"Ambulance" and prevention for strawberries: how to get a healthy berry
Garden strawberries (traditionally called strawberries) is a favorite treat not only for our children and grandchildren, but also for numerous insects that live in abundance on a summer cottage. Mechanical destruction of these pests is not always possible, often it is necessary to call for chemical means of protection. In addition, the culture is susceptible to diseases that lead to a decrease in yield or even death of plants. Safe for humans, but quite effective means of struggle can often be made from well-known substances.
The need for strawberry processing
Unfortunately, there are so many pests and diseases in strawberries that you can’t do without periodic treatment of it with certain drugs. Of course, careful maintenance of plantations (timely weeding, watering, cultivating, removing diseased plants and an extra mustache) significantly reduces the need for “chemistry”, but from time to time, additional substances must be added to the soil and sprayed with insecticides or “home remedies”.
The main pests and diseases of strawberries
Common strawberry pests include:
- raspberry-strawberry weevil is a widespread strawberry pest. Grayish-black beetles 2-3 mm in size winter under old, half-rotten leaves. In spring, beetles first feed on leaves, then the females begin to lay eggs. Larvae remain inside the buds. In summer, young beetles appear;
- Strawberry (transparent) mite is a very serious strawberry pest. Winters at the base of the leaves. Adult ticks up to 0.25 mm long, glassy yellow. In spring, females lay their eggs on young leaves, which are wrinkled, become yellowish, and often dry out. High humidity favors the multiplication of the pest;
- stem nematode is common. Causes crop losses of up to 70%. Size not exceeding 1.5 mm, lives and multiplies in the tissues of the strawberry bush. Infected plants lag behind in growth, become ugly. Peduncles thicken and bend. Heavily infected bushes bear very poor fruit. The stem nematode is resistant to adverse weather conditions;
- Strawberry nematode differs from the stem nematode in smaller sizes (up to 1 mm). For a season it develops in 6–8 generations. It is inferior to the stem nematode in resistance to adverse environmental conditions. Plants infected with strawberry nematodes show a thickening and branching of some stem parts, as well as the formation of a large number of new buds. Petioles of leaf blades lose pubescence and acquire a purple-red color. With severe infection, yield losses reach 30–50%;
- root weevils. Beetles of black color, 4–5 mm in size, antennae and legs reddish-brown; the larva is white, with a brown head. Weevils damage strawberry leaves, gnawing them from the edges. Overwinter in the soil. In the spring they resume feeding, pupate in June;
- slugs. They love strawberries very much and can destroy a juicy berry completely.
Photo gallery: insects harmful to strawberries
- Due to the activity of the strawberry tick, the leaves wrinkle and dry out.
- Nematode causes deformation of berries and thickening of peduncles
- Raspberry-Strawberry Weevil - A Common Strawberry Pest
- Slugs eat away moves in ripe berries, sometimes completely destroying fruits
The most dangerous strawberry diseases:
- gray rot is a very harmful disease. Dark spots of indefinite shape form on the leaves. Brown spots first appear on the berries, then they grow, become covered with a gray mushroom coating, rot and dry. Ripe berries are most often affected, especially lying on the ground without litter. The disease manifests itself in a cold and damp climate, especially in thickened, poorly groomed areas;
- powdery mildew is a widespread fungal disease that affects the entire strawberry bush. A white powdery coating forms on the underside of the leaves. Sick plants become bronze, poorly developed. Heavily struck outlets take on an ugly shape. Affected berries are also covered with white coating and become moldy. The disease develops all summer, reaching its climax by the beginning of autumn. Contributes to the disease increased humidity;
- white spotting affects leaves, stems, stalks. In May, small reddish-brown rounded spots appear on the leaves. Heavily affected young leaves die off. On old leaves, spots increase over time, becoming white with a reddish rim. The highest phase of the disease occurs with the onset of flowering. Thickened plantings and long-term operation of the plantation contribute to the development of the disease;
- root rot. From the middle of summer, mass dying of the leaves of the lower tier is observed. After 2-3 years, diseased bushes die. The entire root system is affected;
- The witch's broom is characterized by the formation of a large number of leaves, which give the strawberries the appearance of an abnormally thickened bush. The leaves are small, on thin petioles, arranged unusually straight, light green. Peduncles usually do not form or are without fruit. The mustache is short, there are few outlets.
Photo Gallery: Strawberry Disease
- Powdery mildew spreads quickly in wet weather
- Light spots with a reddish rim on leaves are a sign of white spotting.
- Gray rot makes berries inedible
When to process strawberries
In principle, gardening should be carried out year-round. This also applies to strawberries. At least, the entire summer season (from early spring to late autumn), it is necessary to monitor the state of plantations, to clean up diseased plants in time, pull out weeds, and prevent drying and crusting on the soil. Processing strawberries with drugs is not necessary so often. This should not be done immediately before planting and during harvesting. And in the early spring and especially in the fall, something is worth doing.
Spring processing of strawberries consists, first of all, in a thorough cleaning of plant residues, frozen and dried leaves, dead plants from the plantation. After thorough cleaning, the soil around each bush should be loosened and fertilized. In the spring, it is quite logical to introduce (according to the instructions) nitrogen fertilizers, as well as to mulch the bushes with humus. Treatment from pests in the spring is not always carried out, it is better to leave such work for the fall.
If in the fall for some reason it was not possible to process strawberries, then this can be done before flowering (against aphids - Karbofos, against ticks - with colloidal sulfur preparations).
After harvesting, you must carefully examine the strawberry bushes. Those from which there will be little sense (noticeable deformed leaves, thickened stems, significant holes and spots on the leaves) should immediately be pulled out and burned.
If the plantation is severely affected by the nematode, it is better to destroy it completely: burn the bushes and shed the beds well with a solution of iron sulfate. The concentration of the solution is about 5%, and pouring should be very wet.
On an infected bed, you can sow marigold or calendula seeds. These are not bad natural insecticides. By fall, they are likely to have time to even bloom. At this point, they will need to be cut, chopped and dug up the soil along with the received “medicine”.
Calendula is a good insecticide for strawberries
You can not leave in the winter and strawberry tick. If you want to do without chemistry, you can shed a bed several times a week with an infusion of onion husks. To do this, pour about 200 g of husk with a bucket of water, insist 3-4 days, strain.
If there are many different pests, but the situation is not critical, right after the last picking of berries you can try to mow all the leaves and burn them. Many do with 3-4-year-old strawberry plantations anyway. It is good if after mowing the sun will fry the rest of the bushes for several days. After this, it is necessary to water the garden well, preferably with the addition of fertilizers: phosphorus and potash. Foliage will grow quickly and will be significantly healthier.
If there were a lot of rotten berries, the bushes after harvesting can be treated with mustard infusion (100 g per bucket of water, leave for 2 days, filter and dilute in half). If you are not very afraid of “chemistry”, instead of mustard, you can take copper oxychloride and follow the instructions for the drug.
In case of powdery mildew disease, one of the best ways out is to spray with a solution of Topaz. In the fight against fungal diseases Bordeaux fluid is very effective.
How to process strawberries
The range of products for pest and disease control on strawberry plantations is huge. Over time, new chemicals appear, and the old ones multiply their names: many businessmen produce well-known drugs under their name. Understanding what is for sale is becoming more and more difficult. Fortunately, in most situations it is quite possible to do with the well-known drugs, or even “home” remedies.
Ammonia is an aqueous solution of ammonia and has a strong pungent odor. Ammonia dissolves in water at room temperature in a concentration of about 25%, which is quite a lot, and it is still dangerous to use such a solution in everyday life and in a summer cottage. If it comes into contact with the skin, wash it off immediately with plenty of water. But, as a rule, less concentrated solutions are sold in hardware stores.
Most often, a 10% solution of ammonia goes on open sale.
It is known that ammonia water (a highly diluted solution of ammonia) is an excellent nitrogen fertilizer. But ammonia can also be used to prevent many diseases of garden plants. Most crops can be sprayed with them after flowering. After processing strawberries with ammonia, ants, aphids, nematodes, and other pests do not appear on the beds for a long time. With regular spraying, you can also get rid of weevil, root nematode, May bug.
It is believed that during the season it is necessary to treat strawberries with ammonia three times:
- the first treatment - in early spring, with the growth of green leaves. 40 ml of ammonia (an aqueous solution of ammonia with a concentration of 10%) are taken in a bucket of water. Abundantly watered a bed of watering can. At the same time, the solution should fall both on the bushes and on the soil beneath them. At the same time, in addition to fertilizer, they get rid of fungal diseases on the leaves and pests that winter in the ground;
- second treatment - after flowering. On a bucket of water take very little ammonia, only 2-3 tbsp. l After abundant watering, a bed with strawberries is watered with a prepared solution using a watering can. This is a protection against most diseases. In addition, the second treatment is a timely nitrogen top dressing;
- the third time - after the harvest. The solution is used in the same composition as in spring. This is charging and prevention for the next season.
Iodine is a weak oxidizing agent, it perfectly disinfects in most cases, due to its antiseptic properties it can prevent the appearance of various bacterial diseases.
Iodine can be used to prevent bacterial diseases.
Pouring strawberries with iodine solution in early spring, you can get rid of weevils, which can destroy almost the entire crop. It is necessary to prepare a solution of only 0.5 tsp. pharmacy alcohol iodine solution on a bucket of water. First, the bushes are abundantly watered with water, and then treated with the prepared solution.
Iodine on strawberry beds is also used to combat gray rot and red spotting. Strawberries are sprayed 3 times per season: in early spring, before flowering and in early autumn. You can add a little liquid soap (about 1 tsp) to the solution described above so that it sticks better to the leaves.
It is believed that iodine is an effective immunomodulator: after its use, not only increased productivity, but also the improvement of bushes, as well as an increase in the keeping quality of the grown berries should be observed.
Hydrogen peroxide (formerly called peroxide) has unique properties. In the fight against pests and diseases of strawberries, its oxidizing (disinfecting) ability is most important.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Most likely, you can only get a 3% peroxide solution. A 30% solution (“perhydrol”) is quite dangerous to handle.
Hydrogen peroxide consists of only two elements, but has unique properties.
Hydrogen peroxide in the country is used in the processing of greenhouses, various containers, tools. The drug kills bacteria, viruses, pathogenic fungi. So what is better to choose for processing from rot - peroxide or iodine? Actually, the choice is yours. Depending on what is at hand. Peroxide leaves behind water and oxygen, iodine - iodides of potassium or sodium. But their number, formed after the introduction of these drugs, is so small that paying attention to this aspect does not make much sense. And both drugs do very well with their disinfecting task.
Hydrogen peroxide is probably the easiest and safest way to save strawberries from rotting. It should be dissolved in 1 liter of water 2 tbsp. l hydrogen peroxide (in severe cases - up to 3 tbsp. l.). The resulting solution is abundantly sprayed with all strawberry plantings early in the morning or in the evening. The treatment is repeated after 1 week. This drug in the quantities used is completely non-toxic for both humans and bees. Therefore, you can pick and eat berries already a few hours after processing.
Bordeaux liquid is a suspension prepared from copper sulfate and lime (calcium oxide or hydroxide). When they interact, poorly soluble copper hydroxide and calcium sulfate are formed, so handling the finished suspension is somewhat more difficult than with the solution: periodically, shake the contents of the sprayer. As a rule, a kit is sold that contains both components of the mixture, and often indicator paper to control the correct preparation of the liquid. First, according to the instructions, two solutions are prepared separately, and then they are carefully mixed, controlling the acidity of the medium by the indicator. To create a neutral or slightly alkaline environment add the necessary amount of lime (in the form of "milk of lime").
Unappetizing-looking Bordeaux fluid and actually quite toxic
Bordeaux liquid, unlike pure copper sulfate, adheres well to plants, acts more gently and for a long time. However, the mixture must be prepared strictly before use.
Bordeaux liquid has low toxicity for people, warm-blooded animals, and bees. However, it is known that copper, like any heavy metal, does not increase human health in high doses, to put it mildly. Therefore, in recent years, a concept has arisen according to which the annual spraying with a Bordeaux mixture leads to excessive accumulation of copper in the soil. Therefore, it is recommended to use copper preparations at the summer cottage only in case of urgent need, not more often than once every several years.
A 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid for processing strawberries in early spring is used to prevent leaf spotting. Later (closer to flowering, as well as in autumn), a 1% solution is already used for this purpose. Dosage - approximately 1.5 liters of liquid mixture per 10 m2 of strawberry plantation. It is better to carry out processing after harvesting and cleaning the beds from weeds and excess leaves. Spraying with this drug is carried out no more than 2 times per season.
Boric acid is weak, practically safe to use, and can not cause great harm to humans. This is a white powder, slowly dissolving in water, a valuable source of boron - an important trace element, therefore, in the garden plays a role, first of all, fertilizers. This is especially important when cultivating strawberries on sod-podzolic and light soils. Spraying the bushes in early spring with a solution of boric acid is very favorable. An increase in the number of ovaries is observed, boron stimulates the appearance of new growth points, berries become more sweet. The introduction of boric acid can increase productivity, improve the sugar content of berries, and help protect plants from pathogenic microbes.
Boric acid is usually used with potassium permanganate (the well-known potassium permanganate).
Potassium permanganate is the strongest oxidizing agent and should be used in the smallest possible amounts.
So, in early spring, strawberries are shed with a solution of boric acid and potassium permanganate - 1 g per bucket of water. This volume is for feeding 30–40 strawberry bushes.
For foliar feeding strawberries in spring, use the following composition: take 2 g of potassium permanganate and boric acid, 1 tbsp. furnace ash. From ash, only a useful “hood” is needed. Therefore, it is insisted day in a separate container with water, not forgetting to mix from time to time. Before using the infusion of ash should be filtered.
Ash is widely used as an individual "improvised" drug. A water “extract” from wood ash obtained from burning wood in a stove or on a fire is well suited for fertilizing strawberries.
As fertilizer, it is necessary to use wood ash, not the one that is formed after the burning of various household waste.
The ash contains most of the elements necessary for the development of strawberries (perhaps, there is no only nitrogen). This is phosphorus, potassium, calcium, many trace elements. In addition, wood ash is famous for its antibacterial and antiseptic properties. Thanks to the ash, the berries become sweeter, their keeping quality increases. Ash can be scattered between the rows in the garden. The best time for this is the pre-rain period. After the rain, the most valuable that is in the ash will pass into the soil. It’s good to immediately mulch the beds.
If you do not want to deal with the chemical processing of strawberry plantations, you can try to limit yourself to physical. The first thing that comes to mind is, of course, thermal disinfection. It is known that gooseberry and currant bushes in early spring are watered with almost steep boiling water. This destroys most pests and pathogenic bacteria. Of course, with strawberries, such a number is dangerous: it comes out of winter with green leaves! Therefore, they do not take boiling water, but simply hot water.
In the first ten days of April, strawberry plantations are watered with hot water (temperature 60–65 ° C, it is best to check with a thermometer). They heat water, of course, not far from the beds, scoop it up with any convenient dishes and quickly pour it into the center of the bush, capturing as much as possible all leaves. Hot processing destroys the larvae of the transparent tick, raspberry-strawberry weevil, sawflies, ticks and nematodes. Water, passing through the soil to a depth of several centimeters, cools down to about 30 ° C, so do not be afraid that the roots of the strawberries will be damaged.
Hot water also helps when planting strawberries. With its help, seedlings (mustaches) can be disinfected with a preventive purpose. For this, seedlings are immersed in water heated to 45 ° C and held for 15 minutes.
It looks like barbarism, but there are also such methods of struggle on the net.
10 days after harvesting, mustaches begin to grow actively. I’ll wait another 4 days when the earth dries in rows and row-spacings, cut off all leaves, mustaches, and remove weeds with secateurs. At the same hour, I preliminarily ignited a powerful blowtorch, I burn the ground and completely burn to ashes the leaves remaining after cutting the petioles. I remove the cut sheet and weeds in compost. I burn the hearts of strawberries, too, they are not afraid of being treated with fire for 10–20 s if they grow at or near ground level. Only those that crawled out of the ground will disappear, so that the roots are visible.Postnikov P. //chudo-ogorod.ru/zemlyanika-obrabotka-i-udobreniya
Strawberry weevil is an extremely dangerous pest. Notice it is not easy, because the size is very small (up to 3 mm). Parasitizes from the very beginning of spring, feeds on all parts of the plant.
They begin the struggle in the spring, for which all damaged fragments of the bush must be carefully collected and destroyed. In early May, the plantation is treated with long-acting biological preparations (Spark, Askarin). Plant protection from the pest lasts for several weeks. In case of severe infection, the second treatment is performed in the fall. In this case, powerful insecticides, such as Karbofos, Corsair, are already being used.
If you do not use chemistry, it is much more difficult to fight with a weevil. The main techniques:
- treatment of bushes with hot water in early spring;
- during budding - spraying with a solution of laundry soap with mustard;
- manual collection of insects;
- spraying with infusion of tansy or red capsicum;
- the use of good "neighbors" in the garden: onions, garlic;
- processing of tobacco-garlic infusion or infusion of celandine and onion peel.
Video: how and how to process strawberries
All the long winter we wait until finally a crop of vitamin plants appears on our garden. And in June a holiday comes: strawberries ripen - juicy, sweet, fragrant berry. But besides us, competitors are waiting for her - garden pests. What means to choose in the fight against them, you decide. In most cases, you can earn the right to a beautiful strawberry crop without using toxic drugs.