Plum Stanley - time-tested quality
Plum is one of the most beloved fruits, which is present in almost every amateur garden. Despite the emergence of new and new varieties, often long-known and time-tested varieties of plums still come first. Stanley plum belongs to such varieties, the quality of which withstands the test of time.
Stanley Plum Variety Description
Stanley is a medium-late-ripening variety, which in many countries of the world is used mainly for the manufacture of prunes.
Stanley plum - one of the varieties of home plum (Prunus domestica) - has been known for a long time. She appeared in the United States in 1912 in the city of Geneva (New York) thanks to the selection work of Richard Wellington. Her “parents” are the French plum D'agen and the American Grand Duke. Belongs to the plum-Hungarian. The new variety has been widely used since 1926. Now this plum is one of the most common in the world. In the Soviet Union, she entered the state variety testing in 1977, and since 1985 she was introduced to the State Register under the name Stanley, although it is more correct to call this variety Stanley. It is recommended for cultivation in the North Caucasus (on the territory of the Krasnodar Territory and the Republic of Adygea).
Plum Stanley on video
Stanley Plum Description
The Stanley trees are medium-sized (an average of 3–3.5 m), with a beautifully rounded elliptical crown. The crown structure is rare.
Despite the rare crown of plum, Stanley is very fruitful
The stem and main branches are straight, covered with a rather dark gray bark with slight cracking of the surface. Young shoots are painted in crimson with a purple tint and equipped with a few spikes. The leaves of a rounded shape have a pointed tip, their sizes are not very large (5-7.5 cm in length). Their color is bright green, and at the bottom of the sheet there is a slight hairiness. Vegetative buds are very small (2-3 mm) and have a conical shape.
Plum blossoms with rather large (up to 3 cm in diameter) flowers with white petals sitting on an unhandled long peduncle. Trees bloom in April (in 10 numbers).
Plum blossoms usually in April with large white flowers
Fruit wood is represented by shoots of the previous year and bouquet branches. The dimensions of the plums are quite large (weight of 1 fruit is 30-50 grams). The shape of the fruit resembles an egg with an elongated base and a rounded top. The main color of the fruit is green, and the integumentary color is dark purple. The thin skin has a rather loose structure and a small number of brownish subcutaneous points. The skin is covered with a dense wax coating. The medium-sized elliptical bone is rather firmly attached to the pulp and does not separate too well from it.
Large fruits are covered with a thick waxy coating
The aromatic pulp, painted in yellow, is characterized by high density and a granular-fibrous structure. Despite the relatively low amount of juice, the fruits taste very good - sweet with a slight acidity, which is explained by the high content of sugars (13.8%) and vitamin C (8.9 mg / 100 g). Fresh plums receive 4.7–4.8 points from tasters.
Advantages and disadvantages
The popularity of Stanley plum among gardeners is due to many advantages:
- abundant annual crops (up to 55–62 kg per 1 tree);
- excellent taste, resistance to transportation and the versatility of the use of fruits;
- high winter hardiness (up to -34 ° C);
- good resistance to sharka and polystigmosis, medium - to kleasterosporiosis (hole blotch).
Of course, plum has its weaknesses:
- average rates of early maturity (begin to bear fruit at 4–5 years);
- low resistance to drought;
- exactingness to soil fertility;
- susceptibility to fungal diseases;
- tendency to be affected by aphids.
Stanley Plum Planting Rules
The success of Stanley plum cultivation to a large extent depends on the right choice of place and proper planting. Planting dates depend on climatic conditions: spring is considered a suitable planting time for areas with a warm climate, and early autumn - for colder areas.
Plums come from Asia, and therefore are warm and photophilous. Stanley plum can grow in light shading, but a well-lit area is preferred.
Plum tree does not tolerate sharp drafts. It must be protected from the cold wind by a hedge or other barrier so that the tree is not obscured.
Reduced areas of the drain will not fit - cold air descends there and stagnant moisture accumulates, causing the root neck to heat up and rot. The groundwater level should be no closer than 1.5–2 m from the surface of the earth. If it is impossible to find a place that satisfies these conditions, you need to plant a plum on an artificial hill (height not less than 0.6-0.7 m, diameter 2 m). The optimal place for the Stanley plum is the upper parts of the slopes of gentle hills located in a southeast or southwest direction.
When planting a plum tree, it is necessary to observe the distance to the nearest trees and buildings 3-4 m in order to provide the necessary area of tree nutrition (9-10 m2).
Landing pit preparation
Stanley makes certain demands on the soil: it must be light and fertile. Plum grows best on nutrient-rich loam and sandy loam. If the soil is not suitable, you can compensate for its shortcomings by applying fertilizers. Prepare the soil 5-6 months before planting. The land liberated from weeds is deeply dug, introducing organic and mineral fertilizers.
A pit is prepared at least 2-3 weeks before planting. The dimensions of the pit should correspond to the root system of the sink (depth 0.5–0.6 m, width 0.7–0.9 m). The topsoil (18–20 cm) must be folded in a separate pile. Semi-overripe manure, peat, humus or compost, 0.2 kg of superphosphate and 70–80 g of potassium nitrate are added to this soil (proportion 2: 1) (1 liter of wood ash can be replaced).
Do not forget to set aside the topsoil - it will serve as the basis of the nutrient mixture for refueling the pit
Stanley does not like acidic soil, so with increased acidity, you need to add 600-700 g of dolomite flour or a liter jar of ground eggshell to the nutrient mixture.
The mixture is poured into the pit, forming a cone. If there is a lot of time left before the tree is planted, you need to cover the hole with a piece of slate or roofing material so that the fertilizers are not washed away by the rain.
The technology of planting a Stanley plum seedling is practically no different from the technology of planting other fruit trees. Landing is easier to do together.
Seedlings should be selected carefully, checking the flexibility of the branches and roots, the development of the root system, the absence of damage and the presence of a vaccination site.
- 2-3 days before planting, the root system of a seedling is immersed in a bucket of water at a temperature of 20-25 degrees with the addition of potassium permanganate or a root growth stimulator (Epina, Kornevin, potassium humate).
- Not later than 3-4 hours before planting, the roots are dipped in an earthenware mash, into which it is desirable to add fresh cow manure. The talker should have a sour cream consistency and not drain from the roots.
- A bucket of water is poured into the landing pit and the support stake is hammered so that it is approximately equal to the height of the seedling.
- A tree with straightened roots is placed in a pit and carefully covered with soil, filling all the voids between the roots. The earth needs to be layer by layer compacted by hands.
- The root neck of a planted tree should rise 5-6 cm above the soil surface.
- The sapling is tied with a soft strip of fabric to the peg and watered with 2-3 buckets of water. Pouring it should not be at the root, but into ring grooves, cut 25 cm from the trunk. As soon as water is completely absorbed by the soil, the surface of the trunk circle is mulched with dry peat, sawdust or straw.
- When the soil settles after watering, the tree needs to be tied again, already completely, to the peg. The shoots are shortened by a third of the length.
Plum planting on video
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
Plum Stanley does not require special care. She needs enough standard watering, top dressing and pruning. The trunk circle must be clean, it must be regularly freed from weeds and loosened. Do not plant flowers or vegetables under the tree.
Stanley loves moist soil, but does not tolerate excess moisture. Therefore, watering should be regular, but moderate. The soil should be soaked with water to a depth of 0.4-0.45 m - it is in this horizon that the bulk of the roots are located. For trees older than 5 years, one watering per week with 1 bucket of water in the early morning hours and after sunset is enough. During the formation of the ovary and 1.5–2 weeks before fruit ripening, watering is speeded up 3 times. It is useful to perform irrigation irrigation. If this does not work out, it is possible to water along concentric grooves (the outer one should be done along the perimeter of the crown projection).
The author would like to share her experience in growing Stanley plums. It should be said that the plum is very moody regarding watering. If the soil is allowed to dry to the beginning of the formation of the ovary, they can fall en masse. The author hastily saturated the tree with moisture, pouring it under the root. It is advisable to use water not too cold. Very good results were obtained with regular loosening of the soil and weeding of weeds. You also need to periodically apply fertilizers - organics can simply be scattered on the surface of the soil of the trunk circle and slightly interfere with the pitchfork. And it is necessary to remove the root shoot - at least 4 times during the summer.
For sprinkling trees, you can do the installation yourself
The nutrients introduced into the planting pit for a long time ensure the development of plum seedlings, so that top dressing starts 2-3 years after planting.
When choosing fertilizers, remember that plum does not tolerate chlorine, so all chlorine-containing mineral fertilizers must be excluded.
The first feeding is carried out in the spring, after waiting for the thawing of the soil. Compost or other organic fertilizers (10 kg / m2) are added to the soil of the trunk circle in a mixture with complex fertilizer (175 g Azofoski or Nitroammofoski) or with the addition of potassium sulfate (65–70 g), urea (20–30 g), superphosphate ( 0.1 kg). Potassium compounds can be replaced with 0.5 kg of wood ash. The dose of fertilizers should be increased 1.5 times when the tree reaches the age of 5 years.
Spring feeding plums - video
Before flowering begins, you need to feed the tree with urea and potassium nitrate (40–45 g of each fertilizer) under the root, or spray the tree with the same amount of fertilizer diluted in 10 liters of water. You can use a solution of fresh manure (1:10) or bird droppings (1:15) with the addition of potassium salts.Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The same top dressing is repeated at the end of June, using Nitrofosco instead of potassium sulfate. You can use herbal infusion (preferably nettles or dandelions) or complex fertilizers Ideal or Berry.
After harvesting, the soil is enriched with 60–70 grams of a mixture of superphosphate and potassium sulfate (each should be taken equally). They are scattered in a dry form in a near-stem circle, slightly intervened with a pitchfork and irrigated. Organics (compost, humus) contribute no more than 1 time in 2-3 years.
How to cook herbal infusion - video
If there is a tree lag in growth, you need to spray the tree with yeast solution every 7-10 days. A kilogram of fresh yeast is poured into 10 liters of hot water and left for 4–5 hours (you can take a bag of dry yeast and 50 g of sugar, pour a glass of hot water, and pour it into a bucket of water after 3-4 hours).
Plum tree has high winter hardiness, and its flower buds tolerate frosts well, but in anticipation of severe frosts, it is better to prepare the tree in advance:
- after leaf fall, the near-stem circle must be thoroughly cleaned of any plant debris and loosened to a depth of 8-10 cm;
- water abundantly to ensure “moisture recharge” of the soil (it should get wet to a depth of about 1 m). This procedure is not carried out with heavy autumn rainfall;
- the trunk and main branches need to be whitened with a solution of hydrated lime, in which copper sulfate and stationery glue are added;
- wrap the trunk with burlap, tie with spruce branches or insulate in another way (it is advisable not to use black materials);
- mulch the earth around the trunk with a layer of sawdust or peat (7-10 cm).
Prune pruning and crown shaping
The Stanley plum is naturally formed quite compactly, the crown does not thicken. Therefore, the formation should be done before entering full fruiting, and then only keep in shape with the help of sanitary and anti-aging scraps.
The best time for forming pruning is spring, when the tree is still “sleeping”. The best way of forming for Stanley plum is a sparse-tier crown, which is created in the following order:
- In the second year after planting, 3-4 of the most developed shoots are selected, located at approximately the same height and spaced at equal intervals (if you look around the trunk). They should be shortened by 1/4 of the length. The central conductor is cut so that it is 12-15 cm higher than the longest of the main shoots. All other branches are cut.
- The following year, the second tier of 3-4 branches is formed in the same way. On each main branch, 3-4 growth buds are located, evenly spaced along the length of the branch. Make sure that branches developing from them grow upward. If shoots are found that are directed inside the crown or down, they are immediately removed.
- In the 3rd year after planting, a third tier of 2–3 branches is formed. All tiers should be subordinate (the tops of the branches of the lower tiers should not be higher than the branches of the upper tiers). With proper formation, the crown should have the shape of a pyramid.
Sanitary pruning (removal of dry, diseased and frozen branches) can be carried out in spring and summer. In the summer, thinning of the crown is also carried out - if there is foliage, thickened places are better visible. You should also regularly remove root shoots.
In the process of tree formation, it is necessary to remove thickening branches, competitive shoots and long growth in a timely manner.
In autumn, after leaf fall, shoots cut off from diseases and pests are cut. If the drain is too stretched up, shorten the center conductor (maximum 1/4 of the length).
After the formation is completed, regularly grow irregular branches and root shoots must be regularly removed.
Anti-aging pruning is performed every 6–7 years in autumn. For this, all branches older than 3 years are cut to 2/3 of the length. This procedure is best done in stages over a period of 2-3 years (2 branches at a time), so that tree productivity does not suffer.
Anti-aging pruning prune on video
Diseases and pests of plums and their control
Plum Stanley practically does not get sick with kleasterosporiosis, polystigmosis and shark. Fungal diseases, gammosis, aphids and some other pests can be a problem.
Of the fungal diseases, gray rot most often occurs, which affects mainly the fruits. Brown spots appear on them, the surface of which is covered with concentric circles of white tubercles. Prevent the disease by spraying the buds with a solution of Nitrafen or iron or copper sulfate (1%). Ovaries should be sprayed with HOM, Oxychom or Bordeaux mixture. After harvesting, Horus treatment is recommended (30 g per bucket of water).
Fruits affected by gray rot become inedible
HOM and Bordeaux mixture will help protect against other fungal diseases - rust and coccomycosis.
Gommosis, or gum therapy, often affects the plum, especially after severe frosts, with damage to the cortex or improper care. For prevention, it is recommended to observe moderation when fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers and pruning with caution (wounds need to be disinfected). Cracks in the bark are rubbed with horse sorrel gruel (3 times in 30 minutes).
Table: Plum Pest Control
|The name of the pest||Description||Control measures|
|Plum aphid||Small greenish-yellow, dark brown or black insects that settle in colonies on the underside of the leaf, especially on young leaflets at the tops of shoots. Affected leaves curl and dry.|
|Butterfly caterpillar of hawthorn||Yellow-black caterpillars eat the entire top layer of young leaves, buds and flowers. Caterpillars make nests of leaves, fastening them with a cobweb.|
|Cherry slimy sawfly||Slippery black slug-like pests gnaw out the flesh of leaves, turning them into drying lace.||Early spring treatment of wood and soil in the near-stem circle with 10% solutions of Karbofos or Trichloromethaphos. You can use infusions of chamomile pharmacy or tobacco (three times a week, then repeat after 12-15 days). 3 weeks before harvesting, spraying is stopped.|
|Plum moth||Caterpillars invade the fetus and eat the flesh, polluting it with their bowel movements. Affected fruits darken and shrink.|
Plum pests in the photo
- Aphids settle in large colonies at the tops of shoots
- Bright caterpillars eat leaf flesh
- Slug-like sawfly turns leaves into lace
- Moth caterpillars can spoil more than one fruit
Harvesting, storage and use of crops
The ripening of Stanley plum fruits begins at a later date - in early September. Harvest ripens in stages - they are harvested in 2-3 receptions.
Stanley yields - video
Collection should be done in dry weather. Ripe plums should not be overexposed - they become soft and unpleasant in taste, and then crumble. For transportation, you need to collect fruits together with the stalk 4–5 days before full ripeness. It is best to stack the crop in shallow boxes, baskets or boxes.
Start collecting from the outside of the lower branches, gradually moving up and to the center. It is advisable not to wash the wax coating. Fruits that are out of reach must be removed using a ladder - you cannot shake off plums. Also, do not climb a tree, since Stanley does not have very strong wood.
It is recommended to stack plums in boxes
Fresh plums cannot be kept for long. Even in a refrigerator, the fruits will not lie for more than 6-7 days. For longer storage, canned Stenley plums can be prepared (stewed fruit, preserves, marshmallows, liquors and liquors). Also, plums of this variety are great for freezing. Plums should be washed and dried, and then frozen in plastic bags or airtight containers. In the freezer, plums should not be kept for more than 6-8 months, otherwise they will become more acidic.
The main product obtained from Stanley plum is prune. To make this excellent product, you need to stand the fruit in a soda solution for 30–40 seconds (baking soda dose of 10–15 g / l at a temperature of 85–90 ° C), then rinse with cold water, dry and place in a half-open oven (temperature 50 ° C) on 3-4 hours. Then the plums are cooled and put back into the oven. Drying takes place in 2 stages: five hours at a temperature of 70–75 degrees, and then dry for 4 hours at a temperature of 90 ºС. The finished product is put in jars or bags and placed in a cool place for storage.
Stanley plum prunes are of high quality
All products obtained from Stanley plum receive the highest marks: frozen plum - 4.8 points, compote - 5 points, juice with pulp - 4.6 points, prunes - 4.5 points.
Stenley early landing in 2014. was the first crop, I liked the taste, appearance and size of the fruit. I have 5 pieces available. The brother added 30 more bushes to 30 bushes.vasilich
The Stanley variety has been recommended for testing in different regions. However, time has shown that its winter hardiness is insufficient. And the yield is far from declared. Perhaps in the southern regions he will be more comfortable.gardener
about the Stanley variety - I’m growing - a very good variety would be foolish to throw suchjack75
Stanley - a variety that allows the gardener to enjoy the fruits of the plum every year.
In the city of Moscow itself, Stanley grows beautifully. Branches from the crop bend in the opposite direction. This year, a root-bearing Stanley from Phytogenetics was planted in the Vladimir region.Question
Plum Stanley will decorate any garden. In suitable climatic conditions and on fertile soil, it will delight large crops of high-quality fruits suitable for processing of any kind.