Proper pruning of currants in the spring is the key to a rich harvest
A well-organized garden is a great place to relax, and planted shrubs and fruit trees are a source of natural vitamins for family health. However, without a systematic departure of the crop, you can not wait. The formation of perennials is one of the main tasks of a responsible gardener. Currants are no exception, therefore, in order to extend the life of the bush, you need to know the rules of growth and fruiting and take them into account when pruning.
Do I need to prune currants in spring
Like any tree or shrub, currants have several periods of vegetative development. Accordingly, pruning should be carried out in such a way as to enhance growth, fruiting and reduce the risk of plant disease.
Types of seasonal pruning:
- spring - sanitary, formative,
- summer - for rationing the formation of shoots and fruits,
- autumn - formative, rejuvenating,
- winter is carried out in the continuation of the autumn, and only for thinning very thickened bushes.
Spring pruning, along with autumn pruning, is the main type of care for forming a bush and extending its life. During this period, sanitary cleaning of old plantings is carried out: frozen, dried up and damaged branches during the winter are removed. In the spring, young bushes planted last year are formed.
It is not worth planning for spring forming pruning of old bushes. After cutting large branches, large wounds remain, and through them the plant will lose juices, the movement of which becomes especially active after awakening.
If you make currant rejuvenation in the fall, and sanitize in the spring, then you can extend the life of the bush to 15 years or more.
Spring Trimming Dates
Spring is the time of plant awakening and the active movement of juices, therefore it is important to finish all work related to the violation of the integrity of the bush before the beginning of this period. The signal for the onset of growth is swelling of the kidneys. Since currants begin this process early, pruning should be done in early spring, in March, even when the snow has not yet melted. If you have to do this later, then sections, the diameter of which is more than 2 cm, must be covered with clay talker or garden var.
Pruning should begin in early spring.
Clay mash is prepared from clay and cow manure: mix them in an arbitrary proportion and dilute with water to a semi-liquid consistency. You can gloss over with such a composition any damage to the bark, cuts and even breaks of branches, which then should be tightly wound with a cloth.
What you need to know before working with a bush
In the spring, as a rule, sanitary cleaning of currant bushes is carried out. Formative pruning is carried out in the fall, however, during this period it is impossible to delete all branches, since it is not known whether the remaining ones will survive the winter. In the spring, they inspect the bush, identify damaged shoots. Branches that have dried in the winter, with frozen tops, broken, are subject to removal. Then the left spare branches and parts of the shoots are removed. For the normal development of the bush, a set of branches of different ages is necessary, therefore, shoots of growth of different years should be distinguished. The age and condition of the branch can be determined by the following criteria:
- annuals - light, thin, without growth,
- in biennials, the bark acquires a brownish tint,
- at the age of three and older, the cortex darkens and lateral growths appear,
- branches older than 5 years are distinguished by the presence of cracked sections of the bark, in addition, they are often affected by lichen.
These signs will help determine the shoots to be shortened and removed in the spring, when leaves and inflorescences have not yet appeared.
Important! The main crop is formed on the new shoots of three-year-old branches. They need to be saved more than elders. And also you need to leave a sufficient number of branches to replace them.
Red or black?
There are three types of currants: black, red and white. They differ not only in the color and taste of the berries, but also in the principle of the formation of branches on the bush, in the method of laying fruit buds and, accordingly, in different approaches to pruning.
The principle of currant bush formation depends on the method of growth branches formation
The bush of blackcurrant branches perfectly, and root shoots appear less often than red and white. It will be fully formed in only four years, and the tops should be shortened annually - so more fruit shoots will be formed and the yield will be higher.
Red and white currants expel skeletal branches directly from the root, so cutting old branches will open the middle of the bush to the sun and prevent its thickening. However, the tops of these bushes cannot be shortened - fruit ovaries form on them.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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Five-year-old branches should be removed for blackcurrant, and seven-year-old for red. For an adult, strong bush, it is desirable to leave 5-7 fruiting and as many young branches on the same root. Taking into account the shoots of the current year, the total number of branches should not exceed twenty.
The principle of forming a bush: for each old branch, a substitution shoot should be provided. Then the harvest will be sufficient, and there will be no overload of the plant.
The common goal of spring pruning of black and red currants remains rejuvenation and sanitary cleaning.
Two other important principles for the care of currant bushes:
- Cutting under the root of weak shoots that do not develop into a full-fledged branch, but take away strength from the root.
- Removal of vigorous “tops”, which sharply go to growth, but do not give fruit ovaries.
Photo gallery: examples of the formation of bushes of red and black currants
- Blackcurrant pruning is carried out from the first year of bush growth
- Red currant pruning is done to rejuvenate the bush and increase yield
- When forming a currant bush, it is necessary to take into account the age of its branches
Seedling pruning during spring planting
Whatever kind of currant you decide to plant, it must be cut. This is done so that the seedling takes root faster in the soil and builds up the root system. On a healthy root, before planting, there should be no more than two shoots, which immediately after planting should be shortened to two or three buds. Thus, the load on the young root will not exceed six shoots. This rule applies to black, red, and white currants.
Proper trimming techniques
Formation is a necessary procedure, but the removal of living branches inflicts wounds on the bush, which are the gateway to diseases and pests. The plant alone is able to tighten the cut, but only if it is performed correctly. Cut wounds heal quickly, and lacerations can cause branch death.
The first rule of the gardener: to work with a sharp tool . This is important because the sharpened secateurs will make the cut even and not crush the cambium - cells that form a scar over the cut, tightening the wound.
The second rule of the gardener: cut the branches without disturbing the natural movement of the juices.
There are four spring pruning methods:
- branch removal to soil level,
- shortening the shoot "on the kidney"
- a branch cut "on the ring",
- thinning of forks on the side branch.
Removing branches to soil level
It is used to completely remove the old branch, which is cut so that no stump remains over the soil. This is important, because the remaining dead part will either begin to rot, or become a convenient entry for pests. To make the correct cut, the earth is slightly shifted and the branch is removed with a pruner.
Shortening the shoot "on the kidney"
The main method of shortening the shoots, which allows thinning the bush. All juices going along the branch will be directed to the upper two or three nodes and their growth will increase. Therefore, you can cut the branch to the level of any kidney, but the main thing is that it is directed from the bush. The shoots directed inward will only thicken the bush. But it is also important when cutting not to leave a stump, but not to come close to the left kidney. The optimum distance is about 5 mm.
The kidney cut is used to shorten the branches
Branch cut “on the ring”
It is used mainly for the formation of black currants. In this type of pruning, the side shoots are completely cut out, rejuvenating the skeletal branches. As a rule, this type of thinning is used in autumn, but in spring it can also be carried out. The cut should be straight and perpendicular to the removed branch, so that the area of the wound is the smallest. Leaving hemp is not allowed, but it is also impossible to capture part of the cambium of the main branch, as this will lead to its death.
The “ring” cut should not damage the main (skeletal) branch of the bush
Thinning forks on the side branch
On the currant, as on other shrubs and trees, many forks are formed. They thicken the crown, preventing the light from entering. Branch thinning solves this problem. In such cases, pruning is used for translation. This means that one of the two branches is left, which will take the juices on itself, thereby increasing the likelihood of fruiting. The main rule for choosing a branch for removal is the direction of growth: if the shoot grows vertically upwards, you cannot leave it.
Incorrect trimming “with translation” will lead to the death of the remaining branch
For starters: the option of forming currants "without hassle"
Beginning gardeners, for whom the wisdom of branch growth and the rules for moving juices often seem too complicated, should take note of simple tricks. They do not require deep knowledge, but give excellent results with a minimum of effort.
- All branches that have reached an age maximum should be trimmed. You can determine this by diameter: branches thicker than one centimeter should be removed.
- Cut off all shoots directed inside the bush, drooping and weak.
- Thin out the remaining branches, interrupting the access of light into the bush. And also cut all the tops “onto the ring” - strong shoots directed vertically upwards.
Video: pruning currants to rejuvenate the bush
Currants, like other shrubs, require care, but it is worth showing a little attention and care, and the plant will respond with an excellent harvest of healthy berries.