Plum Eurasia 21 - description and cultivation
Eurasia 21 is a rather interesting early plum variety. But not every gardener can get positive results when growing it due to some capriciousness. Excellent consumer qualities of fruits and productivity in favorable years are factors that attract gardeners. We will try to help enthusiasts to fully reveal the advantages of the variety, maximally leveling its shortcomings.
Plum variety Eurasia 21 (sometimes called simply Eurasia) was obtained by breeders of the Voronezh State Agrarian University. It was developed by genetic engineering in a rather complicated and at the same time spontaneous way. Without going into the scientific wilds, we note that cherry plum, as well as varieties and types of plums, took part in the formation of the genotype of the variety:
- East Asian
In 1986, this hybrid was introduced into the State Register and zoned in the Central Black Earth region. Currently excluded from the State Register - for what reason, it was not possible to find out.
Eurasia 21 has a tall tree, reaching a height of six meters, with a brown-gray trunk and branches. Crohn is medium thickened, spreading. Branches grow quite quickly, ahead of the slow buildup of trunk thickness. This leads to tree instability and poor resistance to strong winds. However, with age, the disadvantage goes away.
The variety has high winter hardiness of wood, roots and flower buds. The roots withstand freezing up to -20 ° C, which is a very good indicator. Immunity to fungal diseases, including kleasterosporiosis - medium.
Variety early maturity is good - fruiting begins in the 4th-5th year after planting. Under favorable conditions, an average of 50 kg of fruit is harvested from a tree, and sometimes 80-100 kg. But such crops are not regular. Since the variety is completely self-fertile, if May (the period of plum blossoms) is windy and rainy, the formation of ovaries decreases sharply, and may simply not happen. And of course, a necessary condition for successful pollination is the presence of simultaneously flowering pollinators:
- Greengage fruitful;
- Greengage Collective Farm;
- The memory of Timiryazev and others.
The ripening of fruits does not occur simultaneously from the end of July until mid-August, and therefore they are collected in several stages. Harvested slightly unripened fruits are stored for up to three weeks in the refrigerator while maintaining consumer properties. The purpose of the fruit is table, and also from them a tasty and aromatic juice with pulp is obtained.
Ripe plums have a spherical shape and a beautiful burgundy color with a waxy coating. On average, the fruit mass is 25-30 g, and according to some sources - 35-40 g and even 50 g. The flesh is yellow-orange, juicy, with a sour-sweet, pleasant taste. The stone is medium in size, does not separate well from the pulp.
Advantages and disadvantages of the variety
Summarizing, we bring together the described qualities inherent in the variety. Its advantages:
- High winter hardiness.
- Early maturity.
- High yield in a good season.
- Large beautiful fruits with excellent commercial qualities.
- Pleasant taste and aroma of fruits.
- Transportability and storage of slightly unripe fruits for up to 3 weeks.
There are also many shortcomings and among them there are significant:
- Self-fertility and a great dependence on external conditions during the pollination period, as a result of which the yield is irregular.
- Large tree height.
- Fast-growing branches resist the winds poorly in the first years of life.
- Susceptibility to clastosporiosis.
- The simultaneous ripening of fruits.
Planting plum varieties Eurasia 21
The rules for planting Eurasia 21 plums practically do not differ from other varieties of this crop. The special requirements include greater demands on soils - medium loamy and clayey with a neutral reaction (pH 6.5-7.5) are better suited to it. On acidic soils, plum will bear fruit very poorly and therefore they need to be deoxidized by introducing 0.5-1 kg of lump lime into the planting pit. It is also important to choose a place protected from the winds, due to the low resistance of the branches to them in the early years. The rest should adhere to general rules. Recall them briefly:
- The best time to plant is early spring, when the buds have not yet begun to grow. In the southern regions, autumn plum planting is also possible after the end of the growing season (leaf fall period).
- Seedlings are best purchased in the fall, regardless of the chosen planting time.
- The landing pit should be prepared no later than 10-15 days before planting, and if planted in the spring, it is prepared in the fall.
- The dimensions of the pit should be at least 0.8 m in diameter and the same in depth . The pit is filled with fertile soil with the addition of organic and mineral fertilizers.
Step-by-step landing instructions:
- A few hours before planting, the seedling should be removed from the storage place and put its roots in a bucket of water. There, you can add drugs to stimulate root formation such as Kornevin, Epin, Heteroauxin, etc.
A few hours before planting, the seedling should be removed from the storage place and put its roots in a bucket of water
- In the center of the pit, a hole is formed with a small mound in the middle of such a size that the root system of the seedling freely fits in it.
- The seedling is lowered by the root neck onto the mound and the roots are spread along its slopes.
- Gently cover them with earth, layer by layer compacting it. After backfilling, the root neck should remain at the soil level or 2-3 cm above it.
After backfilling, the root neck should remain at the soil level or 2-3 cm above it
- An earthen roller is formed around the tree to hold water.
- Water the plant 3-4 times until the water is completely absorbed.
- They mulch the soil with available suitable material - straw, hay, peat, etc.
- Cut the seedling to a height of 0.8-1.0 m. Sprigs are shortened by 60-70%.
Features of cultivation and subtleties of care
In general, the cultivation of plum Eurasia 21 and the care of it are usual for this crop and we will not describe them. A feature of the variety is tallness and rapid growth of branches, which requires timely and proper pruning. Let us dwell on this stage in more detail.
Plum Trimming Eurasia
The main point of this stage is to restrain the growth of the tree by forming its crown. As for all tall trees, it is logical for Eurasia 21 to apply a sparse-tiered formation. To do this:
- In the spring of the next year after planting, form the first tier of skeletal branches in the following order:
- Choose 2-3 branches on the trunk, located at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other and directed in different directions, with the lower one should be located 30-40 cm from the ground.
- Shorten them by 60–70%.
- Remove all other shoots.
- Shorten the central conductor by 20-30%.
- A year later, in a similar way, form a second tier, leaving 1-2 skeletal branches in it.
- In the 4th – 5th year after planting, a third tier is formed, in which there will also be 1-2 branches.
- At the same time, the central conductor is cut off above the base of the upper skeletal branch.
As for all tall trees, it is logical for Eurasia 21 to apply a sparse-tiered formation
In the first 2-4 years, it is also necessary to pay attention to restraining the growth of fast-growing branches, shortening them, if necessary, in the fall, along with sanitary pruning. In summer, the so-called embossing of young shoots is done by shortening them by 10–20 cm, which contributes to the formation of additional fouling branches. This, in turn, serves as an incentive to increase the number of fruit buds and increase yield.
And you should also regularly monitor the condition of the crown, avoiding strong thickening of the internal volume. To do this, shoots growing inside and up are cut out, and dry, diseased and damaged branches are removed.
Diseases and pests - the main types and solutions to the problem
Plum Eurasia, like most stone fruits, is prone to certain fungal diseases, as well as attack by pests. Experienced gardeners do not expect a problem, but in a timely and regular manner carry out a simple complex of preventive work. It with almost a 100% guarantee prevents the infection of diseases and the attack of harmful insects.
Table: Disease and Pest Prevention Activities
|Deadlines||Composition of events||Ways of doing||Achieved effect|
|Fall||Collection and disposal of fallen leaves||Fungal spores, insect pupae are destroyed|
|Sanitary pruning||Dry, diseased and damaged branches are cut out, after which they are burned.|
|Stripping dead bark tissue||A film is spread under the tree, after which the bark of the dead fragments and growths is cleaned with a scraper or spatula. All removed parts are burned.|
|Whitewash trunk and skeletal branches||For this operation, a solution of hydrated lime or special garden paints is used||Surface disinfection, bark protection against frost pits|
|Late fall||Digging soil||Dig the soil around the trunk to the depth of the bayonet of a shovel, turning over the layers.||Insects wintering in the soil are raised to the surface, where they die from frost|
|Early spring||Eradicating treatment with potent drugs||Spray the trunk and branches with DNOC, Nitrafen, copper sulfate (5% solution)||Prevention of all fungi and pests|
|Installation of hunting belts||They are made from improvised materials (film, burlap, ruberoid, plastic bottles, etc.) and mounted on a stem 30-40 cm from the ground||Preventing beetles, ants, caterpillars, etc. from falling onto the crown.|
|Spring||Treatment with fungicides and insecticides||It is most convenient to use a tank mixture of Horus and Decis. Three sprayings are carried out: the first - before flowering, the remaining - after flowering with an interval of 7-10 days.||Prevention of major fungal diseases (kleasterosporiosis, moniliosis, etc.) and pests|
Fungicides are chemical or biological preparations whose action is aimed at combating the causative agents of fungal diseases.
Insecticides - means for the destruction of harmful insects.
The most common plum tree disease. Its second name (hole spotting) reflects the main symptom - the formation of red-brown spots on the leaves of the plant, which quickly dry out and turn into holes. This is the result of infection with the fungus Clasterosporium carpophilum, whose spores winter in the soil, fallen leaves and cracks in the bark. The first signs (staining) appear in the spring, and by autumn the disease progresses, affecting not only the leaves, but also the fruits and bark. If the plant is not treated, this leads to its weakening, a decrease in frost resistance, the development of homosis is possible (more on this below).Recent entries In April, I process roses so that no pests encroach on my beauties
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The first signs of kleasterosporiosis are the appearance of red-brown spots on the leaves
The treatment consists in removing the affected parts of the plant and treatment with fungicides. The most popular are Chorus, Skor, Strobi, Topaz.
The causative fungus of this disease usually falls on the plant in spring during flowering. His spores carry bees and other insects on their paws during the collection of nectar. Developing, the fungus penetrates the flower's pestle into shoots and leaves. The affected parts of the plant wither, twist and wilt. From the side it looks like a burn with a flame or defeat by frost. Hence the other name for the disease - monilial burn.
The shoots struck by moniliosis look as if scorched by fire
Immediately after detecting signs of the disease, infected shoots should be cut, capturing 10-15 cm of healthy wood. Then spray with fungicides three times with an interval of 7-10 days. It should be remembered that most fungicides are addictive to the fungus, so treatment with drugs with the same active substance more than three times per season is ineffective.
In the summer, moniliosis develops on the fruit, causing fruit rot. This can lead to the loss of a significant portion of the crop. Treatment in this case is complicated by the fact that during the period of fruit ripening, the use of many drugs is limited. You should apply those with a minimum waiting period. For example, Horus (7 days), Quadris (3-5 days), Fitosporin (they can be processed on the day of fruit collection) and some others.
In the summer, moniliosis develops on the fruit, causing fruit rot
Homose (gum detection)
This is the name of a non-infectious disease, expressed in the expiration of gum from cracks or damage to the bark of a tree. This can occur due to frost pits or diseases such as kleasterosporiosis, moniliosis, etc. As well, gum detecting can be caused by excessive watering, stagnation of moisture and an overdose of nitrogen fertilizers.
Gummy gum secretions look like frozen amber drops
For treatment purposes, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the gum discharge areas and treat them with a 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid. You can also use a folk remedy - rub the wound three times with fresh leaves of sorrel with an interval of 10-15 minutes. After treatments, the wound is covered with a layer of garden varnish or putty.
Two types of pests can be found on the sink - yellow and black sawflies. Their difference consists only in the structure and color of the body, and the life cycle and the harm done are the same. When the buds begin to turn pink in the spring, the sawfly butterflies fly out for the first time. They feed on pollen and nectar from plums, cherry plums, pears, etc. After about two weeks, the insects mate, and the female lays eggs in the sepals of unopened buds. After 12 days, larvae crawl out of the eggs, which harm the plant. The first larvae feed on the ovaries, the second - on the inside of the fetus and on the bones. Damaged fruits fall, with a massive defeat, the death of a significant part of the crop is possible. Pupation, the larvae hibernate in the soil of tree trunks.
The defeat of the plum by the sawfly can be determined by the presence of droplets of gum on the fruits
If larvae are found in the fruits, they can no longer be saved. To protect fruit that has not yet been affected, only bioinsecticides such as Iskra-Bio, Fitoverm, Fitosporin, etc. can be used. But of course, the preventative measures described above are more effective.
This butterfly is a family of leafy greyish-brown in color and with a wingspan of 10-15 mm in the middle lane develops in two to three generations. Flight time is June - July. The life span of butterflies is from 4 to 15 days, and during this time they usually do not feed. Females lay eggs on the fruit, much less often on the underside of the leaves. After 7-11 days, larvae (caterpillars) appear, which make moves in the pulp to the base of the petiole and, damaging the vascular system, deprive the fruit of nutrition. While the fruits are young, the larva gnaws on the bone, and when it becomes hard, it eats away the flesh around it and fills the space with excrement. Caterpillars of the last age winter, and pupate in mid-April.
The plum moth caterpillar gnaws the flesh of the fetus and fills the space with excrement
All the preventive measures described above effectively resist the attack of the pest. When droplets of gum appear on the fruit, it is too late to fight. In this case, you can try to save part of the crop using biological fungicides for the treatments.
Eurasia has a very narrow range of possible pollinators. My buddy in the garden has a red early. It is very pleased with the E-21 productivity (in particular, after this winter and according to the results of an extremely hot summer). Another advantage of this variety is its high winter hardiness. From here, in order not to “be disappointed”, instill in the crown of E-21 Skorospelka cr. And lead it in a small twig - just for pollination.
Eurasia blooms very early, when it is still relatively cold. She bloomed abundantly every spring with me, but she did not set fruit. In addition to her, on the site were Renklod Kolkhozniy, Volga beauty, Mirnaya. Once there was an early, hot spring and with the same pollinators all the plum was in the fruit. It was the first and last crop. After abundant fruiting, she immediately froze
Re: Eurasia 2
Already withdrawn from the State Register. I suspect that for such shortcomings as for the non-simultaneous ripening of fruits with high growth of the tree and for possible cracking of the fruits.
The self-fertility of the variety and the narrow circle of pollinators often leave the gardener without a crop. This fact adds skepticism when evaluating this plum tree that bears fruit of excellent quality. Therefore, it is possible to recommend Eurasia 21 cultivation only to diligent gardeners who will provide it with high-quality pollination (for example, planting shoots of a pollinator variety in the crown), timely trimming and other stages of care.