Pruning and forming a bush of black currant: features of spring and autumn pruning
Blackcurrant, like most berry crops, bears fruit better with proper care. Every year, starting from the moment of planting, currant bushes need to be cut and cleaned. There are different ways of pruning a plant, they are used depending on age, condition of the bush, season, and other conditions.
Blackcurrant bush structure
Blackcurrant - a bush up to two meters high. Prefers light areas. Fruits best on the shoots of last year, although the berries grow on old branches. Shoots growing from the roots are called "zero", they provide the main crop of the next year. From the old branches, the “nulls” are distinguished by a lighter color of the bark. Skeletal shoots older than three years are much darker, they have many lateral branches.
An adult bush of currant consists of branches of different ages
Do I need to prune currants
After pruning, the illumination of the bush improves, it is better ventilated. When removing old, diseased branches, as well as young shoots, thickening the bush, the plant does not spend extra energy for growth. The remaining branches receive more nutrition, which stimulates the formation and intensive development of new shoots. Harvesting from a properly formed bush is not difficult, since the extra branches do not interfere with the removal of berries. Regular pruning results in higher yields and improved fruit quality.
Young currant bush consists of one and two year old shoots
Currant pruning methods
For its purpose, pruning happens:
Forming pruning ensures the proper structure of the currant bush. They begin it from the moment of planting and spend 4–5 years, during which it is possible to finally form the plant. In the future, if necessary, carry out sanitary and anti-aging scraps. In the first case, the old branches are removed and the growth of young shoots is stimulated, in the second - they get rid of sick and broken branches. In old bushes, pests often start, so anti-aging pruning to some extent also plays a sanitary role.
Recommendations for the procedure
Regular formation guarantees a stable crop throughout the life of currant bushes. For good fruiting, you need to leave 15–20 branches of different ages on the currant. Every year, old (more than 6 years) and unripe shoots are removed, as well as shortened young branches.
A properly formed currant bush consists of branches of different ages.
The formation of a young currant bush, having only annual shoots, begins immediately after planting. All branches are cut, leaving stumps 5 cm high. This simple operation stimulates the formation of new powerful shoots. If you do not carry out intensive pruning at the beginning of growth, then the bush will be frail.
After removing the ground part, the plant will give 3-4 more new shoots over the summer. In autumn, young growth is not necessary to thin out, because next year's crop will be formed on it.
In the second year, the currant will already begin to bear fruit, and also during the season the bush forms new powerful shoots (“zero”). Doing autumn pruning leaves some of the strongest “zero ” processes. Broken branches affected by powdery mildew and pests remove the branches, and in the same way do shoots that are inclined to the ground or thicken the bush. Remove them as short as possible so as not to leave stumps.
There is another obvious benefit from pruning: extra branches can be used as cuttings for rooting, therefore, from one healthy bush bought in the nursery, you can get 3-4 new ones.
Currant pruning begins immediately after planting
Starting from the third year, three old branches are removed annually. They differ from the young in color - the darker the branch, the older it is. The brightest shoots are young, annuals. Old branches are very large and more often affected by pests. By removing them, they achieve better illumination of the bush and sanitation of the plant.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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On the currant bush from 3 years and older, several branches of different ages are left
Currant pruning rules
There are several important rules that are followed when pruning currant bushes:
- Do not leave stumps, cut as close to the ground as possible.
- Remove branches to the nearest external kidney.
- Trim shoots at an angle of 45 °.
- The optimal cut distance from the kidney is 5 mm.
To trim the bushes you need a well-ground pruner. Some gardeners recommend disinfecting it after use.
Currant branches that thicken the bush are removed as close to the ground as possible.
Gardeners believe that the currant bush lives no more than 12-15 years. Proper care, timely pruning and top dressing will provide maximum productivity to the currant bush during this time. In the future, if it is a really valuable variety, propagate it with cuttings and grow a new plant. It is usually impractical to keep old bushes longer.
Pruning a currant bush requires a lot of time and certain skills. In the spring, it is recommended to remove branches after the establishment of warm weather, but before the onset of sap flow and budding. If you start pruning later, you can nullify the whole crop: the awakened buds will fall, and with intensive sap flow, the cropped place heals worse and the plant can become sick.
Many gardeners prune in the fall after harvesting. At this time, the currant bush still has enough strength to recover, and the plant hibernates well. In the spring, they carry out the rest of the work, stacking in a short time.
During spring pruning pay attention to the appearance of the bush. Currants should not be very spreading, therefore, branches that are inclined or lying on the ground are removed first. Also, shoots of currants growing inside and thickening the bush, damaged by frost, broken or dry, are also removed. If, for some reason, the fall-off branches have not been removed in the fall, this is also done in the spring.
Video: spring pruning and processing of blackcurrant bushes
Depending on the age of the bushes, pruning in the fall is carried out in different ways. Usually, all leaves remaining on the branches are removed before starting work.
On young bushes, the tops of the central “zero” shoots are shortened by 20–25 cm. In the future, more fruit buds are laid on the cut branches, better illumination is provided, and the shoots themselves branch better. Next year, the crop will be formed in the central part, which will facilitate the harvesting of berries.
On old bushes, currants are removed if necessary diseased and broken branches, shorten them to strong young shoots and maintain the correct shape.
Video: methods of autumn pruning bushes of different ages
Blackcurrant is a quick-growing shrub that grows green mass very quickly and can become very thick, sometimes at the expense of yield. The correct formation of currants requires certain skills and knowledge, but any gardener can master them. .