The popular variety of the apple tree Gala and its varieties
The apple-tree Gala and its clones can be seen in industrial gardens of many countries of the world located in zones with a temperate and warm climate. And its spectacular and sweet fruits can be found in almost any supermarket. Where and how to grow this apple tree - we will help to figure it out.
Autumn variety of apple trees of the New Zealand selection, obtained in 1962. Since the mid-1970s, it has been tested in Ukraine, and since 1993 it has been zoned in the steppe zone. In 2014, he was included in the State Register of Russia and zoned in the North Caucasus region. The industrial cultivation of Gala apples in Russia is concentrated in the Crimea and the Kuban. In home gardens and summer cottages it is occasionally found in the southern regions of the Middle Strip.
The tree is medium-sized with a wide oval medium-thick crown. Skeletal branches drift away from the trunk at an angle of 45–75 °, fruit bearing on the annulus, fruit twigs, and ends of annual shoots.
Gala bears fruit on the glove, fruit twigs and ends of annual shoots
Winter hardiness in the region is average. The variety has a high immunity to powdery mildew, medium - to scab and zero - to European cancer.
It blooms in medium-late periods (end of May - beginning of June), has good pollen viability - 73–89%.
Pollen viability is its ability to germinate on the stigma of a pestle under favorable conditions. The higher this indicator, the more self-fertile the plant.
Pollinators for a variety in the growing region are apple varieties:
- James Greve
- Red Delicious.
On vigorous stocks it begins bearing fruit 6-7 years after planting. Apple-tree Gala on a dwarf rootstock will bring the first crop already for 3-4 years. While the apple trees are young (up to 10 years old), they bear fruit annually and moderately. An adult tree can bear up to 55-80 kilograms of fruit. When overloaded, the fruits become smaller and the fruiting frequency is observed.
Fruits are one-dimensional, rounded or rounded conical with a slight ribbing at the apex. The average weight of 130 grams, the maximum - 145 grams. They have the main color of a dense and thin peel of yellow or greenish-yellow color with a striped, blurry, orange-red blush on almost the entire surface of the apple. The flesh is crisp, juicy, dense, has a light yellow color. The taste is excellent, sour-sweet. Tasting score - 4.6 points.
Gala apples have the main color of a dense and thin peel of yellow or greenish-yellow color with a striped, blurred, orange-red blush on almost the entire surface of the apple
Apples reach their ripeness in mid-September, and they are ready for use in November. Shelf life in a cool room up to 60-80 days. At a temperature of 0-5 ° C, they are stored for 5-6 months. Appointment - for the fresh use and juice production. Transportability is average.
- Great dessert taste of apples.
- Universality of use.
- High yield.
- Early maturity.
- Immunity to powdery mildew.
The disadvantages of the variety:
- Insufficient winter hardiness and limited growing region.
- Low scab immunity.
- Lack of immunity to European apple cancer.
- Frozen fruits during overload harvest.
Popular varieties and types of apple trees Gala
The Gala apple tree has about twenty species and clones, but the sources do not have detailed descriptions and characteristics of each of them. Consider some of the most common.
Recognized as the best of the clones. It has larger fruits (160-220 grams) of saturated red-ruby color. And also noted its increased resistance to powdery mildew.
The apple-tree Gala Mast has larger fruits (160-220 grams) of saturated red-ruby color
Video: Gala Mast Apple Tree Overview
This species has a more spectacular red-raspberry color, a conical shape of apples and a slightly larger mass (150 grams). Distributed in the USA and Europe.
Gala Royal apples have a more spectacular red-raspberry color
Italian clone of the Gala Royal variety. Ripening in late August - the first half of September. Storage in the refrigerator for 4-5 months. Relatively hardy. Highly susceptible to scab, bark and wood diseases. Powdery mildew is weakly affected. Crohn is well branched. The fruits are very beautiful, excellent presentation. The color is yellow with a pink barrel and a dark red striped blush on most of the surface of the apple. The taste is very sweet.
Gala Shniga - Italian clone of the apple tree Gala Royal
Planting Gala apple trees
- Choosing a landing place. Required characteristics of the site for growing Gala apple trees:
- A small slope of the south or southeast direction.
- Protection from cold winds from the north or northeast in the form of thick trees or walls of buildings.
- Good lighting and ventilation.
- Soil requirements:
- pH 6.5-7.0.
- Loose loam, sandy loam or chernozem.
- Good drainability.
- The distance from buildings and neighboring trees is at least three meters.
- Choosing a landing time. Three options are possible:
- Early spring. Before the onset of sap flow during soil warming up to + 5-10 ° C.
- Fall. After the end of sap flow, but not less than a month before the onset of frost.
- If seedlings with a closed root system are purchased, then the planting time does not matter. It is possible to do this from April to October.
- The acquisition of seedlings. This is best done in the fall, and in the case of spring planting, seedlings are stored in the basement or dug into the ground.
The seedling is dripped in an almost horizontal position
- Preparing the landing pit. It is prepared no later than 20-30 days before planting. If planting is planned in the spring, then the pit is prepared in the fall. The order is as follows:
- It is necessary to dig a hole with a depth of 50-70 centimeters and a diameter of 80-90 centimeters.
- If the soil is not sufficiently drained, then a layer of crushed stone or other similar material with a thickness of 10-15 centimeters should be laid at the bottom of the pit.
- Fill the pit with a mixture of chernozem, peat, humus and coarse river sand in equal proportions. 300-500 grams of superphosphate and 3-4 liters of wood ash should be added to this mixture.
Landing pit filled with nutrient mixture to the topRecent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
5 Japanese plants that take root well in Central Russia
How do I protect seedlings from my curious cats
- A few hours before planting, the roots of the seedling should be soaked in water.
- A hole of sufficient volume is made in the landing pit and a small mound is poured in the center of it.
- A wooden or metal peg is driven in at a short distance from the center. Its height above the soil should be 90-130 centimeters.
- Take the seedling out of the water and sprinkle the roots with Kornevin powder (Heteroauxin).
- Lower the seedling into the pit, placing the root neck on top of the knoll and spreading the roots along the slopes.
- They fill the pit with earth, gently ramming it. During this procedure, you must ensure that the root collar is ultimately at the soil level. To do this, it is convenient to use a wooden rail or bar.
To control the location of the root neck during planting, it is convenient to use a wooden rail or bar
- After this, as usual, a near-stem circle is formed along the diameter of the pit and watered with plenty of water in several stages. It is necessary that the soil is well saturated and the sinuses in the root zone disappear.
- The trunk of the plant is tied to a peg with fabric tape so that it is not transmitted.
- The central conductor is cut at an altitude of 80-100 centimeters from the ground, branches are shortened by 30-50%.
- After some time, the soil is loosened and mulched with a layer of 10-15 centimeters. To do this, you can use hay, straw, humus, compost, rotted sawdust, etc.
After watering, the soil is loosened and mulched with a layer of 10-15 centimeters
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
The rules for growing Gala apple tree and its care do not have significant differences and features compared to other varieties. We will briefly show the main points.
Watering and feeding
The sources do not have information about the drought tolerance of the variety. Therefore, we will consider that the requirements for watering this apple tree are average. As usual, the tree requires more frequent watering in the first years of life, while the root system is still not sufficiently developed. At this time, the tree needs eight to ten waterings per season. With age, as a rule, the need for them decreases and, depending on weather conditions, they will need 4-6 for the growing season. It is most important to moisten the soil in spring and in the first half of summer. 2-3 weeks before harvesting, watering is usually stopped. Autumn will require pre-winter water-loading irrigation. Mulching the soil in near-stem circles will help maintain proper moisture and prevent weed growth.
Regular fertilizer application contributes to stable fruiting and obtaining high quality fruits. They begin to fertilize the apple tree 3-4 years after planting, when the supply of nutrients in the planting pit begins to dry up.
Table: Gal apple feeding schedule
|The timing||Fertilizers||Application Method||Frequency and dosage|
|Fall||Compost, humus||Under digging||Once every three to four years, 5-10 kg / m2|
|Superphosphate||Annually, 30-40 g / m2|
|Spring||Urea or ammonium nitrate|
|June||Potassium monophosphate||In liquid form, dissolving in water for irrigation||Annually, 10-20 g / m2|
|June July||Liquid organic concentrates. They are prepared by insisting in the water of mullein (2: 10), bird droppings (1: 10) or fresh grass (1: 2) for 7-10 days.||Annually, 1 l / m2, 3-4 feeding with an interval of 1-2 weeks|
|Complex mineral fertilizers are applied according to the attached manufacturer's instructions|
Crops and crop rationing
Like every tree, Gala apple tree needs to be given a certain crown shape in the first years of life. For this grade, a cup-shaped formation is recommended, which provides good ventilation of the entire volume of the crown, its illumination by sunlight, the convenience of harvesting and care.
For the Gala apple tree, a cup-shaped crown formation is recommended
To ensure stable crops, it is necessary to thin out the crown annually by removing unnecessary shoots that thicken it. If this is not done, the fruits will fade. And also, as usual, sanitary pruning should be carried out every fall, during which dry, diseased and damaged branches are removed.
The tendency of the variety to overload the crop requires rationing by removing some of the flowers and ovaries. And also this can be done by additional thinning of fruit branches.
Harvesting and storage
A few simple rules will allow the gardener to preserve the harvest of sweet juicy Gala apples for a long time without loss of taste.
- You need to know that if the apples are wet during harvesting or storage, then they will not be able to save. Therefore, they are collected exclusively in dry weather.
- It is better to sort them right away, discarding damaged and substandard fruits. They can be immediately recycled to make juice.
- Quality fruits are placed in cardboard or wooden ventilated boxes. Apples stacked in one layer will last longer. Fruits that are supposed to be consumed earlier can be stacked in 3-4 layers.
- For storage, cellars with air temperatures from 0 to +5 ° C or refrigerators are suitable. You can not store apples in the same room with root vegetables and cabbage.
- When storing, between the boxes should be installed gaskets with a thickness of 4-5 centimeters to ensure ventilation.
Diseases and pests of the apple tree
Such troubles are less likely to annoy the gardener if he regularly performs preventive measures.
Table: preventive measures for diseases and pests of apple trees
|Term||Scope of work||Ways of doing||Effect obtained|
|October||They rake the fallen leaves into heaps and burn them together with the branches removed during sanitary pruning. The resulting ash is stored for use as fertilizer.||Destruction of spores of pathogens of fungal diseases, as well as wintering pests|
|Examination and treatment of bark||If cracks or damage are found, they should be cleaned and cut to healthy wood, then treated with a 2% solution of copper sulfate and covered with a layer of garden varnish||Prevention of European (ordinary) cancer of apple trees and other diseases of the bark|
|Whitewash||A solution of slaked lime is prepared by adding 1% copper sulfate and PVA glue to it. With this solution, the trunks and thick branches of the apple tree are whitened.||Sunburn Prevention, Frost Frost|
|November||Digging near-trunk circles with a flip of layers of earth. It is carried out as late as possible before the onset of frost. Then, as a result, pests wintering in the soil will be raised to the surface, where they will die from the cold.|
|March||Herbicide eradication||They are carried out before the beginning of budding, using DNOC (once every three years) and Nitrafen (in other years)||Pest and Disease Prevention|
|Installation of hunting belts||Hunting belts, made from improvised materials, are installed on the trunks of apple trees, creating obstacles for various pests (ants, beetles, caterpillars) getting on the tree crown.|
|Before flowering, immediately after flowering and 10 days after flowering||Spraying with fungicides (drugs to combat fungal diseases) such as Horus, Skor, Strobi, etc.||Prevention of fungal diseases, including scab, powdery mildew, European (ordinary) cancer of apple trees, etc.|
|Spraying with insecticides (pest control drugs) such as Decis, Fufanon, Spark, etc.||Prevention of pests, including bee-eater, moths, aphids, etc.|
The long-known and common fungal disease of fruit crops. The pathogen spores winter in fallen leaves and fruits. In spring, when the growth of young shoots begins, spores with the wind fall on the crown and, thanks to the existing mucous layer, adhere to the lower surface of the leaves. If the humidity is sufficient, and the air temperature is in the range of 18-20 ° C, then spores germinate in the outer layer of young shoots and leaves. This can be easily seen by the formation of spots of light olive color on them. Over time, spots grow, turn brown, crack. In summer, the disease spreads to the fruits, which are covered with coarse dark brown spots, cracks. The treatment consists in removing the affected parts of the plant and treatment with fungicides. The fastest effect in emergency cases is given by the Strobi drug, which quickly blocks the course and spread of the disease.
Fruits affected by scab are covered with coarse dark brown spots, cracks
European (ordinary) apple cancer
Often found in the southern regions and Crimea, bark and wood disease caused by the marsupial fungus Nectria galligena Bres. Came to us from Europe, which determined its name. The causative agent enters the plant through unhealed wounds, cracks, and frost-holes. Developing, causes the appearance on the trunks of deep open wounds. Along the edges, large flows of the so-called callus are formed. On thinner branches, the influxes close, leaving a small gap - in this case, the disease proceeds in a closed form. In winter, callus is destroyed by frost, due to which the wounds do not heal and expand, affecting increasingly vast spaces. The treatment boils down to cleaning the wounds to healthy wood, disinfection with a 2% solution of copper sulfate and applying a protective layer of garden varicose.
Cancer causes deep open wounds on the trunks
Apple Pests Gala
The sources do not have information about the susceptibility of the variety to pests, so we will assume that in some cases they can attack. Briefly provide information about the main representatives.
- Apple moth. This is a nondescript night butterfly of light brown color. Lays eggs on the upper tiers of the crown. Caterpillars crawling out of the eggs penetrate into the ovaries and immature fruits, where they feed on seeds. One caterpillar is capable of destroying up to four fruits. Fighting is effective at the stage of flight of butterflies by performing preventive spraying.
Apple codling moth is a plain brown butterfly of light brown color.
- Gall aphid. A small insect that settles on the underside of the leaves and feeds on their juice. As a result, the leaves curl, red tubercles appear on the outside. Ants are aphid on the crown to subsequently feed on its sweetish secretions (honey dew). The struggle is reduced to the mechanical collection of affected leaves and shoots, followed by insecticide treatment (Spark, Fufanon, Decis).
Gall aphid - a small insect that settles on the underside of leaves and feeds on their juice
- Apple Blossom. Small - up to three millimeters in size - weevil beetle wintering in the upper layers of the soil. In spring, when the soil begins to warm up, it rises to the surface and crawls onto the crown. There, females gnaw buds and lay one egg each. Larvae crawl out of the eggs and eat out the flower (bud) from the inside. Thus, you can lose the entire crop if you do not take preventive and control measures.
Apple blossoms winter in the upper layers of the soil
Today, they collected Gala, the tree for the sixth year, 8 buckets, cf. mass 150 g. A very tasty apple, juicy sweet At ATB, and they are already trading at the market with might and main. We will eat it ourselves.viha28, Zaporizhzhya region, Ukraine
Last year was the first fruiting of Gala Mast vaccinations. Before that, I bought it on the market, it was simply called Gala, but not the fact that it was not some of the clones. Sweet hard crunchy flesh, I like apples like that. The size of the fruit is small. A month ago, Gal Shnig instilled. It seems to be, during heavy rains, it definitely does not crack at the tail.StirlitZ, Kiev
I don’t really feel sorry for imported store apples and it’s not always possible to buy the ones that fit my taste. It is important for me that the apple is very hard, but juicy, and most importantly - not too sweet. That's almost such qualities have apples from Argentina brand Royal Gala 4173.MarEvo512
Today purchased Royal Gala apples in a supermarket. We really liked these apples. They have a very sweet and rich taste. Their pulp is crisp and juicy, aromatic. They are light yellow in color with pink stains. Apples are medium in size. The weight of one fruit can reach one hundred and forty grams. Fruits are usually round in shape. We really liked this variety for its aroma and sweet taste. The fruits are very juicyFlorias Ukraine, Zaporozhye
The apple-tree Gala gained wide distribution at industrial cultivation thanks to rather labor-consuming agrotechnics and commodity qualities of fruits. Among amateur gardeners in Russia, it is not yet in great demand due to the limited growing zone only in the southern regions.