush. The following acts as follows:
- After the height of the nettle reaches 6–12 cm, it is carefully dug up, trying to maintain an earthen lump around the roots.
- Then transplanted to a bed with loose, fertile soil.
Nettle is transplanted on the bed after it grows to 6-12 cm
By early fall, the shoot will turn into a young bush with a developed root system, which next spring can be planted in a permanent place .
Video: how to propagate raspberries with nettles
Raspberries, like most other berry bushes, are easy to propagate with green (summer) cuttings. To receive them:
- Cut the tops of shoots 5-6 cm long and remove all leaves from them, with the exception of the top two.
- On the bottom of the handle, several longitudinal incisions are made with a sharp knife to accelerate root formation.
Green raspberry cuttings harvested from the top of the shoots
- Prepared cuttings are planted in a greenhouse with loose soil and watered. Future plants must be shadowed and provided with constant moisture.
Green raspberry cuttings are planted in a greenhouse, providing them with shading and constant humidity
- With a favorable outcome, after about a month, a sufficient number of roots are formed in the cuttings.
- After that, the greenhouse is opened.
- Young raspberries are transplanted to a permanent place in early October .
Propagation by root cuttings is often used in the cultivation of raspberry varieties, giving a small amount of shoots. Its use is also advisable in the case of severe damage to ground shoots by diseases or pests.
Root cuttings are harvested in early autumn. To do this, carry out the following activities:
- At a distance of 15–20 cm from a strong plant, they dig a hole and take out from it roots with a diameter of at least 5 mm, it is better if it is about 2 cm.
- They are cut with a sharp and clean secateurs into pieces 15–20 cm long, which are planted in pre-prepared, well-walled beds at a distance of 5–10 cm from each other. Depth of landing is a few centimeters.
Raspberries are easily propagated by root cuttings
- The top of the bed is covered with non-woven material or film to maintain an optimum level of humidity.
- Shelter is removed only after emergence.
Saplings obtained from root cuttings will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place in a year, next fall .
Growing raspberries from seeds
Growing raspberries from seeds is a very long and laborious process, in addition, it does not guarantee the preservation of varietal characteristics of the mother plant . This method of propagation is widespread only among breeders, resulting in new varieties and hybrids of raspberries.
Growing raspberries from seeds involves several stages:
- First harvest the seeds:
- Ripe berries are crushed and filled with clean water.
- The liquid is drained, and the seeds remaining at the bottom are thoroughly washed with a very fine sieve.
- При необходимости длительного хранения их хорошо сушат.
Семена малины можно заготовить самим или купить в специализированном магазине
- Затем проводят стратификацию. Для этого в начале зимы смоченные семена помещают в мешочки из марли и закапывают в ящичек с влажными опилками, который убирают в холодильник или погреб на 3 месяца.
Верхняя полка холодильника идеально подходит для стратификации семян малины
- В начале марта проводят посев:
- Семена раскладывают по хорошо увлажнённой, лёгкой земле.
- Присыпают их слоем песка не более 5 мм.
- Ёмкость с посевами накрывают стеклом и оставляют на хорошо освещённом месте.
- Периодически землю увлажняют при помощи пульверизатора. При температуре +20 °C всходы появляются через несколько недель.
При температуре +20 °C всходы малины появляются через несколько недель
- На стадии 3–4 настоящих листьев рассаду начинают закаливать на свежем воздухе. Первоначально время пребывания сеянцев на улице не должно превышать 6о минут, затем его постепенно увеличивают до нескольких часов.
- После того как молодые растения достигнут высоты 10 см, их пикируют по отдельным контейнерам.
Саженцы малины высотой 10 см пикируют по отдельным контейнерам
В открытый грунт малину высаживают только через год после появления всходов .
Семена малины просто так не всходят, чтоб взошли, нужна скарификация (ослабление оболочки семени, например, 15 минут в концентрированной серной кислоте), затем холодная стратификация пару месяцев и вот потом при посеве будут довольно дружные всходы. Если просто посеять, возможно, что-то и взойдёт, причём и на 2-й, и на 3-й год в том числе.vlad12
Разные методы культивирования малины
Садоводам не откажешь в выдумке и смекалке — в целях создания оптимальных условий для малины они практикуют разные способы её культивирования.
Чаще всего малину выращивают на шпалере. При этом способе кусты удерживаются в вертикальном положении, благодаря чему достигается хорошая освещённость и вентиляция посадок, повышается урожайность и уменьшается риск появления болезней . Кроме того, в таком малиннике ягоды не касаются земли, а значит, не пачкаются и не загнивают от контакта с холодной и влажной почвой.
При культивировании малины используют два варианта шпалер:
- однополосная — представляет собой несколько вертикальных опор с натянутой проволокой или крепкой верёвкой, к которой подвязываются стебли малины;
Однополосная шпалера для малины — это несколько вертикальных опор с натянутой проволокой
- двухполосная — отличается наличием двух параллельно натянутых проволок, которые могут быть закреплены на одном или на нескольких уровнях. Такой тип конструкции позволяет развести побеги малины в разные стороны и уменьшить загущённость малинника.
Для однополосной шпалеры в качестве опоры можно использовать деревянный кол или металлическую трубу небольшого диаметра. С двухполосной дело обстоит гораздо сложнее. В качестве опор для неё используют 3 типа конструкций:
- Т-образная — состоит из вертикальной основы и одной или двух горизонтальных перекладин, по краям которых закреплена проволока;
Т-образную шпалеру нетрудно сделать своими руками
- V-образная — опоры устанавливаются под углом 60° друг к другу;
Главным недостатком V-образной шпалеры является изменение угла наклона с течением времени
- Y-образная — несущие лопасти закреплены на шарнирах, что позволяет менять угол наклона.
Y-образная шпалера на зиму складывается вместе с кустами, а весной постепенно поднимается по мере необходимости
Видео: изготовление шпалеры для малины
Малину надо обязательно выращивать только на шпалере, это доказано опытом миллионов. При посадке ровными рядами, при установке столбов и проволоки ваша малина каждый год способна давать в 6–8 раз больше ягод и при этом вы получаете максимально возможное качество ягод. Все ваши усилия теряют смысл, если ваша зелёная фабрика (растение малины) не способна проявить свои природные преимущества и тянет своё существование наподобие дикой малины.буравчик
При раздельной технологии возделывания малины однолетние и двухлетние кусты этой культуры выращиваются на не граничащих друг с другом участках . На одном из них тщательно удаляют всю корневую поросль, оставляя только плодоносящие стебли. После окончания сбора ягод вся малина скашивается и на зиму участок уходит абсолютно чистым. На втором участке выращивают молодую поросль. Через год всё меняется. На первом участке появляются однолетние побеги, а на втором — начинает плодоносить прошлогодняя поросль.
Такой способ выращивания малины позволяет избежать излишнего загущения посадок. Кроме того, однолетние побеги можно смело обрабатывать препаратами, предотвращающими появление болезней и вредителей, не боясь отравить созревающие ягоды . Но у раздельной технологии есть и недостатки. Главным из них является трудоёмкость удаления корневой поросли на участках с двухлетними побегами.
Видео: раздельная технология выращивания малины
Стланцевый метод выращивания малины был разработан А. Г. Соболевым. Его отличительной чертой является изменение вертикального положения плодоносящих побегов на полугоризонтальное. Их размещают по кругу на высоте 30–40 см от земли. Совмещение этого способа выращивания с двукратной весенней обрезкой позволило Соболеву собирать до 4 кг ягод с одного куста малины . Длительность плодоношения при этом увеличивалась до 90 дней.
In addition, the shale method allows one-year and two-year-old raspberry shoots to be grown in one area, avoiding mutual inhibition. Due to the fact that all the fruiting stems of raspberries are located horizontally, in a circle, the center of the bush in which the young shoots grow, remains free. At the end of summer, two-year-old shoots are removed, and one-year-old ones replace them. And so on ad infinitum.
A distinctive feature of the stlan method is the change in the vertical position of the fruiting shoots to a semi-horizontal
Features of agricultural technology in different regions
Agrotechnics raspberries in different regions may have their own characteristics. It is especially affected by climatic conditions.
In the Moscow region and the middle zone of Russia
In the suburbs and central Russia, most of the raspberry varieties are excellently growing and bearing fruit, but some of them do not tolerate the cold winters of this region. In order to avoid freezing of the shoots, they are bent to the ground. Plants prepared in this way quickly find themselves in the snow, which perfectly protects them from the cold.
In order to avoid freezing of shoots, in the middle zone of Russia raspberries are bent to the ground in autumn
In Siberia, winter temperatures are even lower than in the middle lane, so simply dipping the shoots is not enough. You can save them only by wrapping them with covering material and throwing them with spruce branches. Of course, there are especially winter-hardy varieties that easily tolerate Siberian frosts without shelter, but most of them do not differ in good taste and high yield.
In conditions of Siberia with severe frosts, it is better to cover raspberries with a spruce for the winter
In the Kuban and in Ukraine
In the Kuban and Ukraine, the situation is diametrically opposite. Here, raspberries most often suffer from summer heat and drought. In such conditions, drip irrigation is very good. According to experienced gardeners, he is able to increase productivity by 15-25%. To minimize water consumption, raspberry planting in these regions must be mulched.
In arid regions with a hot climate, raspberries planted must be mulched to save moisture.
The mild climate of Belarus is well suited for raspberry cultivation. But the excess humidity characteristic of this region can lead to the development of fungal diseases. In order to reduce the likelihood of infection, it is necessary:
- not allow the raspberries to be thickened;
In order to prevent diseases, it is important to prevent raspberry bush thickening
- regularly carry out preventive treatment of plantings;
- timely remove diseased and damaged shoots.
Raspberry is not a very capricious culture, the cultivation of which is easy for even a beginner gardener to cope with. But if you give her a little more attention, raspberries will certainly thank you with an abundant harvest of delicious and healthy berries.