Radish daikon: all about the varieties, uses, benefits and harms of vegetables
In Japan, there is no person who would not eat daikon radish. It has been cultivated in the country for more than 1 thousand years. The Japanese treat it the same way Russians treat potatoes, because daikon radish is a storehouse of substances useful to the body. Why is she useful? Why can’t you eat salads with daikon to people with gastritis and a stomach ulcer? What varieties are grown in Russia? How to increase productivity?
What it is? What does it look like?
Root crops of a plant can grow in length over 60 cm, weight from 500 grams to several kilograms
The word "daikon" in translation from Japanese means "big root . " Other names of the vegetable: Chinese radish, muli, white radish. The root plant is a subspecies of the seed radish from the cabbage family. The length, taste characteristics and maturity of root crops depend on the variety cultivated in the garden. General features: there are no mustard oils in the composition and a changing taste: root crops sweeten on top and are bitter when biting off a piece closer to the roots.
Fruit shape: round or cylindrical. Weight depends on the variety: from five hundred grams to two to three kilograms. The radish ripens completely in the ground or its 1/3 part is on the surface. A pure-grade vegetable has a white fruit, and the roots of hybrids are light green on top. The average ripening is sixty to seventy days . Not only root vegetables, but also edible leaves. This amazing feature should be known to all gardeners who love daikon.
The plant is biennial. In the first year, the root crop ripens, and in the second a stem with flowers forms. Productivity - five to ten kilograms / 1 square. m. Harvested root crops do not deteriorate for two to three months after harvesting, and sometimes longer (Dubinushka, Snow White, Japanese white long).
Large daikon plantations cultivated in Japan
The Japanese have grown daikon radish since ancient times. More than 1 thousand years ago, the Chinese variety of sowing radish - lobo from South China was brought to the country of the rising sun. Amazed by the taste, the Japanese engaged in breeding work to develop a culture similar to it. Years have gone by. As a result, they created a culture with a taste different from Chinese radish, as in Japan there is a monsoon climate and other soil conditions.
Every day, the Japanese eat 300 grams of vegetables, 55 grams of which daikon radish.
In Russia, they know about an amazing vegetable - a source of carbohydrates. Rare gardeners take it for cultivation in the country, but when they take it, they follow the advice of scientists from the Research Institute of Selection and Seed Production in Moscow and plant hybrids cultivated by them (for the European part of Russia where this type of soil prevails, such as Non-Black Soil, the Fairy varieties are suitable, Sasha, Dragon, Favorite, Dubinushka, Moscow hero).
The most popular Japanese radish variety is Aokubi
To date, more than four hundred varieties and hybrids of daikon radish have been bred. All of them have similar characteristics, since the basis for the breeding was one species. The most popular varieties in Japan are Aokubi and Sakurajima. They are not suitable for cultivation in Russia. Breeders bred other varieties suitable for growing: Terminator, Dubinushka, Dragon, Emperor, Caesar, etc.
Varieties for different regions
A good harvest of daikon radishes of different varieties is harvested in the Moscow Region . Many gardeners sow seeds not at the beginning of summer, but at the end - in the first days of August in order to harvest before the first winter frosts and enjoy a useful vegetable in the winter.
- Miyashige. It belongs to the category of cold-resistant varieties. He has a unique taste. A radish of this variety does not throw a flower shoot in the first year of vegetation. It matures in 50-60 days. White smooth root crops with a length of up to 45 cm and a mass of 100-400 g are collected from the beds. The flesh tastes soft and juicy;
- Japanese early. Gardeners appreciate this variety for its high productivity, unpretentiousness, healing properties and rich vitamin composition. Sowing seeds in early summer, in mid-July they harvest: white root crops of elongated shape weighing 250-500 grams. Seeds are sown in the fall to enjoy a radish winter;
- Tokinashi. This variety has an eastern origin. Although it is recommended for landing in the suburbs, but summer residents do not favor it. They are afraid of experiments with him, but in vain: the Tokinashi daikon matures early and is suitable for planting, both in late spring and late summer. It is easy to take care of it: watering should be timely, there should be no weeds on the bed.
Daikon is popular in the Urals and Siberia, observing the simple rules of agricultural technology. Seedlings are weeded regularly, and the soil is loosened so that the roots receive more oxygen. To collect a large crop, the plant is thinned and fed with mineral compounds every week. With proper care, any kind of radish will grow on the beds. Green mit is a mid-season variety with an ideal taste and high yielding capacity. The root crop has an elongated shape, the peel is light green. The pulp is not only juicy and sweet, but also with a pronounced nutty flavor. Weight - 250-400 grams. Harvested for 2–4 months. Salads and dishes from oriental cuisine are prepared from it.
In the middle zone of the European part of Russia, when choosing a daikon radish variety, soil type is taken into account . Miyashige is grown on loams, Nerima (large, smooth, white root crops with a length of 60 cm and a diameter of 10 cm) and Ninengo (resistant to frost) are grown on loam, and Siroogari and Shogoin are grown on clay.
In Ukraine, the daikon - Kress radish variety is popular . She has tiny leaves and stems of green color. The root vegetable has a spicy taste, as it contains a lot of essential and aromatic oils. A real wonder for Ukraine is the Red Heart variety. He was taken out in China. Its main feature is the fruit, which is greenish-white on the outside and red on the inside. The pulp is juicy and slightly sharp. Eating it, normalize the digestive system.
Varieties for winter storage
The Minovashi group of varieties is different from others in that it is not afraid of temperature extremes and is not of interest to pests
To keep the radish well stored in winter, in the middle of summer - from 18 to 20 June, sow seeds of late and resistant to flowering varieties.
- Minovashi is the common name for a whole group of mid- season varieties. Some are not afraid of high temperatures, and other diseases, often affecting radish. For Russians, they are the “dark forest": Minovashi Samerkross and Minovashi Long - different varieties belonging to one large group - Minovashi. The first is resistant to shooting, and the second is heat-resistant;
- Shogoin is the name of a small group of varieties. Varieties were bred in the area where they have been engaged in agriculture for centuries. This area is located near Kyoto. Daikon Shogoin is grown on heavy clay soils. The average ripening period is 70–100 days. Large round fruits are not deeply buried in the soil, and there is no problem harvesting;
- Elephant Fang - the first variety zoned in Russia by the Kuban Agricultural Institute. It is sown in August. Although it is fruitful, Kuban gardeners rarely grow this daikon in their beds, because it is whimsical to care for. It is necessary to constantly loosen the soil, fight weeds, water and feed the crop. Without regular dusting of the soil on the bed with ash solution, the risk of defeating the cruciferous flea is not excluded.
Ripening period is indicated in days on the package with daikon seeds. Gardeners calculate the calendar moment of ripening, marking on their calendar the day when the seedlings ascended.
- Early ripening. The duration of the growing season is 40-50 days;
- The mid-late daikon matures in 60–80 days;
- Harvest late ripe radish harvested 200 days after planting in open ground. Due to the long ripening period, these varieties are not grown in central Russia, as the daikon does not have time to ripen. Late-ripe radish is grown in Krasnodar.
Among the early ripening varieties, Sasha, the Danish Prince and Snow White stand out. When growing daikon Sasha, the crop is harvested after 30–45 days. Gardeners dig round, large, white root crops from the ground. They rise above the ground by half, and the harvest is not burdened by anything. Root vegetables taste sweet and sharp. There are no glycosides in the composition, and therefore children and adherents of proper nutrition eat radish of this variety with great pleasure. Growing daikon varieties Prince Danish, bred in Denmark, get a high yield. The length of the root crop is up to twenty-five centimeters. It tastes juicy, tender and without pungency. The variety Snow White has good storage stability. Under the light green skin, it has snow-white flesh. Daikon is stored for up to 5 months without fear that it will become tasteless.
Good medium-late varieties: Dragon, Dubinushka and Emperor. Dragon - a variety of cylindrical daikon radish. Its length is 60 cm, and weight - up to a kilogram. It is tasty, albeit sweet. Dubinushka is a daikon radish variety with a root length of less than sixty centimeters and weighing up to 1.2 kg. The taste is refreshing, but without spiciness. Emperor is a variety resistant to disease and cruciferous flea. The radish looks like an icicle. The pulp is soft and sweetish in taste.
In Russia, a late-ripe Japanese long daikon variety is cultivated only in Krasnodar and some other regions in the Kuban. The reason for its unpopularity is long maturation - 65–70 days. All the cares of care are more than paid for by the fact that it is resistant to flowering, grows to a gigantic size, weighs two or three kilograms and does not lose its presentation in the cellar for 4–5 months.
How to grow
After digging the daikon, the tops are cut off
To collect a good harvest of daikon radish, observe the generally accepted rules of agricultural technology.
Not having studied in advance the features of growing daikon, gardeners during the first planting stuff cones. It either does not emerge, or disappears, or the crop is bad.
- Although daikon is considered an autumn culture, with proper care it grows in the spring. During spring sowing, seeds are sown “in the mud”, i.e. Do not wait until the soil warms up, and the frost ends. Serious temperature changes do not pose a threat to him. Having landed later in spring, at the beginning of summer he will give an arrow due to the long daylight hours. In the autumn they sow it when the heat subsided, and daylight hours began to decline;
- Tasty root vegetables will not grow if the air temperature during the daikon growth was higher than + 18 +С. In some regions of the Russian Federation, seeds are sown in early spring to harvest before the heat, and in others - when the heat subsides. This landing is called winter or autumn, despite the fact that they spend it in late July or early August. In the south of Russia, seeds are sown even in September. This planting is good because, due to the fact that the day will decline, the possibility that the radish will bloom instead of growing the root crop will be minimized. Along with this advantage, autumn planting has a serious drawback: root crops will not reach their maximum size before harvesting;
- The juiciness and taste of the daikon does not depend on the fact that the bed under it was allocated in the shade, but on how they looked after it, whether it was watered evenly;
- Manure is a poor fertilizer for radish. It makes her look ugly and loses taste. She is often sick and does not last long.
The variety is selected, taking into account the climate in the region of residence.
The first thing before planting in open ground or a greenhouse is preparing the soil. The best place for the garden is where the early harvest of greenery was collected. Otherwise, a garden bed for radishes is prepared in the fall. They dig it up and then fertilize it with a mixture of urea (twenty grams), superphosphate (40 g) and potassium acid (30 g).
The dosage of the ingredients is based on 1 square. meter.
After that, they neutralize the soil of neutral acidity with humus or compost at the rate of 1 kg per 1 sq. meter. Chalk or lime is added to neutralize acidity.
With the onset of spring, the bed is fertilized once again before sowing, using nitroammophoska (10-15 g per 1 sq. Meter) or Kemira Universal 2 complex fertilizer (dilution according to the instructions). The best mineral agrochemical is nitroammophoska. By introducing it into the soil, they contribute to the rapid growth of daikon. The composition of the three main components: potassium, phosphorus, nitrogen. It is produced in the form of gray granules. Fertilizer Kemira Wagon 2 also helps to create a favorable environment for growing vegetables. It contains all the important macro- and microelements.
Methods and terms of landing
To collect a record daikon crop, comply with all recommendations for plant care
Daikon radish is grown with seedlings or seeds. In early April, seeds are sown in special containers for seedlings. Before this, they are soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and dried. Thirty days after sowing, the seedlings are transferred to the greenhouse. When the weather is warm outside, they are planted in open ground at a distance of 0.2-0.25 m from each other.
Experienced gardeners collect daikon radish seeds and plant them in open ground in the spring. They do not take them out of the shirt, but cut the pod into the places of narrowing and plant it in the soil in this form.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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When are seeds planted in open ground?
When choosing a time for planting seeds in open ground, consider:
- In spring, if a vegetable is grown for seeds;
- In mid-June or early July to harvest a delicious root crops;
- From mid-July to early August to eat a vegetable in winter. Although the radish does not ripen completely in the garden, it is stored for a long time and is delicious.
There are two ways to sow seeds:
- Nesting. 1-1.5 meters - the width of the beds. 60–70 cm - the distance between the rows. 20–25 cm is the distance between plants. Nests are created above holes drilled in advance and sprinkled with earth. 2-3 seeds are sown in one nest, buried to a depth of 3-5 cm. Shoots appear after 7 days;
- In the grooves. The seeds are buried to a depth of 4-5 cm. Before planting, the garden bed is watered, and make sure that the distance between the seeds is 10 cm.
Daikon watered as the soil dries up, preventing moisture stagnation
They will not get a good crop without a number of key events.
The plant is thinned out several times . Thinning is done for the first time when 1-2 sheets are formed. One nest - one plant. Excess sprouts are transplanted into empty places. The second time thin out daikon radish 20-30 days after planting in open ground.
Young plants are prey for cruciferous fleas and slugs. To prevent their appearance, in the beds where they grow, they pour coarsely ground ash. For the processing of seedlings using ash and complex mineral fertilizers. For prevention, they are treated with these substances for the first time after the first thinning, and then every 2 weeks.
Radish daikon rises well at t = + 15–20⁰С. If the temperature drops to + 10 ° C, the seedlings are insulated by covering with plastic wrap or other covering material. Young plantings tolerate heat well, and adult root crops grow at any temperature.
Vegetables are watered abundantly and regularly, avoiding stagnation of moisture. After watering, the ground is mulched with peat.
Loosening and hilling
During the growth period, the daikon is whimsical, and therefore the soil is loosened two to three times a month. Hilling is carried out, noting that root crops have formed to preserve their taste.
How to protect a plant from pests?
Leaf beetles, slugs, cruciferous and earthen fleas are the main pests of daikon radish. To protect the plant from them, sprinkle plantings with ash. Immediately after sowing seeds, a large garden bed is treated, and when seedlings appear, fine ash with the addition of lime and tobacco. The best way to protect the plant from pests: "fumigation" with wormwood or needles.
Until a second sheet appears, a nonwoven covering material is removed. Superphosphate powder is poured around the pit to protect it from pests.
Celandine, small crumbs of tobacco and hot pepper are used to prevent pests.
When is the crop harvested?
The radish is dug in dry weather forty to seventy days after planting. Otherwise, it outgrows and becomes tasteless.
The benefits and harms of daikon
The daikon contains many micro and macro elements
Daikon radish tastes different from green or black radish. It is used as a seasoning for second courses and as the main vegetable in salads. It is necessary to eat it often (if there are no contraindications), since it is good for health due to the abundance of mineral and fortified substances in the composition.
What substances are in the radish? What is it good for?
- Vitamins of group B, vitamins A, C, E, PP;
- Minerals: selenium, phosphorus, copper, iron, iodine, calcium, manganese, potassium, sodium, etc .;
The vegetable does not absorb harmful substances and salts of heavy metals from the soil.
Vegetables are consumed in any form, but they have great benefits for the body in their raw form.
- Cleansing the body by removing toxins and excess fluid with calcium and potassium salts, providing a laxative and diuretic effect;
- Use as a main ingredient in proper nutrition and cleansing diets due to low calorie content (19 kcal / 100 grams);
- Strengthening and restoration of immunity due to the vitamins that make up the composition. Internal organs are exempted from microbes due to protein components and phytoncides. Eating radish every day, they prevent colds and successfully treat bronchitis and asthma;
- Очищение печени и почек. Выпивая в день по 1 ст. сока дайкона, налаживают работу почек, поджелудочной железы, печени и выводят камни из организма;
- Восстановление сна благодаря тому, что сок овоща обладает успокоительным действием;
- Помощь в лечении и профилактике сахарного диабета. В составе есть фруктоза, которая помогает нормализовать уровень сахара в крови;
- Профилактика болезней сердца и кровеносных сосудов (атеросклероз, нормализация холестерина в крови);
- Улучшение работы нервной системы. Редька дайкон — отличный успокоительный продукт для людей, страдающих нервной возбудимостью или повышенной агрессией. Если они будут выпивать по полстакана сока редьки в день, они обретут спокойствие, приобретут отличное настроение.
Редька дайкон противопоказана людям с заболеваниями ЖКТ, так как в составе много трудно перевариваемой клетчатки. Она провоцирует метеоризм и несварения у них. Нельзя кушать ее людям с гастритом или язвой желудка.
Из редьки готовят вкусные салаты
Готовят ли из дайкона салаты или используют его только в приготовлении масок для лица? Низкая калорийность — главная причина интереса к ней со стороны приверженцев низкокалорийных диет. Готовя салат из нее (200 г), они обеспечивают организм 50% суточной дозой витамина С, усиливают пищеварение и выводят из него вредные продукты распада.
Рецепт вкусного салата
- 200 г редьки;
- Оливковое масло;
- Черный перец;
- Щепотка соли.
Nutritionists advise using radish in the preparation of cocktails. For example, a cocktail of fresh radish, cucumbers and parsley invigorates, and a smoothie of mango and daikon enhances fat burning during training.
Salads are eaten within 30-40 minutes after cooking so that the vegetable does not lose 50% of all vitamins and minerals contained in it.
Radish and Sesame Salad Recipe
- 250-300 g daikon;
- 2 tbsp. l white sesame seeds;
- A bunch of dill;
- A bunch of green onions;
- 1 tbsp. l fresh parsley;
- 50 g of cucumber;
- 3: 1 olive oil and soy sauce.
Grind vegetables or tinder on a coarse grater. Dill is torn, and green onions and parsley are chopped with a knife. Dressing the salad with oil and soy sauce, and thoroughly mixing all the ingredients, sprinkle it with sesame seeds.
Chicken Radish Vegetable Salad Recipe
- 200 g of radish;
- 150 g of boiled chicken without skin;
- 2 tomatoes;
- 2 cucumbers;
- 4 tbsp. l unsweetened yogurt.
Vegetables and greens are chopped, the chicken is divided into fibers. All ingredients are mixed in a salad bowl, not forgetting to season with yogurt and salt.
Having grown a daikon in the garden, not everyone eats it in salads: women use it in the preparation of face masks
Radish daikon is widely used in cosmetology. Freckles and age spots will disappear if the skin is treated with freshly squeezed daikon juice. Rubbing it into the skin every day, get rid of acne and boils. Rubbing it into the roots of the hair, strengthen and nourish them.
Whitening Facial Mask Recipe
To prepare the mask, you need one daikon root. It helps in the treatment of skin pigmentation and in the fight against freckles. The radish root is washed, and then rubbed on a fine grater. Facial skin is cleaned using cosmetic milk. After that, spread the resulting slurry on the face, avoiding the nasolabial region and the area around the eyes. After 15 minutes, the slurry is removed and the face is washed under running water.
Moisturizing mask recipe for dry skin
To prepare this mask, you will need one daikon radish root and 20 g of butter. After removing the oil from the refrigerator, wait until a piece of oil softens. The daikon root is washed and ground using a grater. Then both ingredients are mixed in a separate bowl, and the resulting slurry is applied to the face for 20 minutes with gentle massage movements. The mask is washed off with warm water.
Daikon is a large and oblong vegetable, resembling white carrots in appearance. Being a native of Japan, he increasingly decorates the beds in the dachas of the Russians, since it is easy to grow and care for him. The popularity of daikon is based on the fact that it is devoid of a bitter taste and juicy in contrast to black radish and horseradish. Having grown up, not only dishes (salads, vegetable roasts, etc.) are prepared from it, but also effective face masks.